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Networking Fundamentals

M.Vineeth Kumar, MS.,MCSA.,CCNA,.CQFS

Networking Fundamentals

1 – Introduction to PC Networking
2 – Types of Networks
3 – Adding a Network Interface Card (NIC)
4 – Physical Components of a Network
5 – LAN Architectures
6 – Networking Protocols and the OSI Model
7 – TCP/IP Utilities
8 – Connecting to the Internet
Introduction to PC Networking
Defining a Computer Network

• A computer network allows users

to communicate with other users
on the same network by
transmitting data on the cables
used to connect them.
• A computer network is defined as
having two or more devices (such
as workstations, printers, or
servers) that are linked together
for the purpose of sharing
information, resources, or both.
Defining a Computer Network

• A network consists of many

overlapping systems, such
as cabling, addressing
schemes, or applications.
• The layers work together to
transmit and receive data.
• The Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI)
reference model, was
created to define these
multiple layers.
File, Print, and Application Services

• Computer networks offer file

and print services.
• In networks, different
computers take on specialized
roles or functions.
• Once connected, one or more
computers in the network can
function as network file
• The server is a repository for
files that can be accessed and
shared across the network by
many users.
File, Print, and Application Services

• All network operating

systems offer file and print
• Sharing information,
collaborating on projects,
and providing access to
input and output devices
are common services of
computer networks.
Mail Services

• E-mail services work like the postal

system, with one computer taking on
the function of post office.
• The user e-mail account operates like
a post office box, where mail is held
for the user until it is picked up over
the network by an e-mail client
program running in the user system.
• The e-mail is sent from the client
computer to the server, which acts as
the post office. The server sends it to
the e-mail address.
Directory and Name Services

• To enable users and

systems on the network to
find the services they
require, computer networks
make use of directories and
name services.
Directory and Name Services

• Directory and name

services make a network
easier to use.
• After the initial setup of the
directory or name service,
this translation takes place
• In addition to their ease of
use, they also make the
network more flexible.
The Internet

• The Internet is a worldwide

public network of networks,
interconnecting thousands
of smaller networks to form
one large “web” of
• The Internet functions like a
highway to facilitate
exchange between
geographically separated
users, organizations, and
branches of companies.
The Internet

• The phrase “information

superhighway” describes
the benefit of the Internet to
business and private
• The Internet breaks down
barriers of time and space,
enabling the sharing of
information around the
globe almost
Network Administration

• The ongoing task of network administration is to

maintain and adapt the network to changing
• Network administrator responsibilities include:
– Setting up new user accounts and services
– Monitoring network performance
– Repairing network failures
Simplex, Half-Duplex,
and Full-Duplex Transmission
• Simplex transmission is a
single one-way baseband
• It is also called
unidirectional because the
signal travels in only one
• An example of simplex
transmission is the signal
sent from the cable TV
station to the home
Simplex, Half-Duplex,
and Full-Duplex Transmission
• This means that only one
side can transmit at a time.
• Two-way radios, such as
Citizens Band (CB) and
communications mobile
radios, work with half-
duplex transmissions.
Simplex, Half-Duplex,
and Full-Duplex Transmission
• Traffic can travel in both
directions at the same time.
• A regular telephone
conversation is an example
of full-duplex
communication. Both parties
can talk at the same time,
and the person talking on
the other end can still be
heard by the other party
while they are talking.
Types of Networks

• By using local-area network (LAN) and wide-area

network (WAN) technologies, many computers are
interconnected to provide services to their users.

• In providing services, networked computers take on

different roles or functions in relation to each other.

• Some types of applications require computers to

function as equal partners. Other types of applications
distribute work so that one computer functions to serve
a number of others in an unequal relationship.
Peer-to-Peer Networks

• In a peer-to-peer network,
the networked computers
act as equal partners, or
peers, to each other.

• As peers, each computer

can take on the client
function or the server
function alternately.
Client/Server Networks

• In a client/server network
arrangement, network services
are located in a dedicated
computer whose only function is
to respond to the requests of

• The server contains the file, print,

application, security, and other
services in a central computer that
is continuously available to
respond to client requests.
Local-Area Networks (LANs)

• A local-area network (LAN)

can connect many
computers in a relatively
small geographical area
such as a home, an office,
or a campus.

• It allows users to access

high bandwidth media like
the Internet and allows
users to share devices such
as printers.
Local-Area Networks (LANs)

• The general shape or layout

of a LAN is called its

• Topology defines the

structure of the network.
This includes the physical
topology which is the actual
layout of the wire or media,
and the logical topology
which is how the media is
accessed by the hosts.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)

• A WAN, as the name implies, is designed

to work over a larger area than a LAN.

• A WAN uses point-to-point or point to

multipoint, serial communications lines.

• Point-to-point lines connect only two

locations, one on each side of the line.
Point-to-multipoint lines connect one
location on one side of the line to multiple
locations on the other side.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)

• The following are some of the more

common WAN technologies:
– Modems
– Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
– Digital subscriber line (DSL)
– Frame Relay
– Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
– The T (US) and E (Europe) Carrier series (T1,
E1, T3, E3, and so on)
– Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)

• Connections across WAN lines may be

temporary or permanent.
• Telephone or dialup lines, might make
a temporary connection to a remote
network from a computer in a home or
small office.
• In both temporary and permanent
cases, computers that connect over
wide area circuits must use a modem
or channel service unit/data service
unit (CSU/DSU) at each end of the
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)

• The public telephone system,

sometimes referred to as plain old
telephone service (POTS), is a
circuit-switched communications
• When a telephone call is placed in
this type of network, only one
physical path is used between the
telephones for the duration of that
• This pathway is maintained for the
exclusive use of the call, until the
connection is ended and the
telephone is hung up.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)

• In a packet-switched
network, each individual
packet of data can take a
different route and no
dedicated pathway or circuit
is established.
Adding a Network Interface Card (NIC)
What is a NIC?

• A network interface card (NIC)

is a device that plugs into a
motherboard and provides
ports for the network cable
• It is the computer interface
with the LAN.
• The NIC communicates with
the network through serial
connections and
communicates with the
computer through parallel
Setting the IP Address

• In a (TCP/IP)-based LAN, PCs use

an IP address to identify each other.
• These addresses allow computers
that are attached to the network to
locate each other.
• IP addresses for hosts on a LAN can
be assigned in two ways:
1. Manually assigned by the network
2. Assigned by a Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server
DHCP Servers

• The most common and efficient way for

computers on a large network to obtain
an IP address is through a Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
• DHCP is a software utility that runs on a
computer and is designed to assign IP
addresses to PCs.
• When the DHCP server receives a
request from a host, it selects IP
address information from a set of
predefined addresses that are stored in
its database.
Default Gateway

• A computer located on one

network segment that is
trying to talk to another
computer on a different
segment sends the data
through a default gateway.
• The default gateway is the
“near side” interface of the
router, the interface on the
router to which the network
segment or wire of the local
computer is attached.
Domain Name System

• Most hosts are identified on the

Internet by friendly computer names
known as domain names.
• The Domain Name System (DNS) is
used to translate computer names
such as to their
corresponding unique IP address.
• The DNS server keeps records that
map computer (host) names and their
corresponding IP address. These
record types are all combined in the
DNS table.
Physical Components of a Network
Network Topologies

• The network topology defines the

way in which computers, printers,
and other devices are connected. A
network topology describes the
layout of the wire and devices as
well as the paths used by data
• Commonly referred to as a linear
bus, all the devices on a bus
topology are connected by one
single cable.
Network Topologies

• The star topology is the most commonly

used architecture in Ethernet LANs.
• When installed, the star topology
resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel.
• Larger networks use the extended star
topology. When used with network
devices that filter frames or packets,
like bridges, switches, and routers, this
topology significantly reduces the traffic
on the wires by sending packets only to
the wires of the destination host.
Network Topologies

• A frame travels around the ring, stopping

at each node. If a node wants to transmit
data, it adds the data as well as the
destination address to the frame.
• The frame then continues around the ring
until it finds the destination node, which
takes the data out of the frame.
– Single ring – All the devices on the network
share a single cable
– Dual ring – The dual ring topology allows
data to be sent in both directions although
only one ring is used at a time.
Network Topologies

• The mesh topology connects

all devices (nodes) to each
other for redundancy and fault
• It is used in WANs to
interconnect LANs and for
mission critical networks like
those used by governments.
• Implementing the mesh
topology is expensive and
Physical versus Logical Topology

• Networks have both a

physical and logical
– Physical topology –the
layout of the devices and
– Logical topology – the
paths that signals travel
from one point on the
network to another.
– The way in which data
accesses media and
transmits packets across it.
Networking Media

• Networking media can be defined

simply as the means by which
signals (data) are sent from one
computer to another (either by cable
or wireless means).
• Coaxial cable is a copper-cored
cable surrounded by a heavy
shielding and is used to connect
computers in a network.
• There are several types of coaxial
cable, including thicknet, thinnet,
RG-59 (standard cable for cable
TV), and RG-6 (used in video
Networking Media

• Twisted-pair is a type of cabling

that is used for telephone
communications and most modern
Ethernet networks.
• A pair of wires forms a circuit that
can transmit data. The pairs are
twisted to provide protection
against crosstalk, the noise
generated by adjacent pairs.
• There are two basic types,
shielded twisted-pair (STP) and
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP).
Networking Media

• UTP comes in several categories that are based on

the number of wires and number of twists in those

• Category 3 is the wiring used primarily for telephone


• Category 5 and Category 5e are currently the most

common Ethernet cables used.
Networking Media

• Fiber-optic cable is a
networking medium capable
of conducting modulated
light transmissions.
• Fiber-optic refers to cabling
that has a core of strands of
glass or plastic (instead of
copper), through which light
pulses carry signals.
• Signals that represent data
are converted into beams of
Networking Media

• If the cost of running cables is

too high or computers need to
be movable without being
tethered to cables, wireless is
an alternative method of
connecting a LAN.
• Wireless networks use radio
frequency (RF), laser, infrared
(IR), and satellite/microwaves
to carry signals from one
computer to another without a
permanent cable connection.
Common Networking Devices

• A hub is a device that is

used to extend an Ethernet
wire to allow more devices
to communicate with each
• Hubs are most commonly
used in Ethernet 10BASE-T
or 100BASE-T networks,
although there are other
network architectures that
use them.
Common Networking Devices

• Bridges connect network segments.

• The basic functionality of the bridge
resides in its ability to make intelligent
decisions about whether to pass signals
on to the next segment of a network.
• A switch is a more sophisticated device
than a bridge, although the basic
function of the switch is deceptively
• Ethernet switches are becoming
popular connectivity solutions because
they increase network performance.
Common Networking Devices

• Routers are slower than

bridges and switches, but
make “smart” decisions on
how to route (or send)
packets received on one
port to a network on
another port.
• Routers contain tables of
network addresses along
with optimal destination
routes to other networks.
Server Components

• Server components are

those components that are
used exclusively with the
network server. End users
depend on the server to
provide the services
• To keep the server running
at it is optimal performance,
a higher level of preventive
maintenance must be
LAN Architectures

• The Ethernet architecture is based on the IEEE 802.3

standard. The IEEE 802.3 standard specifies that a
network implements the Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access
control method.
• Standard transfer rates are 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps,
but new standards provide for gigabit Ethernet, which
are capable of attaining speeds up to 1 Gbps over
fiber-optic cable or other high-speed media.

• 10BASE-T uses a star

• The 10 stands for the
common transmission
speed of 10 MBps, the
"BASE" stands for
baseband mode, and the
"T" stands for twisted pair

• 100BASE-X comes in
several different varieties.
• It can be implemented over
4-pair Category 3, 4, or 5
UTP (100BASE-T).
• It can also be implemented
over 4-pair Category 5 UTP
or Shielded Twisted Pair
(STP) (100BASE-TX), or as
Ethernet over 2-strand fiber-
optic cable (100BASE-FX).

• 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet.

• This architecture supports data transfer rates of 1 Gbps.

Token Ring

• The Token Ring standards are

defined in IEEE 802.5.
• A Token Ring network uses a token
(that is, a special signal) to control
access to the cable.
– A token is initially generated when
the first computer on the network
comes online.
– When a computer wants to transmit,
it waits for and then takes control of
the token when it comes its way.
– The token can travel in either
direction around the ring, but only in
one direction at a time.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

• FDDI is a type of Token Ring

• It runs on fiber-optic cable, and
thus combines high-speed
performance with the
advantages of the token-
passing ring topology.
• It runs at 100 Mbps, and its
topology is a dual ring.
• The outer ring is called the
primary ring and the inner ring is
called the secondary ring.
Networking Protocols and the OSI Model
OSI Model Overview

• The Open Systems

Interconnection (OSI)
reference model is an
industry standard
framework that is used to
divide the functions of
networking into seven
distinct layers.
• Each layer provides specific
services to the layers above
and below it in order for the
network to work effectively.
OSI Model Overview

• A message begins at the top

application layer and moves down
the OSI layers to the bottom
physical layer.
• As the message descends, each
successive OSI model layer adds a
header to it.
• A header is layer-specific
information that basically explains
what functions the layer carried out.
• Conversely, at the receiving end,
headers are striped from the
message as it travels up the
corresponding layers.
What is a Protocol?

• Protocol is a controlled
sequence of messages that
is exchanged between two
or more systems to
accomplish a given task.
• Protocol specifications
define this sequence
together with the format or
layout of the messages that
are exchanged.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

• The Transmission Control

Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) suite of protocols
has become the dominant
standard for inter-
• TCP/IP represents a set
of public standards that
specify how packets of
information are
exchanged between
computers over one or
more networks.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Internetwork Packet
Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
• Internetwork Packet
Packet Exchange
(IPX/SPX) is the
protocol suite employed
originally by Novell®.
• It delivers functions
similar to those included
in TCP/IP.

• NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is a

protocol used primarily on small Windows NT

• NetBEUI is a simple protocol that lacks many of the

features that enable protocol suites such as
TCP/IP to be used on networks of almost any size.

• AppleTalk is comprised of a
e set of protocols that span
the seven layers of the OSI
reference model.
• AppleTalk protocols were
designed to run over the
major LAN types, notably
Ethernet and Token Ring,
and also Apple's own LAN
physical topology, LocalTalk.
TCP/IP Utilities

• TCP/IP is a complex
collection of protocols.
• Most vendors implement
the suite to include a variety
of utilities for viewing
configuration information
and troubleshooting

• Ping works by sending an ICMP echo request to the

destination computer.
• The receiving computer then sends back an ICMP
echo reply message
• It is also possible to use Ping to find the IP address of
a host when the name is known.

• Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

is the means by which networked
computers map Internet Protocol
(IP) addresses to physical hardware
(MAC) addresses that are
recognized in a local network.
• Machines that do not know their IP
addresses use Reverse Address
Resolution Protocol (RARP).
• It is used to obtain IP address
information based on the physical
or MAC address.

• Nslookup returns the IP address for a given


• It will also do the reverse and find the host name

for a specified IP address.

• The netstat command is used in Windows and UNIX/Linux

to display TCP/IP connection and protocol information.

• The netstat command provides a list of connections that

are currently active.

• Netstat statistics can be useful in troubleshooting TCP/IP

connectivity problems.

• The Microsoft TCP/IP

stacks included in
Windows operating
systems provide the
nbtstat utility, which is
used to display NetBIOS
Ipconfig, winipcfg, config, and ifconfig

• TCP/IP configuration
information can be
displayed using different
• Ipconfig – Windows NT
and Windows 2000
• Winipcfg –- Windows 95,
98, and ME (graphical
• Ifconfig – UNIX and Linux
Tracert, iptrace, and traceroute

• It is often useful to trace the

route a packet takes on its
journey from source computer
to destination host.
• TCP/IP stacks include a route
tracing utility that enables users
to identify the routers through
which the message passes.
• The options depend on the
operating system:
– Tracert
– Iptrace
– Traceroute
Connecting to the Internet
Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial lines
• Synchronous serial transmission – Data
bits are sent together with a synchronizing
clock pulse. Built-in timing mechanism
coordinates the clocks of the sending and
receiving devices.
• Asynchronous serial transmission –
Data bits are sent without a synchronizing
clock pulse. Uses a start bit at the
beginning of each message. When the
receiving device gets the start bit, it can
synchronize its internal clock with the
sender clock.

• The modem is an electronic

device that is used for computer
communications through
telephone lines.
• It allows data transfer between
one computer and another.
• There are four main types of
– Expansion cards
– External modems
– Built-in modems
Dial-Up Networking,
Modem Standards, AT Commands
• When computers use the public
telephone system or network to
communicate, it is called Dial-Up
Networking (DUN).
• All modems require software to control
the communication session.
• The set of commands that most
modem software uses are known as
the Hayes-compatible command set.
The Hayes command set is based on a
group of instructions that always begins
with a set of attention characters (AT).
ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers

• Services of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) are

required to surf the Internet.

• An ISP is a company that connects computers to

the Internet and World Wide Web.

• The actual connection to the Internet is tiered.

• The ISP may link to a larger regional ISP, which in

turn might connect to one of a number of
nationwide computer centers.
ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers

• The current U.S. Internet

infrastructure consists of a
commercial backbone and a high-
speed service known as the Very
High-Speed Backbone Network
Service (vBNS).
• The vBNS connects five
supercomputer networks across the
– UUNET - a division of WorldCom
– Cable & Wireless USA
– Sprint
– AT&T
– BBN Planet
ISPs and Internet Backbone Providers

• The ISP that cannot connect

directly to the national backbone
is charged a fee to connect to a
regional provider that links to the
national backbone through a
Network Access Point (NAP).
• Not all the Internet traffic goes
through NAPs.
• Some ISPs that are in the same
geographic area make their own
interconnections and peering
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

• Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is an always-on

technology. This means there is no need to dial up
each time to connect to the Internet.

• DSL comes in several varieties:

– Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)
– High Data Rate DSL (HDSL)
– Symmetric DSL (SDSL)
– Very High Data Rate DSL (VDSL)
Cable Modems

• A cable modem acts like a

LAN interface by connecting
a computer to the Internet.

• The cable modem connects

a computer to the cable
company network through
the same coaxial cabling
that feeds cable TV (CATV)
signals to a television set.
Cable Modem versus
DSL Internet Technologies

• When it comes to
comparing cable modem
and DSL Internet
technologies, both have
their pros and cons.

• Another alternative to using analog

telephones lines to establish a
connection is ISDN.
• Speed is one advantage ISDN has
over telephone line connections.
• ISDN uses a pair of 64Kbps digital
lines to connect, which provides a
total of 128Kbps throughput.
• A telephone line connects at a
maximum speed of 56Kbps, and in
some areas, doesn’t even reach that.

• Satellite is an option for users in

rural areas or with no other access
to high speed Internet service.
• Satellite Internet does not require
a phone line or cable. Two‑way
communication, for upload and
download, is achieved with the
use of a satellite dish.
• Download speed is up to 500
kbps while the upload speed is
one‑tenth of that of that.
Scope in Networking

• All IT/ITES based companies require

• In software Industry also there are
Networking Programmers
• Not only IT companies need network all
of them need network to reduce
Career Certifications

Microsoft Certifications

Cisco Certifications

Microsoft Certifications

M.C.P – Microsoft Certified Professional

M.C.S.A - Microsoft Certified System Administrator (4 Papers)

M.C.S.E - Microsoft Certified System Engineer (7 papers)

Cisco Certifications

• CCNA – Cisco Certified Network

CCIE Associate
• CCNP – Cisco certified Network
CCNP Professional
• CCIE – Cisco Certified Internetwork