Learning objectives
 Euro

Money  Euro Deposits  Euro Currency  Euro Banking/ International Banking  Loan Syndicate (Syndication)


Euro Money
 Concept

of money  Why Euro money?  How it is created?  Reasons for growth of the market.


3-4 .Concept of Money  Capable of being used as medium of exchange  Possible to store value through the asset  Serves as unit of account  It can be used as means of deferred payment.

Why Euro Money?  The international operations in capital markets & the need to undertake foreign exchange transactions in order to consummate the transfer of financial claims & that there is absence of any unified world legal framework for settlement of such claims. 3-5 . the market came into existence.

i.  Ex-US dollar held in Paris qualifies as Euro currency.How Euro money is created? A national currency becomes part of offshore currency market when it is transferred to a bank outside its own monetary system. 3-6 . transferred to a bank outside the nation in question.e.

Reasons for the growth of the Euro money market.
 Depositors

receive better terms than they can otherwise obtain at home (i.e. better interest rates on deposits than home interest rates).  Borrowers can borrow more , possibly at lower interest rates than they can at home ( on shore).


comprises of Euro deposits and Euro-currency.

Euro Deposits
 Concept  Nature  Reasons

for the growth of the market.


 More risky as beyond the control of domestic banking authority.Euro Deposits  The deposits denominated in currencies made outside the domestic banking system operation are called as Euro deposits. when a currency deposit is made in a bank outside the jurisdiction of the central bank which issued the currency is termed as Euro deposit. 3-10 .  Thus.

 Interest rates fluctuates in response to demand & supply pressures.  They are non-negotiable (unless specified).  Can be made in currencies like ECU / SDR.  Interest rates on such deposits are fixed.  Term is short. 3-11 .Nature of Euro deposits  They are primarily conventional short term deposits (30 days or 90 days).

e.Reasons for the growth of the Euro deposit market. 3-12 .  Borrowers can borrow more . better interest rates on deposits than home interest rates).  Depositors receive better terms than they can otherwise obtain at home (i. possibly at lower interest rates than they can at home ( on shore).

Euro Currency           Concept Creation Growth Features Functions The Euro markets Attraction Drawbacks Difference between Domestic & Euro Currency markets Difference between Eurobonds & Eurocurrency loans. 3-13 .

which continuous to call it a major cause of inflation & an obstacle to their control of domestic monetary systems.  Thus it is a non-domestic financial intermediary. 3-14 .WHAT IS EURO-CURRENCY?  Euro-currency is any currency banked outside its country of origin.  It is extremely large & has grown rapidly in a short interval.  It has received a bad press from Central Banks.

Creation of Euro Currency  One can take the physical currency of a country & deposit it in a bank in another country. This may well be an overseas subsidiary of the very same bank with which the original deposit was held.  One can transfer deposits from within the country whose currency is in question to an offshore bank. Banks do hold currency of other countries but mainly for the convenience of travelers. 3-15 .

Eastern Europeans. Currency deposited by national governments or corporations in banks outside their home market. afraid US would seize deposits to reimburse claims for business losses as a result of Communist takeover of Eastern Europe. This applies to any currency and to banks in any country. 3-16 .Growth of Euro-Currency  Growth   1950s.

Other Events : – 1957 prohibited banks from financing non-British trade.  Oil crisis – 1970s led to huge amount of dollars amassed by OPEC countries.S. Gave opportunity to those who wanted to deposit or borrow dollars (later. – 1960s discouraged banks from lending to non-US residents. as well). They did not want them to be in the US because they were afraid that they would be confiscated by the US government. other currencies.  U.  Britain 3-17  .

Growth of Euro-Currency  Growth   depositors receive better terms than they can receive onshore. borrowers can borrow more. than they can onshore. possibly at power rates. 3-18 .

3-19 .Features of Euro Currency Market  Points of difference between the Euro currency & Domestic currency market.

Functions of Euro Currency Market  Foreign exchange hedging  Domestic intermediation  International inetrmediation 3-20 .

The most important international financial markets today. Composed of Euro-banks who accept/maintain deposits of foreign currency 2.The Euro Markets .  A) The Eurocurrency Market 1. Dominant currency: US$ 3-21 .

Rules which restrict bank competition. Required concessionary loan rates 4. Special charges and taxes 3. 3-22 . Interest rate ceilings 5. Reserve requirements on deposits 2. especially 1. B) Growth of Eurodollar Market caused by restrictive US government policies.

. Six month rollovers Risk indicator: size of margin between cost and rate charged. C) Eurodollar Creation involves 1. Eurocurrency loans a.LIBOR as basic rate b.Multicurrency clause a. 4. Changing control/usage of deposit 3. Reduces exchange rate risk 3-23 b. c. Clause gives borrower option to switch currency of loan at rollover. Use London Inter-bank Offer Rate. A chain of deposits 2.

3-24 . dollars but not subject to U.  For the most part.S. banks offering Euro dollar deposits are located outside the U.S.Euro Dollar  Thus euro dollars are bank deposit liabilities denominated in U.S banking regulations.

 D) Eurobonds Bonds sold outside the country of currency denomination. Links to Domestic Bond Markets arbitrage has eliminated interest rate differential. 3. a financial instrument which gives 2 parties the right to exchange streams of income over time. Placement underwritten by syndicates of banks 3-25 . Recent Substantial Market Growth -due to currency swaps. 1. 2.

3-26 . other currencies.ATTRACTION Lack of government regulation.  Reserve restrictions are less costly.  Pay higher interest rates.  Gave opportunity to those who wanted to deposit or borrow dollars (later.  Charge lower rates. as well).

 Unregulated system could result in loss of deposits. 3-27 .DRAWBACKS  Probability of bank failure (low).  Foreign exchange risk.

Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market.  Central banks are gradually feeling their way towards some partial solutions of this problem. 3-28 . 1)  The absence of reserve requirements in Euro currency market means the absence of direct control by Central Banks. but the situation is certainly not as clear-cut as in each country's domestic markets.

telexes & increasingly by computerized information systems. the Euro market does not exit in any particular location.Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market. It consists of participants all around the world linked together by telephones. 2)  The absence of international character means that like the foreign exchange market. 3-29 .

3)  There are number of problems in euro currency market as compared to domestic market such as jurisdiction. booking a loan in one centre rather than another is merely legitimate tax planning or tax evasion etc.s 3-30 .Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market. the acceptability of a freeze on deposits in one country by another country whose currency is being traded in the first country.

 Thus it is got relative freedom from regulations as compared to domestic markets. 4)  The Euro currency market is purely wholesale market as compared to domestic market which is retain banking market.Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market. 3-31 .

That is. 3-32 . each deposit (liability) of an international bank will tend to be matched by an asset (usually a deposit in another bank) of the same currency & of similar maturity. 5)  The Euro currency market is almost exclusively concerned with matched deposit dealing.Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market.

This is very different from a domestic market where typically large amounts of lending are done on the basis of a prime (or base) rate. with these loans being funded day to day in the domestic overnight or short-date money market or from normal customer deposits.Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market. 6)  In Euro currency market loans are typically made for specific period & funded by a deposit of a similar period. 3-33 .

7)  In Euro currency market as compared to domestic deposits are time deposits at fixed interest rates. usually of short maturity. 3-34 .Difference between Euro currency market & Domestic money market. Many of these deposits are on call . thus these can be withdrawn without notice.

Bonds have greater volume d. Loans obtained faster 3-35 .Difference between Eurobond vs. Loans have shorter maturities c. Eurocurrency loans use variable rates b. Loans have greater flexibility e. Eurocurrency loans  Five Differences a.

Euro Banking  Concept  Features  Risk in Euro Banks  Euro Banking & the Central Bank 3-36 .

this will also mean that it deals in currencies other than those of the country in which it is located.  Usually.Concept of Euro Banking  Euro Bank is a financial intermediary that bids for time deposits & makes loans in the offshore market. 3-37 .

Concept of Euro Banking  It can be created in two ways1) One can take the physical currency of a country out of the country & deposit it in a bank of another country. 2) A national currency deposit becomes part of the offshore currency market when it is transferred to a bank outside the controlled national monetary system. 3-38 .

3-39 .  Unprofitable in nature.Features of Euro Banking  Unregulated institutions  Not subject to interest rates ceilings.  Less subject to pressures from government.  Are subject to greater risk than domestic banks.  Advantage of low tax location  Margins are low & overheads cost low.

Risks of Euro Banking  Exchange Rate Risk-due to assets & liabilities denominated in different foreign currencies. 3-40 .  Default Risk-default in payments-especially in case of MNCs & governments.  Interest Rate Risk-mismatch of maturity between assets & liabilities as deposits are short term & lending is long term.

They are While the central banks have a stronger control on credit creation but this control is lost when the banking business slips to offshore markets. 3-41 .Euro Banking & the Central Bank. The central banks often voice their concern about the offshore markets.

they make convenient scapegoats for failures of nerve in the handling of domestic monetary policy. They are As the euro markets are still viewed by the press & the public as mysterious & omnipotent.Euro Banking & the Central Bank. 3-42 . The central banks often voice their concern about the offshore markets.

they have no control over allocation of credit in the offshore capital market. With the Euro banking in place. as the banking business slips to offshore markets . Thus. the control on money supply declines.Euro Banking & the Central Bank. They are The central bank has control over the allocation of credit if there is no euro banking. The central banks often voice their concern about the offshore markets. 3-43 .

Euro Banking & the Central Bank. 3-44 . They are There exits a strong arbitrage connection between the domestic & offshore markets because the interest rate differentials exist between these two markets. The central banks often voice their concern about the offshore markets. It will be possible only when the deposit rate of one market is greater than the lending rate of the other market.

3-45 . the funds may be shifted from the domestic markets to offshore markets.Euro Banking & the Central Bank. to avoid these regulations . The central banks often voice their concern about the offshore markets. They are Suppose CRR is changed for controlling credit by impounding a larger portion of fresh deposits. to avoid this regulation the funds may be siphoned to offshore markets. Similarly.

Loan Syndicate (syndication)  Concept  Nature  Advantages & Disadvantages  Participants  Charges on these loans  Quoting spreads in syndication  Loan syndication procedure in India 3-46 .

formed by a manager (or a group of comanagers).Concept of Loan Syndicate A loan syndicate is a high structured group of financial institutions (primary banks). 3-47 . which agree to lend a specific amount of loan or money on common terms & conditions to a borrower.  It involves a small group of knowledgeable & well capitalised banks that agree initially to provide the entire loan.

 Are of revolving credit type. It is a major negotiating point between the borrowers & the lead bank.  Repayment of the loan are made in accordance with an amortisation schedule.  Flexibility.  Loan attached with grace period.Nature of Loan Syndicate  It is a term loan  It has drawndown period. 3-48 .

BOA. reduces risk of international lending.  3-49 . guarantees by parent company & host Government on loans to affiliates etc.  Improved risk-return performance because can diversify loans by country & type of customer.Advantages of Loan Syndicate Highly profitable & positive impact on the earnings of the banks-ex-Citicorp.  High credit standing  Safeguards such as credit insurance programmes.

Disadvantages of Loan Syndicate  Risk analysis is highly complex  It did not anticipate dramatic increase in country risk Advantages of Loan Syndicate  Some bankers have relaxed their credit standards to compensate for weak domestic demand & commercial demand for loans. 3-50 .  Many loans are short term variable loans – raise the question of the ability of debtor country to service their external debt.

This type of loan does not improve the debtors country’s ability to generate foreign exchange earnings.  The ultimate purpose of some loans is to finance balance of payments deficit.Disadvantages of Loan Syndicate  If borrowings countries ae unable to meet their obligations on time. the banks will be forced to roll over their loans indefinitely. 3-51 .

3-52 .Participants of Loan Syndicate  Lead Banks  Managing Banks  Participating Banks  There is a separate group called comanagers.

Charges on Loan Syndicates  Front end fees  Agents annual fees 3-53 .

5%1% of the value of the loan. 3-54 .Charges on Loan Syndicates Front end fees  They are one off charges negotiated in advance & imposed when the loan agreement is signed.  These fees are usually in the range of 0.  The fee may be higher if the borrower insists upon obtaining funds at a lower spread than warranted by market conditions & creditworthiness.

 Each of these amount to 0.25%-0.  Participation fees are divided between the underwriting bank & the lead bank (takes the premium on the entire loan). 3-55 .5% of the entire amount of loan.  The rest is of the management fees is divided among the managing banks in proportion to the amount each agrees to underwrite prior to sysdication.Charges on Loan Syndicates Front end fees  It consists of participation fees & management fees.

Charges on Loan Syndicates  Front end fees = Lead bank premium (TL) + Participation fee + management fee + initial agents fee (if any) WhereTL= Total loan UDL= undrawn loan 3-56 .

WhereTL= Total loan UDL= undrawn loan 3-57 .Charges on Loan Syndicates Agents annual fees Annual payments= (LIBOR + spread) ( TL)+ commitment fee (UDL) + annual agents fee (if any) + tax adjustment (if any) + reserve requirement adjustment (if any).

spreads decline and maturities become lengthier.Quoting Spreads in Loan Syndicate  Spreads & maturities are heavily influenced by market conditions.  Converse is true when market conditions are tight.  In period when market conditions are relatively easy. 3-58 .

3-59 .  Relative loan demand pressures in domestic markets  Changes in the competitive structure of the syndicated credit market  The borrowers risk.Quoting Spreads in Loan Syndicate Factors that need consideration The present level of interest rates  The banks capital / asset ratios  The volatility of interest rates  Liquidity considerations attributable to the amount of non-bank deposits entering the euro market.

the borrower can refinance & therefore should not object to accepting higher spreads for longer maturities.  The high level of nominal interest rate implies a narrower absolute spread. 3-60 .Quoting Spreads in Loan Syndicate  Spreads if widen over time.  Is the spread narrow. lenders are locked into a long maturity loan at the old spread.

the opportunity cost of reserve requirements if higher. The 2 reasons areIf borrowers are sensitive to the total interest cost on syndicated loans banks may be forced to lower spreads to compensate for higher LIBOR when faced with an expected fall in demand. In period of high nominal interest rates . Banks are expected to equate marginal cost of all the sources of funds. 3-61 .Quoting Spreads in Loan Syndicate  1) 2) There may be inverse relationship between interest rates & Spreads.

Loan syndication procedure in India Step-1  To begin with the borrowing company starts with working out the investment proposal along with details of financing plans & obtain government approval for both. 3-62 . The financing plans are approved with a broad set of parameters so that some flexibility is left for the borrower.

the borrower than gives ‘mandate’ to the bank which has quoted the best overall terms. Suppose this bank is Hong Kong Bank.Loan syndication procedure in India Step-2  The borrower then calls for quotations from leading foreign banks & usually also from the major domestic banks (such as SBI in India) for overseas component of financing plan. Based on the quotations . 3-63 .

the viability of the project. The idea of this memorandum is to get a relatively large number of Euro banks interested in loan proposal. cash flows & other relevant information. The loan is then marketed to a large number of participating banks who wish to commit funds & time to a project if they find it attractive enough. which presents in details. This document is called the ‘placement memorandum’. 3-64 .Loan syndication procedure in India Step-3  Hong Kong Bank then prepares a document for examination by a set of banks to be associated as managing banks. the project for which the loan is being sought.

the lead banks prepares the necessary legal documents & gets them signed by company officials. 3-65 .Loan syndication procedure in India Step-4  Once the syndicate group is formed & the necessary commitments are obtained from the group members.

3-66 .Loan syndication procedure in India Step-5  Once the fourth step is completed the disbursement of the funds starts to the client in accordance with the mutually agreed conditions.

default circumstances. interest rate & its determination. amortization. warranties & undertakings.Loan agreement  It is signed by all participating banks & the borrower. the purpose of the loan. laws & jurisdiction & finally the relationship between the agent bank & the paticipating banks. . various types of fees & their payments. maturity.  It describes the basic transactions. drawdown arrangements. 3-67 . financial covenants.

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