Nation Branding versus Commercial Branding– Similar Principles, Different Practices

- a presentation by Dr. Alan C. Middleton - Leger Marketing - September 23rd 2009

“Brands – both domestic and international – have almost always appeared in the past as a consequence of certain levels of market sophistication and economic and social development……………it is feasible to fast track the creation of export brands……a wide range of benefits can accrue to both the company and its home country. I would argue that the development of international brands is, in today’s globalized world, as inevitable and essential as the development of domestic brands has been in the past.”
Simon Anholt 2006

• Commercial Branding • Nation Branding • Examining the National Branding Virtuous Circle • Nation Brand Planning • Conclusions

Global Brandscape #1 - Commercial
CocaCola IBM Microsoft GE Nokia McDonald’s Google Toyota Intel Disney HP MercedesBenz Gillette Cisco BMW YvesSaintLaurent LouisVitton Marlboro Honda Samsung Apple H&M AmericanExpress Pepsi Oracle Nescafe Nike SAP Ikea Sony Budweiser UPS HSBC Canon Kelloggs Dell Citi JPMorgan GoldmanSaks Nintendo ThomsonReuters Gucci Philips Amazon L’Oreal Accenture eBay Siemens Heinz Ford Zara Wrigley Colgate AXA MTV Volkswagen Xerox Morgan Stanley Nestle Chanel Danone KFC Adidas Blackberry Yahoo Audi Caterpillar Avon Rolex Hyundai Hermes Kleenex UBS Harley-Davidson Porsche Panasonic Tiffany Cartier Gap
Source: Interbrand Most Valuable Global Brands 2009 (issued September 19th )

Commercial Branding

Canada Brandscape #1 - Commercial
RBC Blackberry TDCanadaTrust Manulife Bell Scotiabank Loblaws Bombardier BMO CIBC Rogers ShoppersDrugMart Telus CN Petro-Canada CanadianTire SunLifeFinancial AirCanada ESSO TimHortons Enbridge CanadianPacific YellowPages ShawCommunications LondonLife Magna SNCLavalin CanWest Qubecor CanadaLife NationalBankofCanada Great-WestLife Sobeys EnCana RONA Macs/CoucheTarde Barrick Sears Husky MapleLeaf Metro ING CanadaBread Aeroplan Cognos JeanCoutu MTS BrookfieldProperties
Source: Brand Finance Canada’s Most Valuable Brands 2009

What is a Brand
To the target group, - a promise of benefits consistently delivered with the highest level of satisfaction versus direct and indirect competitors

Canada Brandscape # 2 - Commercial
Google Sony TimHortons Presidents Choice ShoppersDrugMart Staples Panasonic Kraft Toyota CanadianTire Subway Rona TheHomeDepot Honda CTV Sears Purolator Samsung HomeHardware CBC Westjet GE McCain The Bay FedEx Nestle IBM Apple Costco/PriceClub Zellers Microsoft P&G CanadaPost Yahoo Molson Mazda Cineplex Labatt Nissan ViaRail Bayer Pepsi-Cola Coca-Cola Macs LG Bombardier FutureShop CN TDCanadaTrust GlobeandMail UPS Sleeman Wendy’s SecondCup Motorola L’Oreal Harveys RBC/Royal Bank BMO/BankofMontreal Alcan BestBuy Scotiabank Rexall/PharmaPlus 7-Eleven Grand’nToy Quiznos Hyundai RIM
Source: Leger Marketing Top companies in Canada in reputation and awareness 2009

What makes a Commercial Brand
Name, Company, Logo/Symbol, Physical space/design, Product(design + performance), Employees, Service, Guarantee, Distributor reputation/display, Price, PR/Publicity, Consumer Promotion, Advertising Media and Message, Direct Marketing, Perceived users, Current word of mouth, Historical associations, competitor’s historical/current activity.

Brand Ecology:

Commerce, Culture and Community
Mission-critical employee recruitment, retention and engagement

Commerce social capital
Role of brand Building strong community connections (place-based and virtual)

internal culture



shared values and meaning (zeitgeist)

Keeping pace with evolving cultural and social mores

Brand Management Principles
1. Identify target audiences, their needs/wants and the benefits your brand can deliver 2. Determine core values/essence of the brand 3. Recognise the stages of Brand Building: i) Differentiation ) ii) Relevance )............Brand Vitality iii) Esteem ) iv) Familiarity ).............Brand Stature
Source: Y&R BrandAsset Valuator - BAV /Landor

Brand Management Principles
4. Ensure the product/service delivers the benefit based on the distinctive essence of the brand: - Commercial: both function and image/personality - Culture: internal and impact externally - Community: be current with business environment issues 5. Track progress versus goals and competitors

Nation Branding

Nation Brands

Nation Branding
“the unique multi-dimensional blend of elements that provide the nation with culturally grounded differentiation and relevance for all of its target audiences”
Keith Dinnie 2008

Nation Branding
“A nation brand is like the proverbial super tanker

which takes five miles to change course and eight miles to stop. In many cases all that the ‘managers’ of the nation brand can realistically hope to do is to identify and isolate the positive existing perceptions of the country and calculate how to enhance whatever contributes to these in the country’s external communications, while downplaying anything that doesn’t.”
Simon Anholt 2006

Nation Branding
“…what really seems to make a difference to the images of countries is when they become dedicated to developing new ideas, policies, laws, products, services, companies, buildings, art and science.”
Keith Dinnie 2008

Global Brandscape # 2 - Nations
Germany France UK Canada Japan Italy US Switzerland Austria Sweden Spain Netherlands Norway Austria Denmark Scotland NewZealand Finland Ireland Belgium Brazil Russia Iceland Singapore Argentina Mexico India Hungary China Poland CzechRepublic Egypt SouthKorea Thailand Taiwan Turkey SouthAfrica Chile Malaysia Peru Romania Lithuania Indonesia Estonia Arabia Cuba Ecuador SaudiArabia Nigeria Iran
Source: Anholt’s Nation Brand Index 2008: tourism, people, exports, governance, culture & heritage, investment & immigration

Nation Branding
Countries are more complex than just commercial or cultural interests, but must be pro-actively managed: • Three issues are directly impacted by and impact country reputation: - FDI - Tourism - Country of Origin effects on goods and services • Commercial brands are increasingly transmitting national culture • Brand informed images may negatively stereotype countries • Tourism pushes certain images that may negatively or positively impact other commercial and/or political sectors

What makes a Nation brand
Name, Flag/Symbols, physical space, vivid flora, fauna and animal/bird/insect life, Government type and policies, legal system and practice, cultural products and habits (art, music, dance, food, beverage etc) commercial products/services it is best known for, citizen’s ethnic origins and behaviors, service given to visitors, agents who represent it, cost of living and visiting, PR/Publicity, consumer promotion, advertising media and message, direct marketing, current word of mouth, historical associations, competitor’s historical/current activity

Nation Brand Planning
People Promoting Tourism


Brand Strategy

Exporting Brands

Inward Investment (FDI) recruitment
Source: Simon Anholt National Brand Hexagon 2006

Foreign & Domestic policy

Nation Branding
Active Nation Branding Strategies:
Britain Egypt Germany New Zealand Scotland South Korea Spain

Benefits of a Positive Nation Brand Image
• • • • • • • • • • • • Increase currency stability credibility and confidence by investors Manage ratings Increase political influence Export growth of branded products and services Inbound tourism and investment Better international partnerships Nation building (confidence, pride, harmony, ambition, national resolve) Transparency aid Manage environment and human rights reputation Access to broader global markets Aids competitive advantage for governments and commercial enterprises domestically and internationally.

Source: Paul Temporal 2001

The Nation Branding Virtuous Circle
Commercial Brands FDI Tourism

National Identity/Activity

The Nation Branding Virtuous Circle
Commercial Brands FDI Tourism

National Identity/Activity

Strong Commercial – Nation Brands
Top Ten

• • • • • • • • • •

US England Scotland France Germany Japan Scandinavia Switzerland South Korea Italy

Minor Country Brands

• • • • • • • • • • •

Australia Holland Ireland Canada New Zealand Finland Spain Taiwan Wales Portugal Belgium

Source: Simon Anholt

Nation Transformations
• • • • • • • • Japan Taiwan South Korea Ireland Denmark New Zealand China India

The Nation Branding Virtuous Circle
Commercial Brands FDI Tourism

National Identity/Activity

Global Brandscape #3 Tourism
France Spain USA China Italy UK Germany Ukraine Turkey Malaysia Mexico Greece Austria Russia Canada HongKong Poland Thailand Macau Portugal SaudiArabia Netherlands Egypt Croatia SouthAfrica Hungary Switzerland Japan Singapore Ireland Morocco UAE Belgium Tunisia CzechRepublic SouthKorea Indonesia Sweden Bulgaria Australia Brazil India Denmark Argentina Bahrain Vietnam DominicanRepublic Norway Taiwan Puerto Rico

World Tourist Organization 2007 (UNTWO World Tourism Barometer June 2008)

Canada’s Brand Challenge - Tourism
# 4 in overall regard # 15 in tourist visits: France 81.9 million Spain, US, China 50 million+ Italy, UK, Germany, Ukraine, Turkey, Malaysia, Mexico, Greece, Austria, Russia - Canada 17.9 million!!

20 million +

The Nation Branding Virtuous Circle
Commercial Brands FDI Tourism

National Identity/Activity

GDP (US$ billions 2008*)
• • • • • • • • • • US 14,204 Japan 4,909 China 3,860 Germany 3,653 France 2,853 UK 2,646 Italy 2,293 Brazil 1,613 Russia 1,608 Spain 1,604
#11 Canada • India • Mexico • Australia • South Korea • Netherlands • Turkey • Poland • Indonesia • Belgium 1,400 1,217 1,086 1,015 929 860 794 527 514 498

World Bank 2008 World Development Indicators Atlas method July 2009

GNI/capita at PPP (2008)
• • • • • • • • • • • • Norway (4) 58,500 Singapore (10) 47,940 US (11) 46,970 Switzerland(12) 46,460 Netherlands(18) 41,670 Sweden (22) 38,180 Austria (23) 37,680 Ireland (24) 37,350 Denmark (25) 37,280 Canada (27) 36,220 UK (28) 36,130 Germany (29) 35,940

• • • • • • • • • • •

Finland (31) 35,640 Japan (32) 35,220 Belgium (33) 34,760 France (34) 34,400 Australia (35) 34,040 Spain (37) 31,130 Italy (39) 30,250 Greece (43) 28,470 South Korea (44)28,120 Israel (45) 27,450 New Zealand (50)25,090

Source: 2008 World Development Indicators Database World Bank July 2009

Gini Index: Distribution of Family Income
• Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality developed by Italian statistician Corrado Gini. 0 = everyone has same income, 1= perfect inequality (one person has all the income). Gini index is the coefficient in percentage form

Denmark Japan Germany Canada France Ireland Australia UK India Russia US China Brazil

24.7……the lowest 24.9 28.3 32.6 32.7 34.3 35.2 36.0 36.8 39.9 40.8 46.9 57.0

The highest is Sierra Leone at 62.9 Source: UN Gini Index World Fact Book 2007/2008

World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness:
2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Four indexes:

1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Switzerland US US Switzerland Finland Growth US Switzerland Switzerland Finland USA Macreconomic Singapore Denmark Denmark Sweden Sweden Public Institutions Sweden Sweden Denmark Denmark Taiwan Technology Denmark Singapore Germany Singapore Taiwan Finland Finland Finland US Singapore Germany Germany Singapore Japan Iceland Japan Netherlands Japan Germany Switzerland Canada Japan UK Netherlands Norway Netherlands Canada Netherlands UK Australia HK HK South Korea HK Netherlands Taiwan UK HK Norway Japan UK South Korea Canada Taiwan UK Norway Austria Taiwan Iceland Canada Australia Norway Austria Israel France France Norway Canada Source: WEF Sept. 2009

Centres of Commerce
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. London New York Tokyo Singapore Chicago Hong Kong Paris Frankfurt Seoul Amsterdam 79.17 72.77 66.60 66.16 65.24 63.94 63.87 62.34 61.83 60.06

Source: 2008 MasterCard Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index: political framework, economic stability, ease of doing business, financial flow, Business centre, knowledge/information flow.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Madrid Sydney Toronto Copenhagen Zurich Stockholm Los Angeles Philadelphia Osaka Milan

58.34 58.33 58.16 57.99 56.86 56.67 55.73 55.55 54.94 54.73 51.60 51.10

32 Montreal 37 Vancouver

Legal and Regulatory Issues
Transparency International 2008
(180 countries, business perceptions)

1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 16 18. Denmark New Zealand Sweden Singapore Finland Switzerland Iceland Netherlands Australia Canada Luxemborg Austria UK USA 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.7 8.3 8.1 7.7 7.3 40. Sth. Korea 5.6

Worst 173. Chad, Guinea Sudan 1.6 176.Afgahnistan 1.5 177. Haiti 1.4 178. Iraq, Myanmar 1.3 180. Somalia 1.0

72. Mexico 72. China 80. Brazil 85. India 147. Russia

3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 2.1

Source: TI 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)

FDI in Canada
To To To To To US Canada ($billions) France UK China 2005 101 2006 104 2007 233 128 158 224 84 2008 220 133 114 109 92

Source: UNCTAD 2009

The Nation Branding Virtuous Circle
Commercial Brands FDI Tourism

National Identity/Activity

Commercial Brand Challenges – Country of Origin Effect
• • • • • • Japanese electronics French food Italian fashion American pop culture: movies, music, British Food? Canadian ?

Commercial products from Developing Nations
Brazil - coffee Chile – flowers, wines Egypt - tourism Greece – olive oil Philippines - people Russia – diamonds, oil, vodka Thailand – food & cooking, tourism

Commercial Brands from Developing Nations
Brazil – Embraer, Marcopolo (bus bodies), Petrobras China – China Mobile, Haier, Lenovo, Shanghai Auto, Tsing Tao beer, China – Hong Kong – Hutchinson Whampoa India – Infosys, Kingfisher, Mahindra, Tata, Wipro Israel – Jaffa, Teva Mexico – Cemex, Cuervo, Pemex Singapore – Banyan Tree & Shangri-la Hotels, Tiger Balm Taiwan - Acer Trinidad & Tobago –Angostura Bitters

Canada in Global Brandscape Commercial
# 40 Thomson Reuters $8.4b + 1% # 63 Blackberry $5.1b + 7%

Source: Interbrand 2009

Commercial Brand Challenges - Canada
- Agricultural products - Timber/building materials - Minerals - Oil/gas - autos Brands:
Blackberry Bombardier Cirque du Soleil Four Seasons McCain Manulife/John Hancock RBC Scotiabank Sun Life Thomson-Reuters Umbra

Nation Brand Planning

Nation Brand Planning Nation Brand: - As a product brand………………like Blackberry
- As an ingredient brand…… Intel or Lycra (adds something to all aspects a country touches) - As a corporate brand……….like Thomson Reuters

Nation Brand Planning

Nation Brand

Endorsed brands: Tourism; Exports; Inward Investment; Talent attraction; Sports

Stand alone brands: Regions/cities/landmarks; products/services; sector-specific; skilled workers/university students; national teams and clubs; cultural & political figures

Nation Brand Planning
1. Identify target audiences, their needs/wants and benefits the nation brand can deliver: - citizens/local organizations
investors/other businesses tourists customers for export products/services global/regional regulatory and political authorities influencers: associations, clubs, Diaspora

Nation Brand Planning
2. Determine core values/essence of the brand: - who are we? Where do we come from? - the current core vision, mission and values - What do we do? What are we known for? What do we do that we are not known for? - what do people (citizens, visitors, institutions) now think about us ? - most vivid citizen and visitor experience with it (advertising, personal stories, movies, literature etc.) - difference versus competition

World Population 2008 (millions)
1. China 1,326 2. India 1,140 3. US 304 4. Indonesia 228 5. Brazil 192 6. Pakistan 166 7. Bangladesh 160 8. Nigeria 151 9. Russian Fed. 142 10. Japan 128 11. Mexico 106
12. Philippines 13. Vietnam 14. Germany 15. Egypt 16. Ethiopia 17. Turkey 18. Iran 19. Thailand 20. Congo 26. Sth.Korea # 36. Canada

90 86 82 82 81 74 72 67 64 49 33

2008 World Development Indicators: World Bank, July 2009

Human Development Index (2006)
• Composite measure of measures for three dimensions: a long healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. 100 is the high rating Canada 96.7 (# 3) Australia 96.5 (# 4) Ireland 96.0 (# 5) Japan 95.6 (# 8) France 95.5 (#11) US 95.0 (#15) UK 94.2 (#21) Germany 94.0 (#23) Korea 92.8 (#25) Mexico 84.2 (#51) Brazil 80.7 (#70) Russia 80.6 (#73) China 76.2 (#94) India 60.9 (#132)
The highest is Iceland at 96.8, the lowest Sierra Leone at 32.9 Source: UN Human Development Report 2008

Hofstede’s Dimensions.
(n= 53 countries+ 3 regions, not Russia)
• Power Distance Index (PDI) Score Rank Mexico 81 5= India 77 10= Brazil 69 14 Hong Kong 68 15 Sth. Korea 60 27 Japan 54 33 Argentina 49 35= US 40 38 Canada 39 39

• Individualism Index.
USA Canada India Argentina Japan Brazil Mexico Hong Kong Sth. Korea Score 91 80 48 46 46 38 30 25 18 Rank 1 4= 21 22= 22= 26= 32 37 43

Hofstede’s Dimensions
(n= 53 countries + 3 regions, not Russia)
• Masculinity Index. Score Japan 95 Mexico 69 USA 62 Hong Kong 57 Argentina 56 India 56 Canada 52 Brazil 49 Sth. Korea 39 Rank. 1 6 15 18 20= 20= 24 27 41 • Uncertainty Avoidance Index Score Rank Japan 92 7 Argentina 86 10= Sth. Korea 85 16= Mexico 82 18 Brazil 76 21= Canada 48 41= USA 46 43 India 40 45 Hong Kong 29 49=

Hofstede’s Dimensions. (n = 22 countries.)
• Long Term Orientation. China Hong Kong Japan Sth. Korea Brazil India USA Great Britain Canada Score 118 96 80 75 65 61 29 25 23 Rank. 1 2 4 5 6 7 17 18 20

Communitarian Chameleon Adaptable International Multicultural

Synthesizing Experiential Endurance Entrepreneurial

Collaborative Skeptical

Nation Brand Planning
3. Establish Brand Key and Architecture: i) Key:
Competitive Environment Target Groups Human Truth Benefits Values & Personality Reasons to Believe Differentiator Essence

Nation Brand Planning
3. Establish Brand Key and Architecture: ii) Architecture: - Policy changes (sector encouragement) - MarCom strategy and how this impacts:  FDI  Tourism  Commercial promotion - How this integrates with other activities

Dinnie Model of Nation Brand Identity and Image
Nation-brand identity
History, Language, Territory Political regime/Policies, Architecture, Sport, Literature, Art, Religion, Education, Icons, Landscape, Music, Food/drink, folklore. Branded exports, Diaspora,

Communicators of Nation brand identity

sporting achievements, Cultural
artefacts, MarCom, Personalities, Tourism experience, Foreign Policy

Nation-brand image

Audiences: Domestic consumers/firms, External consumers/firms, Investors, Government, Media

Nation Brand Planning
4. Ensure the National elements of policy and promotion fit the benefits by target segment - SWOT analysis
- play to strengths or to ‘unheralded’ strengths; reframe weaknesses - consistency and integration of effort - persist….continuous effort - MarCom use: events, movies, TV, advertising, promotion (subsidies) etc. - serendipity….make use of the unplanned/unexpected

Nation Brand Planning
5. Tracking and Adjustment: - Track progress versus competition on surveys

• Nation brands more complex and less controllable • But can be developed through national policy; integrated promotional activity (investment, tourism, cultural promotion, tie-in with export promotion) • Against targeted audiences in targeted geographies

Selected Bibliography A-B
Aaker D. (2004) “Brand Portfolio Strategy” pub. The Free Press Aaker D. and Joachimstaler E. (2000) “Brand Leadership”, The Free Press Aaker D. (1996) “Building Strong Brands”, The Free Press Aaker D. (1991) “Managing Brand Equity”, The Free Press Aaker D. and Biel A. (1993) “Brand Equity and Advertising” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Anholt S. (2006) “Brand New Justice” Elsevier Anholt S. “Nation Branding- a continuing theme” Journal of Brand Management Sept.2002 Vol 10 #1 p59 -60 Anholt S. “Foreword” to Nation Branding edition of Journal of Brand Management April 2002 Vol 9 # 4-5 p229-239 Arnold D. (1992) “The Handbook of Brand Management” Addison-Wesley Publishing Atkin D. (2004) “The Culting of Brands” Portfolio Beverland M. & Lindgreen A. “Using country of origin in strategy-the importance of context and strategic action” Journal of Brand Management Nov.2002 Vol 10 # 2 p147-167 Blackwell R & Stephan T (2004) “Brands that Rock” John Wiley Brand Finance (2005) “Canada’s Most Valuable Brands” Buzzell R. and Gale B.T. (1987) “The PIMS Principles” The Free Press Caldwell N. & Freire J “The Differences between branding a country, a region and a city” Journal of Brand Management Sept. 2004 Vol.12 #1 p50-61

Selected Bibliography C - H
Clifton R., Simmons J et al (2004) “Brands and Branding” Economist/Bloomberg de Chernatony L. (2006) “From Brand Vision to Brand Evaluation” Butterworth-Heinemann de Chernatony L. and McDonald M.(2001)“Creating Powerful Brands” Butterworth Heinemann Davis S.M. and Dunn M. (2002) “Building the Brand-driven Business” Jossey-Bass Davis S.M. (2000) “Brand Asset Management” Jossey-Bass Dinnie K. (2008) “Nation Branding” Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann ESOMAR (1992) “Seminar on the Challenge of Branding Today and in the Future” ESOMAR (1996) “Seminar on the Big Brand Challenge” Franzen G. & Bouwman M. (2001) “The Mental World of Brands” WARC Gad T. (2001) “4-D Branding” Financial Times/Prentice Hall Gilmore F “A country – can it be repositioned?” Journal of Brand Management April 2002 Vol.9 # 4-5, p 281293 Gnoth J “Leveraging export brands through a tourist destination brand” Journal of P. (Brand Management April 2002, Vol 9 # 4-5, p 263-280 Gobe M. (2001) “Emotional Branding” Allworth Press Gregory J.R. (2004) “The Best of Branding” McGraw Hill Gregory J.R. (1997) “Leveraging the Corporate Brand” NTC Business Books Hankinson G. & Cowling P. (1990) “The Reality of Global Brands” McGraw Hill Hanlon P. (2006) “Primal Branding” Free Press Hanna J. & Middleton A.C. (2008) “Ikonica – a fieldguide to Canada’s Brandscape” pub. Douglas & McIntyre

Hill S & Lederer C. (2001) “The Infinite Asset” Harvard Business School Press Hine T. (1995) “The Total Package” Little Brown & Company Holt D. B. (2004) “ How Brands become Icons” Harvard Business School Ind N. (2004) “Living the Brand” Kogan Page Interbrand (2006) “Canada’s Best Brands” Jones J.P. (1986) “What’s in a Name- Advertising and the Concept of Brands’ Lexington Book Kapferer J-N. (2000) “Strategic Brand Management” Kogan Page Keller K.L. (1998) “Strategic Brand Management” Prentice Hall Kleppe I.A., Iversen N.M., Stensaker “Country images in marketing strategies” Journal of Brand Management Sept. 2002 Vol.10 #1 p 61-74 King S. ( 1984) “Developing New Brands” JWT London Koehn N.F. (2001) “Brand New” Harvard Business School Press Kotler P. & Gertner D. “Country as brand, product and beyond” Journal of Brand Management April 2002 Vol 9 #4-5 p 249-261 Kotler P. Haider D.H. & Rein I. (1993) “Marketing Places” The Free Press Lindstrom M. (2005) “Brand Sense” Free Press Lindstrom M and Andersen T.F. (2000) “Brand Building on the Internet” Kogan Page McEwen W.J. (2005) “Married to the Brand” Gallup Press Macrae C. ( 1996) “The Brand Chartering Handbook” Addison-Wesley Mark M. and Pearson C.S. (2001) “The Hero and the Outlaw” McGraw Hill Middleton A.C. (1997) “Private Label or Public Brand - Brand Meaning Contrasts between Retailer Brands and Manufacturer Brands of Grocery Packaged Goods” York University Dissertation Middleton A.C. and Dalla Costa J. (1997) “Advertising Works II” ICA and ACA

Selected Bibliography H - M

Miller J. & Muir D. (2004) “The Business of Brands” John Wiley & Sons Moote I (2003) “60 minute Brand Strategy” SA Press Neumeier M. (2003) “The Brand Gap” AIGA/New Riders Olins W. “Branding the Nation – the historical context” Journal of Brand Management April 2002 Vol.9 #4-5 p241-248 Papadopoulos N. & Heslop L. “Country equity and country branding” Journal of Brand Management April 2002 Vol 9 #4-5, p 294-314 Paswan A.K., Kulkami S. & Ganesh G “Loyalty towards the country, the state and service brands” Journal of Brand Management Feb. 2003 Vol.10 # 3 p 233-251 Roberts K. (2002) “Lovemarks-the future beyond brands: powerHouse books Rook D.W. compilation ( 1999) “Brands, Consumers, Symbols and Research- Sidney J. Levy on Marketing”, Sage Publications Sartain L. & Schumann M. (2006) “Brand from the Inside” Jossey-Bass Schultz D.E. & Schultz H.F. (2004) “Brand Babble” Thomson South-Western Sebock T.A. (1991) “A Sign is just a Sign” Indiana University Press Srikatanyoo N. & Gnoth J. “Country Image and international tertiary education” Journal of Brand Management Nov. 2002 Vol.10 #2 p139- 146 Temporal P. (2001) “Branding in Asia” John Wiley and Sons Twitchell J.B. (2005) “Branded Nation” Simon & Schuster Paperbacks Upshaw L.B. (1995) “Building Brand Identity” John Wiley and Sons Upshaw L.B. and Taylor E.L. (2000) “The Masterbrand Mandate” John Wiley and Sons Wheeler A. (2006) “Designing Brand Identity” John Wiley & Sons Zyman S. and Miller S. (2000) Building Brand-width” Harper Business

Selected Bibliography N - Z

Biography: Dr. Alan Middleton
• • • B.Sc. Hons. Sociology (LSE) , MBA and Ph.D. (York) in Business Administration; Currently Executive Director, Executive Education Centre, Schulich School of Business, York University and Assistant Professor of Marketing; 23 years working in marketing and advertising with UOP Inc., Esso Petroleum and J. Walter Thompson in UK, US, Norway, Japan and Canada. Last role s were President/CEO JWT Japan and Executive V.P. and Board Director of the worldwide JWT Company organization, subsequent to being President of Enterprise Advertising Associates in Toronto. 18 years as an academic/marketing trainer and consultant. Taught marketing courses at Schulich School of Business , York University in Toronto; Rutgers Graduate School of Business in US; Chiangmai , NIDA and Yonok Graduate Schools of Business in Thailand ; IDEA Graduate School in Buenos Aires, Argentina; Moscow State University and Academy of National Economy in Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod, Russia; and Southwest Normal and Sichuan Universities in China. Research topics in branding, private labels and e brands internationally; As a trainer and consultant have worked for Bell, Manulife Financial, ACNielsen, Nortel, Pfizer Warner- Lambert, Quaker Foods, Unilever amongst many others; Co-author of ‘Advertising Works II’ , co-founder of the ‘CASSIES’ and co-editor of the CASSIES I Case Book, author of publications on MarCom PBR, MarCom ROI and MarCom client-agency relations. Co-author of ‘Ikonica –a fieldguide to Canada’s brandscape’ In January 2005 was inducted into the ‘Marketing Hall of Legends’ in the Mentor category Executive Committee of the Honorary Trustees of the Royal Ontario Museum (Trustee 19962002) and on the ROM Marketing Advisory Committee (2008-date). Alan is on the Board of the ABC CANADA Literacy Foundation Board having been its Chair 2003-2009. He is on the Boards of Sunnybrook Hospital and AIESEC-Canada, and is a Research Committee member of Ontario Tourism Marketing Partnership and the Scientific Committee of Leger Marketing. He is Chair of the Judging Committee for the New Product of the Year Awards. Previously Alan was a member of the United Way of Greater Toronto Marketing Committee (1992- 2006) and on the branding committee of Toronto International Film Festival, the Ontario Ministry of Health ‘Healthy’ committee and Chair of the Editorial Advisory Committee of Marketing Magazine.

• • • •

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