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QUALITATIVE RESERACH

Dr. PRADEEP K. MESHRAM

WHY WE NEED QUALITAIVE RSEARCH


Pluralization of Life World Micro-research era of big narratives and grand theories are over post-modrnism Rapid Social Change and diversification of world Sensitizing concepts not start from theory Knowledge and Practice are studies as local knowledge and practices

RESEARCH PROCESS AND THEORY

Two Models : 1. Linear Model and 2. Circular Model

Lineal Model Theory Hypothesis Sampling collection Validation

Operationalisation interpretation

Circular Model
comparing

Preliminary Assumptions

Collection Interpretation case

Collection Interpretation case

Theory

comparing

Collection Interpretation case

comparing

APPROACH
Approach Criteria Openness to the issue by: Linear Model Separation of data collection and analysis makes concentration on the field easier Definition of steps of the process in advance Clearer distribution of steps of the procedure Circular Model Flexible approach and use of empirical material

Structuring the issue by Contribution to the general development of qualitative methods by

Domain of application Problems in applying the approach

Limitations of approach

Knowledge developed in the process Most consistent realization of qualitative research principles Interleaving of collecting and analyzing data Links with quantitative research Studies aim of at developing a theory Loss of flexibility towards data Limited predictability and the field Perhaps difficult to apply when research experience is missing Logic of quantitative research Orient toward theory as model for qualitative development research

TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTION


What type it is? What is its structure? How frequent is it? What are the causes? What are the processes? What are its consequences? What are the peoples strategies?

EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS,
e.g. Tribal education What is the concept of education for them? What are the dimensions of education of tribes? What is their attitude toward education? What is concept of education for researcher and tribes? What is the relation between these two? Which are the processes and agents of tribal education? What are the consequences of education? What are the strategies of education?

SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE REASERCH

Two types of sampling Theoretical Sampling Statistical sampling

1. 2.

When we use these samplings?

THEORETICAL SAMPLING
Extension of the basic population is not known in advance Features of the basic population are not known in advance Repeated drawing of sampling elements with criteria to be defined again in each step Sample size is not defined in advance Sampling is finished when theoretical saturation* has been reached *nothing new emerges any more

STATISTICAL SAMPLING
Extension of the basic population is known in advance Distribution of feature in the basic population can be estimated One-Shot drawing of the sample following a plan in advance Sample size is defined in advance Sampling in finished when the whole sample has been studies

BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS : FIVE TYPES


1. Case study Focus on the case under study (individual, institution, field, etc.) Selection of one case Most consequent approach to the particular (case per se) Analysis of institutions, life histories Integration of the different perspectives of the case Generalization rather difficult

BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS : FIVE TYPES


2. Comparative study Integration of interviewing Understanding by participants Definitions of comparative dimensions Definition of what is kept constant focus on the point of connection in the cases under study Domain of application: Focused research questions, Bigger number of cases, Comparative research questions Problems in applying the approach : selections of comparative dimensions, taking the structure or particularity of the case into account Limitation: Perhaps neglecting other dimensions in favor of comparison on one specific dimension

BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS : FIVE TYPES


3. Retrospective Study Process is often reconstructed from the views of the participants Looking back on (individual or institutional) development Perspective on processes that have begin or already finished Domain of application: life histories, institutional processes of development, biographical experiences Problem in application : Overlapping of past by the present Limitation : Limited access to option of development which have not been realized

BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS : FIVE TYPES


4. Snapshot Description of states without focus on processes Focus on the current state of affairs (e.g. in the knowledge under study) Approach of rationally focused studies Apply on the domain of expert, lay and institutional knowledge as well as practices and routines Limitation: exemption of process and change as perspective

BASIC RESEARCH DESIGNS : FIVE TYPES


5. Longitudinal Study Attendance of a process and the alternative options it includes Definition of the moments of data collection Real perspective on process Domain: individual or institutional developments Problem of applications: identification of relevant issues in advance Limitation: Expenditure often beyond the resources of project

METHODS OF INTERVIEWS : FIVE TYPES


1. Focus interviews Unstructured questions Structuring interviews by giving stimulus, structured questions, focusing on feeling Criterions of Design interview guide: 1. nondirection, 2. specificity, 3. range, and 4. depth and personal context shown by the interviewee Analyzing the object as second data source Apply on (Domain) : analyzing of subjective meaning

METHODS OF INTERVIEWS : SIX TYPES


1. Focus interviews Unstructured questions Structuring interviews by giving stimulus, structured questions, focusing on feeling Criterions of Design interview guide: 1. nondirection, 2. specificity, 3. range, and 4. depth and personal context shown by the interviewee Analyzing the object as second data source Apply on (Domain) : analyzing of subjective meaning

METHODS OF INTERVIEWS : FIVE TYPES


2. Semi-standardized Interview Open questions Hypothesis Directed questions, confrontational questions Structuring the contents with structure laying technique, suggestions for explicating implicit knowledge Domain: Reconstruction of subjective theories

METHODS OF INTERVIEWS : FIVE TYPES


3. Problem Centered interview Object and process oriented, room for narratives Interview guide as basis for turns ending unproductive presentations Short questionnaire, Postscript Domain : Socially or biographically relevant problems

METHODS OF INTERVIEWS : FIVE TYPES


4. Expert interviews Limited because only interested in the expert, not the person Interview guide as instrument for structuring Highlighting of direction: limitation of the interview to expert Domain: expert knowledge in instituions

METHODS OF INTERVIEWS : FIVE TYPES


5. Ethnographic Interview Descriptive questions Structured questions, contrastive questions Highlighting the problem of making interview situations Domain: in the framework of field research in open field

FOCUS GROUPS
Taking the context of the group Using an interview guide to direct the discussion Simulations of the way discourses and social representations are generated in their diversity Domain: Social, Marketing and Media research

SOME OTHER METHODS


Observations: Participant and non-participant Visual data: Photography, Film and video Documents: texts Internet : email interviews, online focus group, virtual

THANKS
Pradeep_meshram1967@rediffmail.com

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