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Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

ABC Company ABC Chemical Complex Engineering Specification


ABC Chemical Complex 1

Hazardous Liquid Pipelines


1.0 SCOPE
Covers the design, materials, fabrication, construction, inspection, testing, operations, maintenance, and safety aspects of hazardous liquid pipeline systems Also covers the components including, but not limited to, pipe, relief devices, valves, fittings, flanges, bolting, gaskets, hangars, and supports.
ABC Chemical Complex 2

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EXCLUSIONS

Auxiliary piping such as water, air, steam, lubricating oil, gas, and fuel Pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, meters, and other equipment not in scope Petroleum refinery, natural gasoline, gas processing, ammonia, carbon dioxide processing, and bulk plant piping covered in the scope of ASME/ANSI B31.3, Plant Piping.
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Exclusions

(Continued)

Gas transmission and distribution piping systems covered under ASME/ANSI B31.8 Piping at or below 15 psi Piping above 15 psi if design temperature is below -20oF or above 250oF Design and fabrication of proprietary items of equipment, apparatus, or equipment
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INTENT

Provide engineering specifications for safe construction, operation, maintenance, and inspection of ABC hazardous liquid pipelines Shall meet or exceed the requirements in ASME/ANSI B31.4 and DOT 49CFR195 Not retroactive for existing pipelines which shall be inspected and tested to the Code used in original design and construction.
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3.0 PIPING SYSTEMS DEFINITIONS
General Terms (14) Piping Systems (20) Pressure Relief Stations and Regulators (3) Valves (2) Pipe and Piping Terms (2) Dimensional Terms (3) Mechanical Properties (5) Steel Pipe (3)
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4.0 DESIGN, FABRICATION, OPERATION, AND TESTING TERMS
Uprating (1) Pressure Terms (8) Temperature Terms (3) Stress Terms (5)

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5.0 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
Acceptable Materials and Specifications Marking Material Specifications
Steel Pipe Fittings

Transportation of Line Pipe Conditions for Reuse of Line Pipe


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6.0 WELDING
Welding Terms Preparation for Welding
Safe Practices in Cutting and Welding Welding Processes and Filler Metal Welding Qualifications Qualification Records Material Limitations Welder Requalification Requirements Qualification Records (WPS, PQR, Welder)
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7.0 Design Conditions
Provides a set of standards covering
Specifications for, and selection of, equipment and piping components Acceptable methods of making branch connections Provisions for temperature changes Approved methods for support and anchorage of exposed and buried piping systems.

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Hazardous Liquid Pipelines


Design

Conditions (Continued)

Exclusions
Pipe Materials (Section 5) Welding Procedures (Section 6) Installation and Testing of Piping Systems

Special Engineering Stresses Not Specifically Covered in Specification


River crossings, inland coastal water areas, bridges, areas of heavy traffic, long self-supported spans, unstable ground, vibration, earthquake, thermal, etc.
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Allowable

Stress Values

S = 0.72 x E x SMYS, psi (MPa)


where 0.72 = design factor E = weld joint factor, normally 1

Allowable stress values shall be determined for


Used pipe or new/used pipe of unknown or ASTM 120 specifications Pipe which is cold worked to meet SMYS and reheated to 600oF or higher shall be 75% of applicable stress value
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Allowable

Stress Values (Continued)

In shear shall not exceed 45% SMYS In bearing shall not exceed 90% SMYS Structural supports and restraints shall not exceed 66% SMYS Structural supports and restraints of unknown piping specifications shall be assigned an SMYS of 24,000 psi or less
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Limits

of Calculated Stresses Due to Sustained Loads and Thermal Expansion


Internal Pressure Stresses External Pressure Stresses Allowable Expansion Stresses Additive Longitudinal Stresses Additive Circumferential Stresses Due to Occasional Loads
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Limits

of Calculated Stresses Due to Occasional Loads


Operation
Sum of longitudinal stresses produced by pressure, live and dead loads, and occasional loads, i.e. wind and earthquake shall not exceed 80% SMYS

Test
Stress due to test conditions are not subject to above limitations
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Limitations

on Design Pressure, P

Shall not exceed 85% of mill test pressure Alternatively, shall not exceed 85% of field test pressure if mill tests are not available
Limitations

on SMYS

Used pipe from Company stock with known specifications may be assigned full S value An S value = 24,000 psi shall be assigned to pipe with unknown specifications
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Additional Requirements for Nominal Wall Thickness, t


Shall not be reduced to less than 90% of the design thickness under any circumstances

Allowances

Corrosion (Not required if corrosion controlled) Threading and Grooving Weld Joint Factors Wall Thickness and Defect Tolerances
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ABC Chemical Complex

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Straight

Pipe Under Internal Pressure

Design wall thickness of steel pipe shall be calculated by the following equation
t = PiD/2S where Pi=internal design gage pressure D=outside diameter of pipe, in. S=applicable allowable stress value, psi

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Additional

Pressure Design Considerations

Flanges, Reducers, Fittings, Elbows, Bends, and Intersections Closures


Quick Opening Closures Closure Fittings Closure Heads Fabricated Closures Bolted Blind Flange Connections
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Expansion

and Flexibility

Means of Providing Flexibility Amount of Expansion Properties


Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (6.5x10-6in./in./oF) Modulus of Elasticity (29x106 psi) Poissons Ratio (0.3 for steel)
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Design

of Pipe Supporting Elements Combined Stress Calculations


Restrained Pipelines Unrestrained Pipelines Analysis
Basic Assumptions and Requirements

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8.0 CONSTRUCTION
Construction Specifications Inspection Provisions Right-of-Way Handling, Hauling, Stringing, and Storing Damage to Fabricated Items and Pipe Ditching Welding Tie In
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CONSTRUCTION (Continued)
Installation of Pipe in Ditch Backfilling Hot Taps Restoration of Right-of-Way and Cleanup Special Crossings Block and Isolating Valves Mainline Valves Scraper Traps
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CONSTRUCTION (Continued)
Line Markers Corrosion Control Pump Station, Tank Farm, and Terminal Construction Storage and Working Tankage Electrical Installations Liquid Metering Liquid Strainers and Filters

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Hazardous Liquid Pipelines


9.0 INSPECTION
General
Shall assure compliance with material, construction, welding, assembly, and testing requirements of ABC Specifications, ASME/ANSI B31.4 and DOT 49CFR 195

Qualification of Inspectors
Inspection personnel shall be qualified by training and experience to the criteria in API 570
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Inspection Services
Right-of-way and grading Ditching Line up and pipe surface inspection Welding Coating Cathodic protection Tie-in and lowering

Backfilling & cleanup Pressure testing Station construction River crossings Electrical installation Radiography Corrosion control
external internal

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Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

Inspection Services
Backfilling & cleanup Pressure testing Station construction River crossings Electrical installation Radiography Corrosion control
external internal

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Hazardous Liquid Pipelines


Type

and Extent of Examination Required

Visual
Material-mechanical damage Permanent records: Location of pipe, wall thickness, type, specification, and manufacturer

Construction
Surface defects: before coating operation and during lowering-in and backfilling operations Pipe swabbing operation
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Proper alignment and condition of weld joint surface before welding Inspect stringer bead for cracks Remove irregularities on weld cap to prevent coating damage Inspect all repairs, changes, or replacements prior to backfilling operation Inspect fit of pipe to ditch prior to backfilling Inspect backfilling operations for quality and compaction of backfill, placement of material for erosion control, and possible coating damage
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Inspect cased crossings during installation to assure that the carrier pipe is supported, sealed, and insulated from the casing Inspect piping components other than pipe to insure damage-free condition and proper installation

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Supplementary

Types of Examination

Weld inspection and testing


Complete in accordance with ABC Specs and ASME/ANSI B31.4

Weld defect and repair


Complete in accordance with ABC Specs and ASME/ANSI B31.4

Coatings
Use ABC Specs and ASME/ANSI B31.4
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9.2 TESTING
Testing of Fabricated Items Testing After New Construction
Systems or Parts of Systems Testing Tie-Ins Testing Controls and Protective Equipment

Hydrostatic Testing of Internal Pressure Piping


Hydrotest to 1.25 times the internal design pressure for at least four (4) hours Use API 1110 for guidance in hydrostatic tests
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Treat hydrotest water with a bactericide and corrosion inhibitor Relieve excess pressure during the test as required Hydrotesting with gas or nonvolatile hydrocarbons is not permitted on ABC projects without written permission from Company management

Leak Testing
Reduce hydrotest pressure to design pressure and hold for an additional eight (8) hours

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Qualification Tests for Pipe


Visual Examination Bending Properties Determination of Wall Thickness Determination of Weld Joint Factor Weldability Determination of Yield Strength Minimum Yield Strength Value Records
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10.0 Operation and Maintenance Plans and Procedures
Written detailed plans and training programs for employees Plan for external and internal corrosion control Written emergency plan Plan for reviewing changes in conditions affecting the integrity and safety of the piping system.
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Liaison with local authorities and other pipeline operators to prevent excavation accidents. Procedures to analyze all failures and accidents to determine the cause and prevent recurrence. Record system to administer the plans and procedures. Procedures for abandoning pipelines Procedures to assure public safety in pipeline operation and maintenance
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Operation and maintenance of piping systems in conformance with ABC Specifications, ASME/ANSI B31.4, and DOT 49CFR195. Plan and procedure modifications as required

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Hazardous Liquid Pipelines


10.2 PIPELINE OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
Operating Pressure
The internal design pressure and pressure rating for all components shall not be exceeded in steady state operations. Pressure rise due to surges shall not exceed the internal design pressure at any point in the piping system by more than 10%.
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Requalification of a piping system is required if a higher operating pressure produces a hoop stress more than 20% SMYS. Requirements in paragraph 456, ASME/ANSI B31.4 shall be followed without exception. Derating of a pipeline to a lower operating pressure in lieu of repair or replacement may be completed with the maximum operating pressure determined by paragraph 10.2.7, ABC Specification. Codes in effect during original construction shall be consulted for allowable stress and design criteria.
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Communications Markers Right-of-Way Maintenance Patrolling Pipeline Repairs
Repairs shall be completed in accordance with ABC Specification, Repair of Pipelines. Allowable pipeline repairs and repair methods are summarized in B31.4 and ABC specifications.
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Railroads

and Highways Crossing Existing

Pipelines
Use API 1102 to determine the total stress caused by internal pressure and external loads. If new external pipe loading exceeds 0.72SMYS, Company will install mechanical reinforcement, suitable protection, or increased pipe thickness. Installation of uncased carrier pipe is preferred.
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10.3 PUMP STATION, TERMINAL, AND TANK FARM OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
Pressure limiting devices, regulators, flow controllers, relief valves, and other safety devices shall be inspected annually to determine condition and functionality. Inspect storage tanks in accordance with API 653.
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CORROSION

CONTROL EMERGENCY PLAN RECORDS


Necessary operational data Pipeline patrol records Corrosion records as required by B31.4 Records for routine and/or unusual inspections Pipeline repair records
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10.7 QUALIFYING A PIPING SYSTEM FOR A HIGHER OPERATING PRESSURE
Review initial design and previous testing Determine present condition by leak surveys and other field inspections, examination of maintenance and corrosion control records, or other suitable means. Complete necessary repairs, replacements, or alterations.

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Maximum steady state operating pressure may be increased after compliance with the previous slide and one of the following provisions:
If the condition of the pipeline is consistent with the design and hydrotesting has been completed to a test pressure equal to or higher than required for the new steady state operating pressure, the system is approved for the higher operating pressure. The system is successfully hydrotested to a test pressure required for the higher operating pressure.
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10.8 Abandoning a Piping System
Disconnect all facilities to be abandoned from all transported sources, i.e., other pipelines, meter stations, control lines, and other equipment. Purge all facilities to be abandoned to replace the transported liquid and vapor with an inert material. Seal the ends of the piping system.
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11.0 CORROSION CONTROL
Scope External Corrosion Control Internal Corrosion Control Pipelines in High Temperature Service Stress Corrosion and Other Phenomena Records

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