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Why seismic processing ?
Processing Steps
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Whats a seismic trace?
Sandstone
Coal
Carbonate
Salt
Shale
*
S(t)
*
R(t) Seismic trace
+ Noise (t) =
Rf(t)
Filtering

Stacking
.
.
.
Deconvolution
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*
g(t)
f(t)
*
g(t)
f(t)
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Wave propagation

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Land data Marine data
Split shot gather
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0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
X (m)
T

(
s
)
Direct
Ground roll
Head wave (refraction)
First multiple
Primary
R
1
R
2

Seismic events
Non-primary events
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Primary
Earths surface
Subsurface reflector
S
R
1

Ground roll
Direct P-wave
R
2

Head wave (refraction)
First multiple
Seismic events
Non-primary events
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CDP Fold =
Number of receivers x receiver interval
2 x shot interval
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CDP gather NMO Stack
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Migration
The goal of migration is to make the
stacked section appear similar to the
geologic cross-section
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A step in seismic processing in which reflections in seismic data
are moved to their correct locations in the x-y-time space of
seismic data, including two-way traveltime and position relative to
shotpoints
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m
n
Zn
Zm
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Typical ProMax flow for velocity analysis.
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Examining the normal moveout equation, it is possible to
analyze NMO velocities by plotting reflections in T
2
X
2
space
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Concept of Constant Velocity Stack as an aid to stacking
velocity estimation.
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One method to determine stacking velocity is to use a
Constant Velocity Stack (CVS) for several CDP gathers
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Same CVS panel of traces as before switching to variable
density color for the traces to utilize dynamic range
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Same as previous color panels with velocity range now
halved to better pick correct velocities
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Another term for Normal Moveout Equation.
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Options in the ProMax Velocity Analysis Routine.
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Demonstration of the velocity spectra
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Options in the ProMax Velocity Analysis Routine.
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CDP gather with NMO applied (center) surrounded by panels
having progressively lower velocity (left) or higher velocity.
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Options in the ProMax Velocity Analysis Routine.
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Options in the ProMax Velocity Analysis Routine.
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From left to right are panels for Semblance, Gather, Dynamic
Stack, Flip Stacks, and Velocity Function Stack.
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The ProMax routine Velocity Analysis has it all from left to
right: velocity spectra, interactive cursor with CDP gather,
dynamic stack, and a variation on CVS
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The Semblance Panel shows the semblance plot, the picked
velocity function, guide functions, and the interval velocity
computed from the picked function.
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Dix equation converts stacking velocities to interval velocities.
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However, you get RMS velocities, one can continue to
calculate interval velocities, interval thicknesses, and average
velocities.
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Remaining three panels in Velocity Analysis routine.
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Use of ProMax routine Velocity Viewer and Editor
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A common problem with stacking is residual NMO on the
CDP gathers resulting from imperfect velocity specification.
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Example of the data/velocity Interleave Display using
Landmarks SeisCube program.
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Progressive Mute Analysis
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Prestack CDP gather with a horizon plotted along an event
that is not perfectly flattened by NMO; other causes might be
statics, noise, and/or lithology that is affecting the phase.
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ProMax routine CDP/Ensemble Stack vertically stacks
input ensembles of traces.
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Definition of multiplies as it applies to processing
seismic reflection data using ProMax.
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Example of a surface multiple on left in red and intrabed
multiple on the right in blue.
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Comparison of short-path and long-path multiples.
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Conceptual abstraction of the Tau P domain
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Organizing seismic reflection data into ray-parameter domain
has certain advantages that are elaborated here.
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Working definition of the Radon Filter commonly
used for multiple suppression working in the intercept-
time (T) / ray parameter (p) or slowness domain.
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Use of the radon transform for the removal of multiples by
discriminating on the basis of moveout here no rejection.
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Use of the radon transform for the removal of multiples by
discriminating on the basis of moveout rejection shown.
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More on the use of the Radon Filter.
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Migration

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Migration
Migration is an inversion operation involving
rearrangement of seismic information elements so that
reflections and diffractions are plotted at their true
locations.
R.E Sheriff

The goal of migration is to make the stacked section
appear similar to the geologic cross-section
Oz Yilmaz

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Unmigrated
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Migrated
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Migration
Collapses diffractions
Corrects for dip
Moves dipping events in the updip direction
Removes effects of surface curvature
unties the bowties
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Reconstructing the wavefield
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Constant velocity migration
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Schematic that shows the imaging problem for a simple
anticline.
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Schematic that shows the imaging problem for a simple
syncline.
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Schematic that shows the imaging problem for a vertical fault.
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Schematic that shows the imaging problem for a 30-degree
fault.
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Schematic that shows the imaging problem for a reef model.
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Kirchoff migration (diffraction stacking)

Finite difference method

F-K migration


integral solution of wave equation

derivative solution of wave equation

Fourier domain solution of wave equation
Migration Methods
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Kirchoff Migration
(Diffraction Summation)
For every point (x,z), collapse all energy from
hyperbola with v
rms

A B
C O
u
t
0

x
t
2
2
2
0
2
4
rms
v
x
t t + =
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Kirchoff Migration
(Diffraction Summation)
Factors to consider before summing energy in
diffraction:
Obliquity factor
A cos u
Spherical divergence factor
A 1/r
Wavelet shaping factor
phase correction
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Migration collapses diffractions to
reveal structure
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Migration collapses diffractions to
reveal structure
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Finite Difference Migration
Solving the wave equation by stepping down
discrete intervals from z=0
Downward continue wavefield to exploding
reflector
Define an angle for width of cone for to be
included in migration for each point
wider cone more accurate
narrow cone faster, better approximations
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sin tan =
a
Migration steepens and moves
dipping reflectors
Apparent dip in time section is related to true
dip:
(migrators equation)
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Collapsing diffraction and relocating
dipping surface
Diffraction D Apex P
Reflector B A
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F-K Migration
Events can be separated by
their dips in F-K space
Transform according to
migrators equation tan

a
=sin
Advantage: very
computationally efficient!
Disadvantage: only works for
constant velocity (without
modifications that
compromise its efficiency)
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Migration removes multiple-
branch reflections
Synclines
get broader
Anticlines
get narrower
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Untying the bowties
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Limitations of Migration
Insufficient spatial resolution will result in aliasing
2-D slice of 3-D wavefield (need 3-D migration!)
Edge effects
Coherent noise
Requires knowledge of velocity structure
Time migration methods assume lateral velocity varies
slowly (otherwise need depth migration)
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3-D Processing
Binning by common midpoints in cells on a
grid
Migration can be two stage 2-D migration
(in-line direction, then cross-line direction)
or full 3-D wavefield solution
Most other processing operations are
unchanged
Display is more difficult (and more fun!)
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Why Deconvolution?
Decreases ringing
Increases resolution
Improves appearance of stacked section and
makes it easier to interpret
Section is more like the earth and less like the
seismic source
Can remove multiples
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Convolutional model of a
seismogram
s=w*e+n
source wavelet
1 1
v
2 2
v
3 3
v
4 4
v
5 5
v
Earth response function seismogram
*
(+noise)
=
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Spiking Filter
Take existing
wavelet and
transform to a unit
impulse (delta
function)
Also called
whitening because
it aims to create a
white spectrum
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Predictive Deconvolution
Deconvolution with a built-in time lag
Use to remove
Multiples
Bubble pulse

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Deconvolution Example
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Raw gather decon
Bandpass
filtered
autocorrelograms
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Raw
gathers
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After
decon
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Deconvolution
Deterministic Inverse Filtering
Deghosting
Least Squares (Optimum) Filtering
Spiking filter
Wavelet shaping
Predictive Deconvolution
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Convolutional model of a
seismogram
s=w*e+n
One equation with 3 unknowns
How can we possibly find e?

We make assumptions:
e, n are white (random)
w is minimum phase
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w
e
s
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A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

S
p
e
c
t
r
u
m

A
u
t
o
c
o
r
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

Earth response Wavelet Seismogram
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Deterministic Deconvolution
Assume that an operator f(t) exists such that
) ( ) ( * ) ( t t f t w o =
In the Fourier domain:
1 ) ( ) ( = e e F W

=
=
e |
e |
e e
e e
f
w
i
f
i
w
e A F
e A W
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
e |
e
e
w
i
w
e A
F
) (
1
) ( =
so
and

=
=
) ( ) (
) ( / 1 ) (
e | e |
e e
w f
w f
A A
The inverse operator f(t) has opposite phase
and inverse amplitude spectrum from the
source wavelet w(t)
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Deterministic Deconvolution
Assumptions:
1 source wavelet is minimum phase
2 noise is zero
3 wavelet is known
Not true, especially 2
In practice, the Fourier domain
implementation is not very good if
assumptions are not met
Other methods are more stable
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Deghosting
Eliminate source & receiver ghosts by
considering them as time delayed copies of
the source (and with known depths the time
delays are known)
Alternatively, hydrophones and geophones
with different responses can be combined to
eliminate ghosting effects
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Correlation
Autocorrelation
Cross-correlation
1 , , 1 , 0
1
) (
1
0
= =


=
+
N k x x
N
x r
k N
t
k t
t
k

1 , , 1 , 0
1
) , (
1
0
= =


=
+
N k y x
N
y x g
k N
t
k t
t
k

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Wavelet Estimation
In general, the source wavelet is unknown
Source wavelet can be estimated from
seismogram alone assuming:
minimum phase wavelet
white earth response spectrum
e w x
r r r * =
autocorrelation
(with white earth response)
w x
r r r
0
=
Autocorrelation of seismogram is the autocorrelation of
source wavelet (within a constant)
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Optimum Weiner Filters
Want to find the optimum filter components f
i
that minimize the error
between the desired and actual outputs in a least-squares sense:

=
t
t t t
x f d L
2
) (
t
t
) 1 ( , , 2 , 1 , 0 , 0 = =
c
c
n i
f
L
i
By setting
so
0 2 2 = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
c
c
i t
t t
t i t t
i
x x f x d
f
L
t
t t
Recognizing the terms for auto- and cross-correlation,
i i
g r f =
t
t
t
i t
t t
t i t t
x d x x f

=
t
t
t or
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Optimum Weiner Filters
i i
g r f =
t
t
t
Or, in matrix form,
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

1
2
1
0
1
2
1
0
0 3 2 1
3 0 1 2
2 1 0 1
1 2 1 0
n n n n n
n
n
n
g
g
g
g
f
f
f
f
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r

The autocorrelation matrix is a Toeplitz matrix, and can be


inverted by Levinson recursion
are called the normal equations
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Optimum Weiner Filters
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

1
2
1
0
1
2
1
0
0 3 2 1
3 0 1 2
2 1 0 1
1 2 1 0
n n n n n
n
n
n
g
g
g
g
f
f
f
f
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r

The g
i
terms are the cross-correlation of the desired wavelet
with the input wavelet (seismogram).
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

0
0
0
1
1
2
1
0
0 3 2 1
3 0 1 2
2 1 0 1
1 2 1 0

n n n n
n
n
n
f
f
f
f
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r
r r r r
In the case of spiking deconvolution, the normal equations
take the form
B
y
:

A
l
i

M
i
s
a
g
h
i

Wavelet Processing
Attempt to shift source wavelet to some
other known wavelet, to accomplish one or
more of:
Reduce variation of source (between shots,
between receivers)
Shift to another known wavelet
e.g., hydrophone response to match
seismometer
Separate wavelet and earth response more
clearly
B
y
:

A
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M
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a
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Wavelet Processing
B
y
:

A
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i

M
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a
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Wavelet Processing
Transform to zero phase and broaden spectrum
Increase resolution
B
y
:

A
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i

M
i
s
a
g
h
i

B
y
:

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h
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1) Shots : 2 548
2) Minimum phase
3) Traces have been resampled (2ms >4ms) and decimated (384 > 192)
4) Fk filter
5) Geometry has been applied
6) Velocity file is available(By Geco)

Real data
12.5 m
91
o
25 m
7.5 m
8.5 m
B
y
:

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a
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Check the mute
Velocity Analysis
NMO
Stack
Real data work flow
Sorting
Pick mute
True Amplitude Recovery
Deconvolution
Velocity Manipulation
Migration
Demultiple
B
y
:

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Real data
-A report:
-Explanation of the processing steps with proper
and related snap shots(Mute, TAR, Decon, NMO,
Demultipling, Stacking, Migration,etc

-Final results(a comparison study)
-Brute-stack section(s)
-Demultipled stack section(s)
-Migrated section(s)
Project results: