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PURPOSE, RESON AND RESULT, CONTRAST

Tamar Mikeladze II year students group English Grammar (paragraphs 21, 22, 23) 11/10/2012

PURPOSE: TO AND FOR WE USE ALL THESE TO SAY WHY WE DO THINGS:


Infinitive e.g. Tania visited her teacher to discuss her problem. in order to e.g. I met the secretary in order to hand in my application. For + noun e.g. I went to the post office for stamps.

PURPOSE: SO THAT SO THAT + SUBJECT + VERB


Habitual purpose - can/present simple e.g. I leave the window open so that the cat can get in and out. Future purpose can/will/present simple e.g. Well take a taxi so that we arent late for the meeting. Past purpose could/would/past simple e.g. Mary left the class early so that she could catch the 1 oclock train. e.g. She put her tickets in the purse so that she wouldnt lose them.

REASON AND RESULT


TO EXPLAIN THE REASON FOR SOMETHING USE:

Because (linking word) e.g. Mike didnt come on time because his car broke down. As (formal, at the beginning of the sentence) e.g. Mike didnt come on time as his car broke down. Since (formal, at the beginning of the sentence) e.g. Mike didnt come on time since his car broke down. So result (linking word) e.g. Mikes car broke down, so he didnt come on time.

FOR EMPHASIS WE USE


So many/much (many count /much noncount) There is so much rain that we cant go out. He had so many toys that he could share them with others So little/few We have so little time before flight that we cant have breakfast. There were so few students in the classroom that the teacher got angry.

So + adjective + that It was so hot last night that I couldnt sleep. Such + a + singular count noun It was such a lovely dress that I decided to buy it immediately. Too + adjective - more than is necessary or good. Something cant be done. The box was too heavy so I couldnt lift it. Too + adjective + infinitive - the action which is difficult to do It was too far to walk.

Not + adjective + enough - less than is necessary or good. She is not tall enough to become a model. She is too short to become a model. Too many/much, too few/little There are too few books in the class Adjective + enough He is smart enough to pass the exams Enough + noun She has got enough money to buy a brand- new car.

Its very expensive (a fact) Its so expensive (Im surprised, but I still might buy it) Its too expensive ( so I wont buy it)

RESULT PHRASES:
As a result In the end Eventually

CONTRAST
But (linking word) Maria felt ill, but she went to school (anyway). Although (formal, linking word) Maria felt ill, although she (still) went to school Even though = although Even though she felt ill, Maria went to school Though (informal, in two separate sentences) Maria went to school. She was ill, though.

While/whereas - to compare two facts or things. Nick loves cats, whereas David loves dogs. Despite / in spite of + noun/ noun phrase/ verb+ ing to contrast Despite her illness, Maria went to school. Despite being ill, Maria went to school. However (formal, linking word) contrasting sentence. Maria was ill. However, she went to school. On the other hand contrasting opinion

RELATIVE CLAUSES I

RELATIVE CLAUSES
Relative pronouns who, what, which Relative clauses relative pronouns (who, what, which) to define or describe people or things.

Relative clauses
Defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses - to identify exactly which person or thing we mean. The doctor who treated me told me not to worry.

Non-defining relative clauses to give extra information, which is not necessary for the sentence to make sense. In writing we use comma to show this. Pablo Picasso, who died in 1973, was a painter and sculptor.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Which things The bus which goes to Batumi leaves from here. That people and things (more common) The man that we met was my fathers boss. Who people The people who live next door make a lot of noise. The people that live next door make a lot of noise. Whom people (objective form, less common) I talked to the lady whom you sent the invitation card. Whose belongs someone The girl whose mother works at the theater disappeared.

LEAVING OUT THE RELATIVE PRONOUN

Relative clause refers to subject or object of the sentence Subject of the sentence: The doctor who treated me told me not to worry.

The doctor
(subject)

treated
(verb)

me
(object)

Object of the sentence: The doctor whom I spoke to told me not to worry.

I
(subject)

spoke to
(verb)

the doctor
(object)

The doctor I spoke to told me not to worry.

Leave out relative pronoun after superlative: This is the best coffee (that) Ive ever had!

COMBINING SENTENCES
1) A bus goes to Batumi. 2) It leaves from here The bus that goes to Batumi leaves from here. 1) A woman teaches us English. 2) She also works at university. The woman who teaches us English also works at university

1) A girls purse was stolen. 2) She started crying. The girl whose purse was stolen started crying.

RELATIVE CLAUSE WITH -ING


I approached the woman who was sweeping the street. I approached the woman (who was) sweeping the street. (leaving out relative pronoun and be)

I sent a card to the girl who was reading a book in the garden. I sent a card to the girl (who was) reading a book in the garden.

What - the thing(s) that We understood what the teacher explained to us. (the things that she explained)

What I want now is a holiday in Spain! (the thing that I want)

THANK YOU. ANY QUESTIONS?