You are on page 1of 78


Issue: Improper methods of Counseling during B.E and B.Tech Admission

An advertisement with job skill set been

provided and the team markets its institution with catchy names, vision statements and courses offered.

Match the job to the person and not the viceversa. This improves the productivity at work and

brings out better results.

This brings better ROI for the company Gives better job satisfaction.

Gathering Info About Job

Activities, duties, behaviour KSAOC

K-Knowledge-Body of Info, procedural,factual

A-Abilities-Demonstrated Competency OC-Other Characteristics Gives job specifications-educational req.

Job description- identification, C.V, Duties,

Standards, Accountabilities.

Job classification- clustering jobs as groups. Job evaluation Job design restructuring Personnel requirement/ Specifications Performance appraisal Worker Training

Worker mobility Efficiency Safety- ADEA- Age Discrimination in

Employments act, OSHA etc

HR planning Legal/quasi-legal requirements

Job identification Job summary Job duties and accountabilities Job Specification Employment Standards Information

Arrangement of jobs based on

Classes Groups Families eg- Based on line of Authority, technology based, job content, human behaviour based.

Classify jobs based on relative worth

Within the organization Within the related external labour market.

Allocation and Reallocation of

Organizational work Activities by job incumbent into different sets

Personal knowledge


Attributes Traits for the successful performance of job with minimum qualification, desirable specification

Systematic Evaluation of Employees performance

by supervisor or other officials

Influence performance through administrative decisions
Promotion Lay offs Transfers Salary increases

Developmental feedback about employee, Strengths and weaknesses.

Systematic Intentional

Process for developing

Specific skills
Influencing behaviour of organizational behaviour and contributes to overall effectiveness

Career development and Path setting Movement of people in and out of positions, jobs, and occupations

Self concepts and social situation changes

Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline.

Organizations find it advantageous to promote worker mobility-Interaction of personal factors and opportunities-

establishment of career counseling and


Based on delineated job information.

Involves development of optimal work processes and safe design of


Physical facilities with reference to peoples work

activities, including work procedures, work layout, and work standards

Development of optimal work process Safe design of equipment Safe design of physical facilities Identifying and eliminating unsafe behaviour, physical and environmental conditions- worker


Involves anticipatory and reactive activities Ensures

Right Number

Right people
Right people at right places Jobs performance that satisfies objectives and brings profit to organization

Includes activities
Improving self actualization
Growth needs of people Maximum utilization of
Skills Talents

Regulations Guidelines established by government agencies office of Federal Contract Compliance (FCC) ADA Reasonable accommodations for differently abled. EEOC- Equal Employment opportunity.

Types of job analysis info provided-Type-I
Forms in which job information is illustrated-Type-II

Standardization of the job analysis content- Type-III

Sources of job information-Type-IV

Task or Job oriented methods-indicate jobs to be


TI-CODAP- Task Inventory Comprehensive Data Analysis Program.

PAQ-Position Analysis Questionnaire- person or

worker oriented approaches Collect data on the machines, tools and work aids


KSAOC- behaviour based

Info representation- quantitative or qualitative

Qualitative-CIT-Critical Incident TechniqueHuman behaviour based technique Effectiveness and In-effectiveness measuring parameters TI-CODAP and PAQ-Quantitative-relative frequency or importance based ratings


Unconventional techniques used

Devices-cameras Physiological recording devices Job analysts

Specialist or expert
Consultants or observers or supervisors

Clients/department heads/colleagues etc..

Observation Performing job Interviews

Critical incidents
Background records


Work study, time study of the job through


Activities observed Deeper insight into job duties. Leaves out mental aspects of job Decision Making, creativity. Doesnt consider infrequently done jobs.

Actual performance of duties

Useful for jobs that can be learned

Demonstrator goes through the experience

before training or elucidation

Could be hazardous sometimes-illegal or certification required Exposed to frequently performed activities

Individual and group interviews:

Job incumbents Supervisors Sub-ordinates Clients Other knowledgeable sources.

Information on rare activities collected easily. Gives more comprehensive and unbiased view of job all mental, physical analyzed.

Value dependent on interviewer and

questions asked Fear due suspicions- distort information

Behaviour of poor or good performances with the context and the consequence Since observed and measurable-used for

performance appraisal and training readily

Insights into job expectations as defined by incumbents

Average and typical behaviour consideredeffective Data may be less inclusive

Gathering incidents- time consuming

Eg student not performing well when taking a wrong group in the BE/Btech counselling

Description of daily work by incumbents Terms familiar to incumbents Data usage easier-appraisal measures

Insights into the reasons for job activities

Mental activities-innovativeness or

representative account- may not be included

Review of
Organizational charts DOT-Dictionary of occupational titles-200000 nos Company training manuals Policies Procedure manuals

Existing job descriptions

Provide preliminary job info Aid interview questioning/questionnaires Provide contextual info about the job

Easy to collect
Eg collecting mark sheets of his secondary

and higher secondary in a BE counseling

Info incomplete Supplemented by other methods May be outdated

Limited info- specific info for KSAOC and

important ratings of tasks

Structured forms and activity check lists


Unstructured questions

Less expensive

Reach larger incumbents/sources Greater coverage Responses quantified Variety of analyses possible- comparisons across jobs and departments-compensation and selection

Less expensive

Reach larger incumbents/sources Greater coverage Responses quantified Variety of analyses possible- comparisons across jobs and departments-compensation and selection

Interpretation may be wrong

Response rate may be low-less generalizable


Time consuming
Challenging to quantify Require content analyses-time consuming Eg asking their strong areas



Standardized questionnaire-completed in 2.5


Assess 187 activities in six categories

Information input

Mental processes
Work output Relationships with other persons

Job context
Other job characteristics

Rating factors
Amount of time Amount of time required Extent of use Possibility of occurrences Applicability Difficulty

Prepare questionnaire


Give the various levels of rating for the factors

Give them to incumbents


Questionnaire collected


Shipped to PAQ headquarters-computerized scoring based on 32 dimensions Estimates aptitude test and job evaluation points

Excellent for small businesses People with limited or who are yet acquire knowledge on HR can do it Selection and possible selection procedures for small no of posts

Use of PAQ for lathe test operator or trainee.

Highly technical- completed by job analyst Language used complex and challenging to understand for the incumbents or supervisors Lacks specificity

Developed- US Air force Use-describe and cluster jobs Components of task consist of
Objective Essential modifiers

Write Task Statement



Essential Modifiers

Time spent

Each task timing

Net timing on each task

Clustering of Response


Based on occupational groups

Yield data for
Important job analysis Setting job specifications Identifying the potential job hazards attached( in case of women and minority) Establish succession planning


Task statement formation-time consuming May be outdated Task oriented approach- KSAOCs not used Larger time for larger incumbents

Management position description


Standardized- managerial jobs 274 item questionnaire with 15 sections Time taken-2.5hours Respondents indicate significance of each item

Sent to control data business advisors Inc Computer software generates 8 reports
Management position description

Position tailored performance appraisal form

Group comparison report

Work oriented approach Includes


Specific content
Adaptive skills required to perform job satisfactorily

Job classification- nine digit code

First 3-occupational code

Middle 3-extent to which job incumbent has responsibility, judgement over data(coordinating),people(negotiating) and things(handling).

Last 3-classification alphabetically within

occupational group with same complexity.

0-highest level of complexity Eg 166 117 018-manager personnel department

166-occupational code
117-responsibility,coordinating,controlling 018-job with same level of complexity

Analyst purview Mentoring Scales

Data Things

Peoples scale-most complex-0 Data scale- facts, ideas, mental operations Things scale-interaction with and response to

tangibles and images visualized spatially

Peoples scale- people, communication and interpersonal actions






Identification of objectives ,purpose and goals

Identification and Description of tasks

Analysis of tasks

Development of performance standards

Development of Training Content

Stage-I-what should be and what is

Stage-II-define actions, sequences for a specific

objective. Stage-III-task analyzed in seven scales
Worker(3)-data, people, things Worker instruction-degree of supervision

General educational development-reasoning,

mathematics and language.

Stage-IV-assess the results of a workers tasks Stage-V- development of training content required for the occupant of a job Used frequently for government jobs and qualitative assessment DOT scale give a quantitative score on each job as a function of its complexity in relationship with people, data and things- set wage rates, developing employee

succession plans

Issue- Time consuming, expensive and inaccessible.

Critical incident technique- used at Burger king,

Continental bank and Chicago police department

Qualitative job analysis Characteristics

Specific Observable Context Consequences

C-JAM-Combinational Job Analysis Method MJDQ- Multi-method Job Design Questionnaire

JCQ-Job Compatibility Questionnaire

JDS-Job Diagnostic Display-Job analysis and Job Design

Worker and task oriented method Borrows from FJA,TI-CODAP Task-oriented aspect- based on task

importance value

Task importance value = difficulty criticality +time spent

Task statements cover job dimensionsSME

Task Statements edited

Task ratingbased on time spent, difficulty and criticality

Task Importance derived

Task statements ranked

KSAOC based task statement lists generated by SME Rating(yes or no) of the statement for new

workers and practical to expert

Rate the degree to which KSAOC distinguishes superior from average worker

Considerable time consumed Effort required considerable B-JAM substitute for C-JAM

Potential methods but lesser research

Multi-method Job Design Questionnaire- job

designing tool with scale

Scale composition-factors
Motivational-autonomy of the job

Mechanistic-specialization of the materials and

procedures and the extent of repetition required Biological-tool design, level of effort and endurance Perceptual-workplace lighting, control and display identification and visibility.

Results positive- blue collar workers and professionals Outcome: jobs with high motivation-high

employee motivation, greater job satisfaction,

efficiency, comfort and reliability

Yet to be used beyond design

Primary purpose-development of personnel

selection instruments-diagnostic tool- HRM

intervention strategies determination

All aspects hypothesized related to absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction- job analysisbroadest sense

Job skills skill sets maximum effectiveness

and tenure

Goal: derive measures match job characteristics with employee preferences. Other: alter job characteristics to increase

group effectiveness

400 item instrument-measures job factors Related to effectiveness criteria

Job factors
Task requirements Physical environment Customer characteristics Co-worker characteristics

Leader characteristics
Compensation preferences Task variety Job autonomy Physical demands Work schedule

Filled by job incumbents familiar with job nature

Most descriptive job description selected

Average completion time-30 minutes

Extra can be added if required

Scoring key used useful for- theatre personnel, customer service representatives and security guards.

JCM- job enrichment approach

Job Diagnostic Survey -a Job Characteristic Model

JDS-assess employee perceptions of the degree

to which five core dimensions are present.

Emphasizes on intrinsic aspects and interaction of individual with the job


(Objective)Workers-more satisfied and better

quality of work, less absenteeism and turnover extent Constraints- work meaningful, responsibility for work outcomes, feedback received

Variables- skill variety, task identity, task

significance, autonomy and feedback

Skill variety- extent of variety of skills, activities, and abilities required for work completion

Task identity- extent of identification and

completion of the job-visible outcome Task significance-extent of job impact on other lives

Autonomy-extent of discretion, independence and freedom given for scheduling and planning

Feedback- results of the job carried out-how

clear and direct is the performance Measures directly related to productivity and satisfaction.

Organizational purpose
Job description Job Classification Job Evaluation Job Design restructuring Personnel requirements/specification Performance Appraisal





Worker training
Worker Mobility Efficiency/safety Human Resource planning Legal/quasi-legal requirements

Sexual biases- setting pay rates Gender composition/racial composition in jobs

Preference to a personnel-liking
Better confidence in some other employee Religion basis

Very interesting field