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The Ear is housed within the TEMPORAL BONE

The Outer Ear Consists of:

The Pinna External Auditory cartilaginous, highly Canal (or external variable in appearance, auditory meatus) - 2.5 some landmarks. cm tube.

Pinna Landmarks
Helix Antihelix Concha Tragus Intertragal Notch Antitragus

External Auditory Canal


lateral portion-cartilage medial portion-osseous lined with epidermal (skin) tissue hairs in lateral part cerumen (ear wax) secreted in lateral part.

Outer Ear Functions


Amplification / Filtering Protection Localization

The Middle Ear:


A cleft within the temporal bone
Lining is mucous membrane Tympanic Membrane separates it from EAC Eustachian tube connects it to nasopharynx Also Connected to Mastoid Air Cells

Middle Ear Structures


1- Malleus 2- Incus --Ossicles 3- Stapes 4- Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum) 5- Round Window 6- Eustachian Tube

Middle Ear Muscles


1. The Stapedius Attaches to Stapes,Contracts in Response to
Loud sounds, chewing, speaking; Facial (VIIth cranial) nerve

2. The Tensor Tympani Helps open Eustachian tube

Middle Ear Functions


Impedance Matching
Filtering

Acoustic Reflex

These sounds get through the middle ear most readily

INNER EAR

Two Halves: Vestibular--transduces motion and pull of gravity Cochlear--transduces sound energy (Both use Hair Cells)

Within S. Media is the Organ of Corti

The Stereocilia on IHCs and OHCs


OHCs (at top) V or W shaped ranks

IHC (at bottom) straight line ranks

Cochlear Functions
Transduction- Converting acousticalmechanical energy into electro-chemical energy.
Frequency Analysis-Breaking sound up into its component frequencies

Bekesys Traveling Wave Active Tuning from OHCs

Afferent & Efferent Neurons

IHC activation alters firing rate

Afferent neurons have their cell bodies in the Spiral Ganglion (4)

Major Components of the Central Auditory Nervous System (CANS)


VIIIth cranial nerve Cochlear Nucleus <Trapezoid Body> Superior Olivary Complex Lateral Lemniscus Inferior Colliculus Medial Geniculate Body Primary Auditory Cortex

Brainstem Mid-brain

Thalamus Temporal Lobe

AUDITORY CORTEX MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY INFERIOR COLLICULUS LATERAL LEMNISCUS

SUPERIOR OLIVARY COMPLEX


COCHLEAR NUCLEUS

Mid-Saggital View of Brain


Corpus Callosum 4th Ventricle

Cerebellum
Thalamus Pons

Cortical Processing
Pattern Recognition
Duration Discrimination

Localization of Sounds
Selective Attention

Cerebral Dominance/Laterality
Language Processing in the left hemisphere. (Remember the right ear has the strongest connections to the left hemisphere)
Most people show a right-ear advantage in processing linguistic stimuli