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The Periodic Table Information

Ayma Khan Honors Chemistry

Periodic Table Overview

A Russian Chemist
Henry Moseley Dmitri Mendeleev
called Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to construct the periodic table. He listed the elements in several vertical columns in order of increasing mass number. In 1913, Henry Moseley, a young British physicist determined the nuclear charge, called the atomic number, of the atoms of the elements. He arranged the elements in a table by order of atomic number. The horizontal rows of a periodic table are called periods. The vertical columns are called groups.

Group: 1

The alkali metals include Sodium,Lithium,Potassium,Rubidium,Cesium and Francium.

Alkali Metals

Valence Electrons: 1

All the Group 1 elements are silverycolored metals. They are soft, and can be easily cut with
a knife to expose a shiny surface which dulls on oxidation.

Physical Properties

Sodium reacts violently with water and rapidly with oxygen.
When electrons of these metals return to ground level, energy is emitted and this energy has a wavelength in the visible region: Li red Na yellow K lilac Rb red Cs blue

They have low melting and boiling

temperatures. They also have low densities - Li, Na and K are less dense than water. Alkali metals have color flames. When the element is placed in a flame the heat provides sufficient energy to promote the outermost electron to a higher energy level.


The alkali earth metals include berrylium,magnesium,calcium,strontium,barium and radium

The Alkali Earth Metals


Valence Electrons:2

The Group 2 elements are all


Physical Properties

metals with silvery- white and shiny color.

The metals of Group 2

The alkaline earth metals are high in the reactivity series of metals, but not as high as the alkali metals of Group 1.

have higher melting points and are harder and denser than sodium and potassium. These properties are due largely to the presence of two valence electrons on each atom, which leads to stronger metallic bonding than occurs in Group1


The Transition Metals

Valence Electron: 18

The transition elements readily form alloys with themselves and with other elements (e.g. a copper-tin alloy is used for mirrors, brass is a copper-zinc alloy). Tungsten, is used to make tools and filaments in light bulbs.

Physical Properties Apart from Copper, the transition metals are all white lustrous metals. They vary widely in abundance (e.g. Iron, Fe, and Titanium, Ti, are plentiful, Scandium, Sc, is rare). They have high melting points and high densities.



The Boron Group includes boron, aluminum,gallium,indium and thallium

The Boron Group

Valence Electron: 3

All the other members of Group 13 are soft,

Physical Properties

The influence of the non-metallic

silvery metals and boron is a non metallic grey powder. Thallium develops a bluish tinge on oxidation.

The mineral zinc blend,more commonly known as sphalerite, in which both indium and thallium were first discovered.

character in this Group is reflected by the softness of the metals. The melting points of all the elements are high, but the melting point of boron is much higher than that of beryllium in Group 2, whereas the melting point of aluminium is similar to that of magnesium in Group 2. The densities of all the Group 13 elements are higher than those of Group 2 elements.

Gallium is one of the chief components of blue LED.

Group: 14

The carbon group includes carbon,silicon,germanium,tin and lead.

The Carbon Group


Valence Electron: 4

Physical Properties

Carbon is

Carbon exists in two important allotropic forms, diamond and graphite. Silicon

hard and transparent in the form of diamond and a dull black color in the form of graphite. Silicon and germanium are dull grey or black; Tin and lead are a shiny grey color. The change in bonding from covalent to metallic down the Group causes a decrease in melting point, boiling point, heat of atomisation and first ionization energy. At the same time, the increasing metallic character causes a general increase in density and conductivity.

Silicon is chemically


The nitrogen family consists of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth.

The Nitrogen Group


Valence Electron: 5

Nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. Arsenic and antimony are metalloids. Bismuth is a metal.


Nitrogen is a colourless, odorless gas. Phosphorus exists in white, red and black solid forms. Arsenic is found in yellow and grey solid forms Antimony is found in a metallic or amorphous grey form. Bismuth is a white, crystalline,
brittle metal.

Physical Properties

Except for nitrogen, the elements are solid at room temperature.

Group :16

The Oxygen Group


Valence Electron:6

The first element of this

Physical Properties

Sulfur is a pale yellow, brittle solid. Selenium can have either an amorphous or a crystalline structure. The amorphous form can be red or

Group, oxygen, is the only gas, and is colorless and odorless.

Tellu rium
Sulfur is reactive in all its forms. It burns in oxygen with a blue flame to form sulfur dioxide, SO , a pungent,

Tellurium is a silvery-white colour with a metallic lustre. Polonium is a naturally radioactive element.

black, and the crystalline form can be red or grey.

Group: 17

The the halogen group includes Florine,chlorine,Bromine,Iodine and Astatine.

The Halogens

Valence Electron:7

The most common uses of Fluorine are in the Production of uranium, Air conditioning, Refrigeration, Insecticide, Toothpaste, Added to municipal water supplies and Teflon.

Physical Properties Florine is a poisonous pale yellow gas. Chlorine is a poisonous pale green gas. Bromine is a toxic and caustic brown volatile liquid. Iodine is a shiny black solid which easily sublimes to form a violet vapour on heating.


The noble gases include Helium, Neon,Argon,Krypton and Xenon.

The Noble Gases


Valence Electrons:8

Helium is used by divers to dilute the oxygen they breathe. Neon and argon are used for filling discharge tubes.

Physical Properties As the name suggests, all the elements in this Group are gases. Neon is colorless and odorless.


Work Citation ro_groupviii_data.html ro_groupiv_data.html ro_groupv_data.html ro_groupvii_data.html Pg 50-52