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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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EVAPORATORS DAIRY INDUSTRY APPLICATION


Asist. Prof. Levent AKYALIN

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Evaporation
Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. Evaporation is the removal of volatile solvent from a solution or relatively dilutes slurry by vaporizing the solvent. Evaporators are used for this process.
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Evaporators

Evaporators are used to separate materials based on differences in their boiling temperatures. Its purpose is to concentrate nonvolatile solutes such as organic compounds, inorganic salts, acids or bases. Typical solutes include phosphoric acid, caustic soda, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, gelatin, syrups and urea.
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Types of Evaporators
1)
2)

3) 4) 5)

Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators Short-Tube (Calandria) Vertical Evaporators Horizontal-Tube Evaporators Forced Circulation Evaporators Agitated, Thin Film Evaporators

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LONG-TUBE VERTICAL (LTV) EVAPORATORS

These types of evaporators are used more than all other types combined for evaporation because of

The LTV-type evaporator cannot handle crystallizing solutions but excellent for foaming solution. There are two main types of LTV evaporators:
a) b)

low cost per unit capacity simplicity of construction heat transfer performance

Climbing (Rising) film evaporators Falling film evaporators

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Climbing (Rising) Film Evaporators


LTV rising-film evaporator is used primarily to concentrate non-salting liquors. Climbing film evaporators are used mainly in the paper industry, food industry to condense milk.

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Double-Effect, LTV Climbing (Rising) Film Evaporator


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Falling Film Evaporators


LTV falling film evaporator can be used to concentrate the non-salting liquids and more viscous liquors. Principal applications have been for citrus juices. They are also used to concentrate heat-sensitive materials and corrosive solutions.
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Two, 4-Stage, Mechanical Recompression, Falling-Film Evaporators 19.02.2014

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SHORT-TUBE (CALANDRIA) VERTICAL EVAPORATORS (STV)


The short tube evaporators were the first developed commercially and still represent probably the largest number of unit in operation. Used in sugar factory. Used for noncorrosive materials.

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Advantages

Inexpensive Efficient heat transfer at high temperature Easy to descale

Disadvantages

Poor heat transfer at low temperature differences or with viscous liquids Require a great deal of floor space

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HORIZONTAL TUBE EVAPORATORS

Horizontal tube evaporators use a tube and spray method of heat transfer. The tubes are arranged so as to maximize the heat transfer area between the steam and the liquor.

Symbols: C = condensate F = feed N = noncondensibles vent P = product or concentrate S = steam V = vapor


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The major use is for making distilled water for boiler feed. Horizontal tube evaporators are used in the pharmaceutical industry, pulp and paper industry. They are relatively low cost. They have very low headroom. Horizontal tube evaporators are not suitable for salting or scaling liquids, and they have smaller capacity than other evaporators.
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Horizontal Tube Evaporator

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FORCED CIRCILATION EVAPORATORS


The liquor in a forced-circulation evaporator is pumped through the tubes to minimize tube scaling or salting when precipitates are formed during evaporation. Submerged-tube type is the most common type forced circulation evaporator. Forced circulation evaporators are used in the mining industry, and also they are used to evaporate corrosive or highly viscous solutions. Forced circulation evaporators are efficient the transfers heat from steam to liquid, continuous liquid flow, low amount of salting, scaling and fouling. They are expensive and need power for circulating pump.
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Forced Circulation Evaporator


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AGITATED THIN (WIPED-FILM) FILM EVAPORATORS


Agitated film evaporators use mechanical to promote heat transfer. They employ a single large diameter straight or tapered tube as the heating surface, in which a set of the blades is rotated. The cost of these evaporators is very high and the capacity relatively low. These evaporators are used highly viscous liquids or liquids requiring very low residence times. These evaporators exhibit poor heat transfer performance on low viscosity fluids. Their maintenance are difficult because of internal moving parts.

Symbols: C = condensate F = feed N = noncondensibles vent P = product or concentrate S = steam V = vapor

Agitated Thin Film Evaporator


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Evaporated and Condensed Milk


Evaporated milk is made by reducing the water content by using an evaporator. Condensed milk is processed similarly to evaporated milk, but sugar is added to improve flavor and increase storage life. The following processing steps are usually involved:

Milk is received an cooled. Milk is sampled and evaluated for bacterial count, sediment, acidity, alcohol, appearance, flavor, and odor. Milk is clarified or filtered. Milk is stored and fat standardized to solids not fat. Milk is preheated and held. Water is removed by evaporation. Product is homogenized. Product is cooled. (If making condensed milk, homogenized precedes evaporation and sugar is added immediately after condensation.) Product is restandardized Product is placed in cans which are sealed. Leaking cans are rejected. Product in cans is heated, sterilized, and cooled. Cans are cased. Cans with product are stored.
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EVAPORATION N DAIRY INDUSTRY

Definition of evaporation in application of dairy industry is removing moisture from milk under a vacuum with boiling.

A type of evaporator used in milk industry


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EVAPORATOR TYPES USED IN THE MILK INDUSTRY

Many evaporators are produced in various designs. Single-or multiple-effect evaporators are used. Double- and triple- effect evaporators are most common. Appropriate types of evaporators that can be used in the milk industry are as follows;

Falling Film Evaporators Circulation/Vertical Evaporators Horizontal Tubes Evaporators


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Some Photos of Evaporators Which are used in


Bozyk Milk Industry

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Number 23378324080 24395379350 37750471576 55129570408 60907135168

Name BERDA ALTUN EMRAH REK CANSU KAYAALP SEVM ZGL PINAR ERKU

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THANKS
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