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DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS)

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM Real Time Executive system Basics..

Historical Perspective
1959: TRW, RW300 computer, refinery control, 72 temperature, 3 pressure, 26 flow sensors 1962: ICI, Ferranti computer, 129 valves, 224 sensors 1963: NASA, flight control system 1968: PDP (DEC), HP 2100, Data\ General Nova (MSI, LSI): interrupt based systems, real-time clock, RTOS 1970+: VLSI, microcomputers, sensors miniaturization 1985+: distributed real time systems

computer systems
Computer System

Batch type

Interactive type

Input

Programe Processing

Output

Interactive Systems
It takes, process inputs Processes with prescribed program acts on interventions / interrupts Issues desired Output . The programming takes Care of the process behavior and patterns

Interactive systems
Interactive system (real-time,
reactive, embedded )

Soft real time


Statistical Information for supervision only/ Info only.

"Hard real-time"
Where the information is processed in definite time frame with intentions to regulate the process.

Soft real-time system


Example :. time sharing system of A statististical multiplexor Terminal

Terminal

Multiplexor

Computer

Terminal

Definition: hard real-time , event driven,


embedded, process driven .
real-time : "(A) Pertaining to the actual time during which a physical process transpires. (B) Pertaining to the performance of a computation during the actual time that the related physical process transpires in order that the results of the computation can be used in guiding the physical process" [The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical an Electronic Terms].
real-time system: Any system in which the time at which the output is produced is significant. This is usually because the inputs corresponds to some movement in the physical world and the output has to relate to that same movement. The lag from input time to outout time must be sufficiently small for acceptable timeliness. [The Oxford Dictionary of Computing]

Watchdog timer
The function of watchdog timeris to ensure that the controller receives the input signals at desired frequency or sampling rate . If the signal is not received in defined time frame it issues interrupt command to stop issuing output to process to avoid damage due to loss of communication. Some time it de links controller from process ( Trip to manual/ Timed out warning ) and keeps thee system in safe mode or status quo.
Controller

Interlock / interrupts

Watchdog Timer

Output

Input (t)

processor

Definition RTOS
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that guarantees a certain capability within a specified time constraint.

Multitasking
It is easy to confuse multitasking with multithreading, a somewhat different idea. In a computer operating system, multitasking is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time. The operating system is able to keep track of where you are in these tasks and go from one to the other without losing information.

Reference model
Conceptual Realtime system has physical process whichworks in real time manner and it has inputs and outputs sent to RT for computation.
Reference RTS RTS output Process RTS input Outputs

Inputs

Function Wise
Open loop Data acquisition :Collection od Data with Time stampings. Closed loop

Open loop
Open Loopm controls is unidirectional an It either .. reads or Writes back to process

Reference RTS RTS output Process RTS input Outputs

Inputs

Data acquisition
Only RTS inputs considered
Reference RTS RTS output Process RTS input Outputs

Inputs

Closed loop
Closed loop control System has following components

Input
Output Reference or Set Point Desired Control characteristic or program
RTS output

Reference RTS RTS input Process Outputs

Inputs

Real Time Events


Time Domain:
Continuous Time related Random and irregular

Regular with certain frequency..( Frequency domain)

Type of event patterns


periodic pattern: cyclic pattern, with a fixed period
Event
Event period

bounded: next event cannot occur before a given amount of time after a previous event (interarrival time)
bursty: events may occur arbitrarily close toe each other, but there is a bound on the number of events (burst size) that may occur during a specified burst interval

Event Interarrival time Event


Burst interval No. of events = burst size

Events 2
Irregular: interarrival intervals are not constant but are known before the event occurs Unbounded: an arbitrary number of events can arrive during any given time window; characterization by a distribution function

t1

t2 t3

t4

Interarrival time

Probability

Distribution function

Interarrival time

RTS- Architecture

Real time software

Structure of RTS - Hardware Controller


It consists of fillowing functional controllers
Operating softwre Communication facilities (Bus or Local Area Networking ) Input / Output subsystem

Structure of RTS software


Operating system Application tasks
RTS-software application tasks application tasks

operating system hardware External events physical proces

Role of RTS software


Communication with the environment is defined in terms of external events: Application Tasks must react to these events; The responsibility of OS: execution of tasks in accordance to external events and prescribed schedule; Operating System = software (hardware) to facilitate execution of application programs (tasks); Tasks request services from the OS (make calls to OS). These are internal events. Examples: activate task, stop task perform a communication, etc. Functions of OS: resource management (processor, memory, peripherals, data);

RTOS
OS-resource management + events handling, under constraints (predefined time limits);

RTOS activities: uniprocessor system


cycle EventHandling; TaskDispatching endcycle; or cycle EventHandling endcycle; or cycle TaskDispatching endcycle;
TaskDispatching: Making a task run // denotes interleaved execution of both activities

RTOS activities: uniprocessor system


On a uniprocessor system only one task may run a the same time; Scheduling looks at time constraints and decides which task must run; cycle EventHandling; Scheduling; TaskDispatching endcycle;
Before a task can be dispatched (assigned to run) the resources i.e. memory must be assigned to it: cycle EventHandling; Scheduling; MemoryManagement; Assign; endcycle;

Summary
Main activities
Event Handling Scheduling Memory Management Assignment

Scheduling issues
Ordering of task executions, Assignment of tasks to processors, Security, Protection,

Scheduling is crucial and distinct

Memory management issues


Virtual memory Swapping of tasks Sharing of memory (synchronisation, communication) ROM, RAM, Hard disks Buffers, pools, queues

File management issues


Standard file operations Event handling (device management) issues:
Physical process interfacing Interfacing of devices Interfacing of non-standard devices Absence of disk -> debugging, development Host-target approach

Implementation of RTOS
Small executive implements a number of basic OS functions More complex OS-functions are implemented as special (High / Low priority, memory management) tasks The interface to OS is formed by System Calls
Application task
Application task

RTOS

System task System task System task

System calls interface

System task

Executive (or kernel)

Hardware

Distributed Operating Systems


Distributed OS control a netwerk of communicating computers; Tasks running on the different controllers (computers) have a identical / similar view of the system (Single image) Distributed OS hides the complexity of the distributed hardware to the tasks / programmer
task task task task

Controller HW

Controller HW

communication network

Distributed Operating System

Implementation of Distributed OS
Interceptor: distinguishes between local and global operation Global executive: coordinate global system calls
Local part: executes local
Application task Application task

system call interceptor and emulator


System task System task System task System task Global executive task

Local Executive (or kernel)

Computation hardware

Communication hardware

Type of processors
Microcomputers Programmable logic controllers Parallel or Multi Processors on a single board / platform ( Client - Sever architecture) Processing through multiple processors through Networking.

Some examples - Foxboro


Foxboro SPEC 200; Philips PCS 8000;

Physical Process

Controller

S/A Sensors, Actuators

Displays
Operators

Some examples - TDC 2000, TDC 3000

INDEPENDENT PROCESSING

Comm.
68040

Control
68040

I/O Link

Multi-processor architecture provides guaranteed control performance.

Common Board

No I/O capacity
tradeoffs

UCN

I/O Link Intelligent I/O Processors (up to 40) Electrical Conditioning and Isolation

No communication
tradeoffs Point execution in configured intervals processors Extensive diagnostics

IOP

Intelligent I/O
Field Termination Assembly Field Wiring

FTA

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS)

For Process plants.

What is DCS ?
DCS is abbreviation for Distributed Control System As is apparent from the abbreviation, the word Distributed supports following functionalitys Physical Distribution - Nodes or Subsystems can be Distributed i.e located physically apart Functional Distribution - Specific Functionality is imparted for a Node basing on the combination of hardware and software used. For e.g Application work-processor with Historian, Application work-processor with control configuration software Structural Distribution - Different Structural hardware platforms (Application Workstation processor, Workstation processor, Control processor etc.) are used to achieve the required functionality.

WHY DCS ?
For Total Plant Automation For Higher Productivity For Optimal Process Control For Advance Process Control

For Regulatory Compliance


For Management Information System In Tune With Global Requirement

Information Processing

Enterprise Business

Management Information & application Production report, Inventory report, Specific consumption report, Yield and Accounting reports and Variance reports Quality insurance reports ( LIMS) Env and pollution related Reports Information Management & reporting Historians - Trends, Event recorders Disturbance recorders Optimisation Advance Process Control Hazop/ Risk Management Emergency Shutdown Systems Alarm, Monitoring, Control, Regulator ON-OFF, Interlocks Start-up Permissive Trips FIELD : Single Loop Controllers Distributed Control System Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition System Programmable Logic Controllers FIELD : Transmitters & field devices Switches , Control valves

Information

Optimisation Safety

Control System

FIELD

The distribution of applications and business logic across multiple processing platforms
Distributed processing implies that processing will occur on more than one processor in order for a transaction to be completed. In other words, processing is distributed across two or more machines and the processes are most likely not running at the same time, i.e. each process performs part of an application in a sequence.
Often the data used in a distributed processing environment is also distributed across platforms.

Basic Building Blocks


The constitution of DCS can be broadly divided in to three parts Front End presentation or
MMI - ( Man Machine Interface ) GUI Graphical User Interface
- Operator Graphics

Control Algorithms and Logic. Add Subtract, PID, ON-OFF, AND, OR , NAND , etc. Communication
Star Ring Linear Bus Star Wired Ring

Basic Building Blocks Platforms

Hewlett Packard : ABB IBM AS 400 : Honeywell, Yokogawa Sun Sparc series 30 - 80 : Foxboro Digital (VAX ) Fisher Rosemount

Basic Building Blocks Operating Systems


HP Unix - ABB Sun Solaris - Foxboro Ultrix/ OS 2 - Honeywell VAX VMS - Fisher Rosemount

Types of databases
Flat file Hierarchical data bases
Parent Child relation ship

Relational databases Oracle Ingress Informix Developer 2000 Object linked Relational databases

Basic Building Blocks - Control Languages


Basic Pascal C, C++ Fortran 77

Basic Building Blocks - Control algorithms


Analog Input / Output Block PID Block / Auto tune PID block Digital Input/Output Block Calculation Block / Advance Calculation Block Characterizer Block Comparison blocks - Less than.More than, Equal to. Switch blocks Data blocks / memory blocks Sequence blocks Mathematical block General Device Block Programmable Logic Block Motor Operator Valve, Pneumatic Valve control block

Communication
Network Topologies

Physical

Logical

Star

Linear Bus Star Wired Ring

Tree

Ethernet

FDDI

Ring

Token Ring

ATM

Communication

Communication
802.3: Established the new standard for a LAN that features a Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). This "new" LAN is properly referred to as CSMA/CD, but is more commonly known as "Ethernet." 802.4: Defined a physical layer standard for a bus topology LAN with a token-passing media access method. This LAN is called Token Bus and can operate at 1, 2, 5, or 10Mbps. 802.5: Established the standards for Token Ring's access methods and physical signaling techniques.

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS)

Design Basis

DCS Design Basis


The entire design has followed the federal constitution of our country with nominal head and small assisting team like core group at the top. Network architecture design is such that, it is functionally, geographically and administratively well distributed to have total stability at any point of time. The DCS design architecture is distributed for:
Different business processes. Work Breakdown Structure Maintenance & operation organogram of RPL.

DCS Design Basis


Modular design
Ease of erection, commissioning and distributed operation independent of the Refinery wide LAN.

Extensive use of Fiber Optic:


Since the entire network is distributed over 50 Sq. Km of area having different earthing resistance for different soils (Rocky to Marine ), Fiber Optic cable external to the building is used

extensively to facilitate distributed and local grounding of


equipments to.. Avoid loop currents Ground currents Parasitic effect of noises like RFI, EMI and cross talks.

DCS Design Basis


Taking care of limitations of hardware, network and software. All the six systems are connected through PIN for site wide integration of information. Real- time data exchange among all the systems using Modbus device integrators. Minimum communication load on LAN. Each plant can be started and shutdown independently.

Expandability of the System at every level .

DCS Design Basis


Ease of Software upgradation at node level without

disturbing complex wide operation.


Control I/Os, respective control processor and respective operator stations are on the same node, thereby minimizing

the traffic on LAN and maximizing the availability of the


system for operation. RTF, RRTF and Marine Terminal systems are kept on the

same LAN for the purpose of ease of data transfer for


TIS/OMIS/BOSS applications. Redundancy at all level - be it processors, communication

or power supplies.

DCS Design Basis


Emergency Shutdown Systems are integrated with DCS and Human Interface from DCS. All third party packages are integrated with the system

through redundant serial link to achieve a single point


operation from DCS i.e 100% measurements parameters are monitored and controlled from single point.

Remote diagnosis from Foxboro, USA, Holland or


Singapore using dial-up networking / ISDN.

DCS Design Basis


Building Block Technology: The processing is confined within at cell (CP) level so as peer to peer communication between the processors within the node bus

and across nodebus is minimized. This is achieved by means of:


Proper distribution of the tags in the FBMs. Allocations of loops within CPs.

Allocation of units at the nodebus level.


Allocation of Operator stations for specific nodebuses. Provision of hook up for APC application, Optimizer and any third party application software at any stage of time.

DCS Design Basis


Plant Information Network is used for integrating information from Refinery, Aromatics, MTF, CPP, PP and Port Operations. PIN is implemented using fast Ethernet 10/100 mbps Cisco switches and routers. PIN is used for following.

INI51 for connecting two systems.


X-Window for interplant graphics transfer among all six systems. X-Window anywhere on PCs connected to Reliance WAN. Integration with third party application like Infoplus.21. To access historian data from system to Window applications.

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS)

Large Industrial Systems

DCS MANUFACTURERS

ASEA BROWN BOWERI - ABB TATA HONEYWEL FOXBORO - INVENSYS YOKOGOWA BLUE STAR - YBL ALLEN BRADLEY GE FANUC FISHER ROSEMOUNT TOSHIBA

DCS INSTALLATIONS AT RELIANCE


MANUFACTURER ASEA BROWN BOWERI - ABB TATA HONEYWEL FOXBORO - INVENSYS YOKOGAWA BLUE STAR - YBL SIEMENS GE FANUC FISHER PROVOX TOSHIBA JG HZ SITE PG BARODA NC GANDHAR

Honeywell DCS System Architecture


TPS Builder Uniformance Desktop Uniformance Applications Server Remote GUS Display

Fisher Provox DCS System Architecture

Yokogawa Centum DCS System Architecture

ABB DCS System Architecture


Information Network TCP/IP

OPERATOR STATION ( OS ) ENGINEERING STATION ( ES ) DUAL DCN RING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IMS)

RING 0 RING 1

C Controller Advant Controller 460 SC Controller

ABB DCS System Architecture Distributed Communication Network (DCN)

Total Nodes per Ring 29 Total Nodes/Network 255 Total Rings/Network 85 Maximum end-to-end length/Ring 14 miles/ring Maximum distance between two active nodes 5280 ft* wire Fiber-optic 10,000 ft *recommend 1 mile (5280 ft, 1600 M) between 3 nodes

ABB DCS System Architecture Typical Schematic Diagram For Information Flow
From TX

JB

TB

B/R

TRIO

CSS

FIELD

CONTROL ROOM

OS

JB
To O/P

TB

B/R

TRIO

CSS

JB = JUNCTION BOX TB = TERMINATION BOX B/R = BYPASS RELAY

TRIO = TAYLOR REMOTE I/O CSS = CONTROL SUB SYSTEM OS = OPERATOR STATION

FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture


A brief Introduction

I/A Series Fieldbus


Digital Field Link
Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro

IEEE 1118

XXX

LBUG

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LBUG
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Intelligent & Conventional Field Devices

Fieldbus Module

Fieldbus Cards

FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture

I/A Series Nodebus

IEEE 802.3

Workstation Processor (WP - 51)

Control Processor (CP - 40)

Application Processor (AW - 51)

Communications Processor COM 10

Device Integrator ( DI,MG 30 )

I/A Series Fieldbus IEEE 1118


Digital Field Link
Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro

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Peripherals; B/W & Color Printers, Terminals; FoxWatch

3rd Party Devices e.g. PLCs, ESDs RTUs Scanners Power Plant Scales Tank Farms Analyzers Spectrum

LBUG

LBUG

Intelligent & Conventional Field Devices

Fieldbus Module

Fieldbus Cards

FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture

I/A Series LAN I/A Series Nodebus


IEEE 802.3

Workstation Processor (WP - 51)

Control Processor (CP - 40)

Application Processor (AW - 51)

Communications Processor COM 10

Device Integrator ( DI,MG 30 )

I/A Series Fieldbus IEEE 1118


Digital Field Link
Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro

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Peripherals; B/W & Color Printers, Terminals; FoxWatch

3rd Party Devices e.g. PLCs, ESDs RTUs Scanners Power Plant Scales Tank Farms Analyzers Spectrum

LBUG

LBUG

Intelligent & Conventional Field Devices

Fieldbus Module

Fieldbus Cards

FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture


Information Network TCP/IP IEEE 802.3
Computers, Workstations, X-Terminals, PCs etc

I/A Series LAN

IEEE 802.4

I/A Series Nodebus

IEEE 802.3

Workstation Processor (WP - 51)

Control Processor (CP - 40)

Application Processor (AW - 51)

Communications Processor COM 10


RS - 232

Device Integrator ( DI,MG 30 )


RS - 232

I/A Series Fieldbus IEEE 1118


Digital Field Link
Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro Foxboro

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Peripherals; B/W & Color Printers, Terminals; FoxWatch

3rd Party Devices e.g. PLCs, ESDs RTUs Scanners Power Plant Scales Tank Farms Analyzers Spectrum

LBUG

LBUG

Intelligent & Conventional Field Devices

Fieldbus Module

Fieldbus Cards

FOXBORO I/A Series DCS System Architecture

Reliance Jamnagar DCS Architecture


Functions of Equipment installed in PCCs
System administration and System management (AW51) File server (AW51) Human Interface for Plant Operations (WP51) Alarm management (AW51, WP51) Interface as Engineering station (AW51) Information management - Historian and Reports (AW51) Interface for System Maintenance (AW51, WP51)

Functions of Equipment installed in PIBs


Interface for process inputs and outputs (FBMs and FBCs) Process Control (CP40) Interface for third party systems via serial links (INT30)

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM Jamnagar

DCS SYSTEM RELIANCE JAMNAGAR


Highlights:
Total nodes across the complex - 41 No.
LAN Length Total panels 19.6 Km 1102nos.

Total I/Os
Total Stations Total FBMs

182,375 No.
1367 No. 3307 No.

Total Serial Links $60m)plus.

270

Total cost of DCS within complex - 300 crore (approx

Fiber Optic cable used - 242 KMs

Reliance Jamnagar DCS Architecture


Worlds Longest ever Real-Time Control Network for TMS.

Worlds Largest System with more then 257 stations in ROS.


The DCS is configured as 6 systems as listed below.

Refinery ( ROS ) Tank farms ( TMS ) Captive Power Plant Aromatics Plant Poly Propylene Plant Port Operations
Within each system the I/A series node buses are interconnected by Fiber Optic LAN Interface modules.

Reliance Jamnagar DCS Architecture


Refinery

15 Node System Refinery PCC, PIBs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 Tank Farms 11 Node System Marine PCC and PIBs 19, 20, 21, 23, 27, 28, 29
Captive Power Plant 3 Node System CPP PCC, and MRS 1, 2 Aromatics Plant 6 Node System ARO PCC, and PIBs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Poly Propylene Plant 5 Node System PPP PCC A&B, and PIBs 24, 25, 34 Port Operations Single Node System Port PCC

OPTION -1 SPLITTING IN TWO NETWORK - AS PER BUSINESS

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R7

F1

F2

F3

F4

U2

13

23

REFINERY OPERATIONS SYSTEM


ISSUES: E1 INI51/HOST AW 1. INI51 IS NOT REDUNDANT F5 2. SEPERATE AWS ARE TO BE PROVIDED ON EITHER SIDE TCP/IP 3. MOVED STATIONES ARE TO BE DELETED FROM SY SDEF AND AWS 4. ADDITIONAL LAN LOADING ON TANK FARM MANAGEMENT SY STEM DUE TO EXAPNSION OF 70 TANKS. INI51/HOST AW

22

19A

U1

19

M1

27

28

29

21

R8

E1

TANK FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Integration of Applications: Overview


IP.21 LIMS

MODEBUS
RTU MODEBUS ASCII AB DH + IMAC

Open Industrial Standard

Plant Information Integration

YIELD ACC. DATA RECONS X-Window AIM*Historian RIMS INI51

Integrated Industry Solutions

TIS

OMIS

BOSS

TAS

APC

Software Overview
Operating System: Sun OS 5.5.1 based on Unix IV Human Interface: Foxdraw for Graphics Building & Configuration and Foxview for display of graphics Alarm Manager For Current Alarm Summary, Alarm History Display. ICC Integrated Control Configurator, provides software blocks for continuos, sequence and lader logic control. System Configurator For system configuration of the hardware and software Historian For collecting sample data for history and trends Report Writer For daily, weekly, monthly reports SMDH System Management and monitoring

Functionality
Engineering Station (Application Workstation AW51B):
Operating system Sun OS runs on AW51B, that is main server for the system and seat on the Nodbus. All other configuration software likes Historian, ICC, and all advance applications also run on AW51B. Mainly used for Configuration, System Diagnostic and downloading configuration to all stations configured. Can be used as Operator station.

Functionality Integrated Control Configuartion:


The Integrated Control Configurator database is the backbone of the I/A Series control subsystem and is the primary means by which real-time process variables are translated to the DCS environment
The software structure of the Control and I/O (CIO) functions revolve around the "COMPOUND:BLOCK.PARAMETER" concept. A compound as a group of blocks related to a particular Plant Unit, Equipment, Subsystem etc.

A block is a member of a set of predefined algorithms designed to perform mathematical, logical or boolean operations on one or more values.
Both blocks and compounds have PARAMETERS. Parameters include realtime values and may be used for display, trending and other processing requirements.

Integrated Control Configuartor

Functionality Human Interface (Operator Work Station):


Operator Work station processor with single or dual CRT, Annunciator Key Board, Trackball and touch screen provide human interface.
The Concept of efficient process control using an operator interface is with the following basic utilities: Process Graphics ESD Graphics Group / Trend Displays Face Plate Overlays Alarm Manager

Process Graphics

Functionality

Process Graphics:
There are four levels of graphics used in Project. Level 1: Complex Overview Level 2: Plant wide Overview Level 3: Based on PFDs Level 4: Based on P&Ids In addition to above following are other graphics used for the Project. Group Display: Group of eight Face plate or four Face plate and four treads. Overlay: Faceplates, Pump START/STOP etc.

Functionality

Work Station Access:


Environments Workstation Processors provide security through access levels for different categories of system users. Password protection can be configured for each environment. The environments configured for this project are defined in next slide.

Functionality
Environment Field_Op_Env Access Level 1 Authorisation Can view displays, Cannot change values (SP, Output, Auto-Manual etc.), Cannot acknowledge alarms All Field_Op_Env access, Can change values (SP, Output, Auto-Manual etc.), only for WPs Can acknowledge alarms, Cannot change alarm limits All Ctrl_Rm_Op_Env access, only for WPs Can change alarm limits, Can tune controllers, Cannot access configurators or maintenance functions All Supervisor_Env access, Can tune controllers, Can access configurators and make configuration changes, Cannot access software management All Maint_Engr_Env access, Can access software management to write programs, Can access Password configurator and change environment menus

Ctrl_Rm_Op_Env

Supervisor_Env

Maint_Engr_Env

Soft_Engr_Env

Environment

Functionality

ESD Graphics:
There are two levels of ESD system graphics: ESD Overview (Level 1) ESD Detail (Level 2) Facilities are provided to move from one level to the other and also sideways within level 2 graphics. The ESD Overview Level graphic lists all ESD's in the area and summarises their statuses. Each plant area has a level 1 ESD graphic. In ESD Detail Level graphics, dynamic Cause and Effect information is depicted. This includes status of the cause and the commanded and actual statuses of the effect (e.g., valve position, pump status etc.).

Functionality FoxAnalyst
A separate application for viewing trends is is available in all Operator workstation. Operator can assign a group of 16 trends in one page and save as a scratch pad. This application can be opened from pull down menu in operator environment

Functionality Alarm manager


Alarm manager can display alarm information in up to six distinct display windows.
Current Alarm Display ( CAD ) Most Recent Alarm Display ( MRA ) Alarm History Display ( AHD ) Alarm Summary New Alarm Display ( NEWALM ) Acknowledged Alarm Display ( ACKED ) Unacknowledged / Return-to-normal Alarm Display ( UNACK)

Alarm manager

Functionality Historian & Reports:


The Historian collects, stores, processes, and archives process data from the control system to provide data for trends, Statistical Process Control charts, logs, reports, spreadsheets, and application programs.

The Historian is a tool for collecting, organizing, and storing data for later retrieval. It contains built-in algorithms for reducing data and provides workstation displays to retrieve and display data . Typical data are process analog and/or digital points.

Historian Functions
Collect process control point samples Reduced point samples Application-generated alarms & messages

Trends

Functionality Advance Applications:


TIS : Tank Inventory System for Tank Farm Management BOSS : Blending & Optimisation Supervisory System

OMIS : Oil Movement & Information System

Information Management:
IP.21 is interface with DCS for integration with SAP to form Refinery Information Management System. Foxhistory : Plantwide Consolidated history for generating reports. X-window configuration for remote monitoring.