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The Lithosphere!The Structure of the Earth & Plate Tectonics. Date: 02/08/12.

Lesson Objective ~ To become familiar with the structure of the Earth To look at plates Then volcanoes
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How old is the Earth?


The Earth is 2 million years old 100 million years old 4600 million years old 30 million years old

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"oes the data collected# correlate with the information on the handout$ %f &es'no e(plain reasons wh&

Lets look at internet clip and et some data!

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Cross se tion o! the Earth

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Write your name and form on the worksheet!

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Q: Does this third set of data correlate with the previous two sets of data? Explain with examples. Boardworks Ltd 2003

+nswers,
1.Trenches 2. asalt !.Lithosphere ".#on$ection currents %.&ranite

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+nswers,
1.Trenches 2. asalt !.Lithosphere ".#on$ection currents %.&ranite

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Lets watch the clip

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"late #o$ndaries

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Continental dri!t

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E%iden e !or &late te toni s


1' (t$dy o! !ossils ) similar !ossils are !o$nd on di!!erent ontinents' This is e%iden e that these re*ions were on e %ery lose or +oined to*ether' 2' "attern o! ro ks ) similar &attern o! ro k layers on di!!erent ontinents is e%iden e that the ro ks were on e lose to*ether or +oined' 3' (ha&e o! ontinents !it to*ether like a +i*saw'
,!ri a

(o$th ,meri a
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E%iden e !or &late te toni s


4' /a*neti !ield &attern in iron ontainin* ro ks The re%ersal o! the Earth.s ma*neti !ield is re orded in the ro ks that solidi!y at onstr$ ti%e mar*ins' The symmetry aro$nd the mar*in is e%iden e that the ro ks are mo%in* a&art' onstr$ ti%e mar*in
(- ( ( ( - ( -

&attern same #oth sides


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0hy do the &lates mo%e?

Crust Convention Currents

Mantle

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North American

Eurasian

Pacific African Plate South American Indo Australian Plate Antarctic

Nazca

"late -ames
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African Plate A Indo Australian Plate B

"late Bo$ndaries
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Can you name plates A and B?

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Constr$ ti%e "late Bo$ndary

,t a onstr$ ti%e &late #o$ndary1 two &lates mo%e a&art' ,s the two &lates mo%e a&art1 ma*ma rises $& to !ill the *a&' This a$ses %ol anoes at this ty&e o! #o$ndary' Howe%er1 sin e the ma*ma an es a&e easily at the s$r!a e the %ol ano does not er$&t with m$ h !or e' Earth2$akes are also !o$nd at onstr$ ti%e #o$ndaries' ,n e3am&le o! a onstr$ ti%e #o$ndary is the /id4,tlanti 5id*e'

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Constr$ ti%e &late #o$ndary

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/id4,tlanti rid*e
(ea 6loor (&readin*7 8id yo$ know that the o ean !loor in the ,tlanti is *rowin* #y 3 m &er year?

0hi h o! the !ollowin* &airs o! ontinents are mo%in* !$rther away !rom ea h other? 19 E$ro&e and ,!ri a 29 E$ro&e and -orth ,meri a 39 (o$th ,meri a and -orth ,meri a
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Title,///////////////////////

Put these la'els on (our )ia*ra+:


volcanic island ' 0orth +merican plate ' Eurasian plate ' 1olcano ' 2rust ' 3antle

In your own words; ,t a :::::::&late #o$ndary1 two &lates mo%e a&art' ,s the two &lates mo%e a&art1 ma*ma rises $& to !ill the *a&' This a$ses %ol anoes at this ty&e o! #o$ndary' Howe%er1 sin e the ma*ma an es a&e easily at the s$r!a e the %ol ano does not er$&t with m$ h !or e' Earth2$akes are also !o$nd at onstr$ ti%e #o$ndaries' ,n e3am&le o! a onstr$ ti%e #o$ndary is the /id4,tlanti 5id*e'

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Title,///////////////////////

Put these la'els on (our )ia*ra+:


volcanic island ' 0orth +merican plate ' Eurasian plate ' 1olcano ' 2rust ' 3antle

In your own words; ,t a :::::::&late #o$ndary1 two &lates mo%e a&art' ,s the two &lates mo%e a&art1 ma*ma rises $& to !ill the *a&' This a$ses %ol anoes at this ty&e o! #o$ndary' Howe%er1 sin e the ma*ma an es a&e easily at the s$r!a e the %ol ano does not er$&t with m$ h !or e' Earth2$akes are also !o$nd at onstr$ ti%e #o$ndaries' ,n e3am&le o! a onstr$ ti%e #o$ndary is the /id4,tlanti 5id*e'

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How !ast do &lates mo%e?


The &lates mo%e at di!!erent rates' The -a; a and "a i!i &lates are mo%in* a&art at a rate o! 1< m &er year while the E$rasian and -orth ,meri an &lates are mo%in* a&art at a rate o! 3 m &er year'

To the nearest metre1 how !ar will the -a; a and "a i!i &lates ha%e mo%ed o%er the ne3t 200 years?
6 metres 36 metres "" metres 9 ! metres

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, destr$ ti%e &late #o$ndary is !o$nd where a ontinental &late meets an o eani &late'

8estr$ ti%e "late Bo$ndary

The o eani &late des ends $nder the ontinental &late #e a$se it is denser' ,s the &late des ends it starts to melt d$e to the !ri tion a$sed #y the mo%ement #etween the &lates' This melted &late is now hot1 li2$id ro k =ma*ma9' The ma*ma rises thro$*h the *a&s in the ontinental &late' >! it rea hes the s$r!a e1 the li2$id ro k !orms a %ol ano'

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Title?:::::::::::::::::::
Put these la'els on (our )ia*ra+:
+ndes 4fold mountains5 ' 6acific 7cean ' 0a8ca 6late 47ceanic 2rust5 ' 3a ma rises ' 3antle ' 1olcanic eruption' 7ceanic crust melts due to friction and heat from the mantle

In your own words: ________&late #o$ndary is !o$nd where a ontinental &late meets an o eani &late' The o eani &late des ends $nder the ontinental &late #e a$se it is denser' ,s the &late des ends it starts to melt d$e to the !ri tion a$sed #y the mo%ement #etween the &lates' This melted &late is now hot1 li2$id ro k =ma*ma9' The ma*ma rises thro$*h the *a&s in the ontinental &late' >! it rea hes the s$r!a e1 the li2$id ro k !orms a %ol ano' 2) of 26
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Title?:::::::::::::::::::
Put these la'els on (our )ia*ra+:
+ndes 4fold mountains5 ' 6acific 7cean ' 0a8ca 6late 47ceanic 2rust5 ' 3a ma rises ' 3antle ' 1olcanic eruption' 7ceanic crust melts due to friction and heat from the mantle

In your own words:________ &late #o$ndary is !o$nd where a ontinental &late meets an o eani &late' The o eani &late des ends $nder the ontinental &late #e a$se it is denser' ,s the &late des ends it starts to melt d$e to the !ri tion a$sed #y the mo%ement #etween the &lates' This melted &late is now hot1 li2$id ro k =ma*ma9' The ma*ma rises thro$*h the *a&s in the ontinental &late' >! it rea hes the s$r!a e1 the li2$id ro k !orms a %ol ano' 2* of 26
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Collision Bo$ndary

Collision #o$ndaries o $r when 2 &lates o! similar densities mo%e to*ether =i'e' a ontinental &late and a ontinental &late9' This a$ses the material #etween them to #$ kle and rise $&1 !ormin* !old mo$ntains' The Himalayas are an e3am&le o! a hain o! !old mo$ntains' They ha%e #een !ormed #y the ,!ri an &late ollidin* into the E$rasian &late'

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Title?:::::::::::::::::::::::::
Put these la'els on (our )ia*ra+:
collision 8one ' mantle ' 9imala&as ' Eurasian plate:

2ollision mar ins ' 2onstructive mar ins


In your own words: _________ #o$ndaries o $r when 2 &lates o! similar densities mo%e to*ether =i'e' a ontinental &late and a ontinental &late9' This a$ses the material #etween them to #$ kle and rise $&1 !ormin* !old mo$ntains' The Himalayas are an e3am&le o! a hain o! !old mo$ntains' They ha%e #een !ormed #y the ,!ri an &late ollidin* into the E$rasian &late'
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Title?:::::::::::::::::::::::::
Put these la'els on (our )ia*ra+:
collision 8one ' mantle ' 9imala&as ' Eurasian plate:

2ollision mar ins ' 2onstructive mar ins


In your own words: _________ #o$ndaries o $r when 2 &lates o! similar densities mo%e to*ether =i'e' a ontinental &late and a ontinental &late9' This a$ses the material #etween them to #$ kle and rise $&1 !ormin* !old mo$ntains' The Himalayas are an e3am&le o! a hain o! !old mo$ntains' They ha%e #een !ormed #y the ,!ri an &late ollidin* into the E$rasian &late'
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Conser%ati%e &late #o$ndaries e3ist where two &lates do not dire tly ollide #$t slide &ast ea h other alon* a !a$lt =weakness9'

Conser%ati%e Bo$ndary

-o %ol anoes are !o$nd alon* these &late #o$ndaries1 #$t earth2$akes do o $r'

,n e3am&le o! s$ h a #o$ndary is the (an ,ndreas 6a$lt in Cali!ornia'


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Title?:::::::::::::::::::::::
In your own words: ::::::::: &late #o$ndaries e3ist where two &lates do not dire tly ollide #$t slide &ast ea h other alon* a !a$lt =weakness9' -o %ol anoes are !o$nd alon* these &late #o$ndaries1 #$t earth2$akes do o $r'

,n e3am&le o! s$ h a #o$ndary is the (an ,ndreas 6a$lt in Cali!ornia' 6ill in the #lanks1 two &lates1 a o$ntry name and 3 &la es1 (:::8::::1 L:: ,:::::: @ (:::::::::::::1 o ean'

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Let;s shake and bake!!!


%n &our roups <uietl& decide which one of the four plates &ou are oin to act out# remember tr& and act out as man& features and process of &our chosen plate: 2an &ou uess which =plate> &our fellow classmates are$$ +sk them where the& ma& find this plate on planet earth or an& other <uestion:
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9omework# due in Thursda&'?rida&2.'21st of 7ctober:

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,tta h la#els to the orre t &art o! the dia*ram'

A$ter ore Cr$st /antle >nner ore

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-ame this &late #o$ndary

'

&

/at h the la#els to the letters


Earth2$akes o $r d$e to !ri tion The o eani r$st sinks $nder the less dense ontinental r$st The o eani r$st melts and rises /antle

A eani &late Continental r$st E3&losi%e %ol anoes

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Constr$ ti%e &late #o$ndaries

MID OCEAN RID E # A A ean


A eani Cr$st

/antle

0here wo$ld yo$ !ind older ro ks ) at , or at B?


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/ark the !ollowin* e%ents on yo$r time line' 0hat do yo$ noti e?
>ndia ollides with ,sia ) B0 m 6irst !lowers a&&ear ) 100 m

/an =homo sa&iens9 inha#its the Earth ) 0'1 m 6ormation o! the ,l&s ) 30 m 8inosa$r e3tin tion ) 6B m Eo$ were #orn7 ) 0'00013 m >nd$strial 5e%ol$tion =CD9 4 0'0001 m
(fi)ures are in *millions of years a)o+,

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