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BIONANOTECHNOLOGY

B. Sherfudeen M.Sc-Bioinformatics.

Nanotechnology

Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 – 100 nanometer range.

.Examples:

• One billionth (10^9) of a meter Hydrogen atom 0.04 nm Proteins ~ 1-20 nm Diameter of human hair ~ 10 µm Carbon nano tubes(CNT) ~ 1.5 nm diameter DNA and water molecule.

Bionanotechnology

Nanotechnology tools and concepts to applied in biology.

 

Human Body => Individual Cell => Individual DNA/RNA

(Macro)

(Micro)

(Nano)

Manipulate biological systems using nanotechnology tools rather than traditional chemical or biochemical approaches.

The advantages of applying nanotechnology to biological systems

Most animal cells are 10,000 to 20,000 nm in diameter.

Nanoscale devices ( >100 nm) can enter cells and interact with DNA and proteins.

Tools developed through nanotechnology may be able to detect disease.

Carbon Nanotube(CNT):

CNT is a tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1 nm. Length: few nm to microns.

CNT is rolled into a tube (single wall vs. multiwalled).

CNT is strongest and most flexible molecular material because of C-C covalent bonding.

SWNT

MWNT

Carbon Nanotube(CNT): • CNT is a tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1
Carbon Nanotube(CNT): • CNT is a tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1

Applications of CNT:

DNA sequencing through AFM imaging

Artificial muscles and drug delivery devices.

Retinal cell transplantation

CNT based Biosensor:

Probe molecules for a given target can be attached to CNT tips for biosensor development.

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2+
2+
3+
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Applications of Bionanotechnology

Drug delivery system

Bio-detection of pathogens

Detection of proteins

Probing of DNA structure

Tissue engineering

Cancer diagnosis and treatment

Separation and purification of biological molecules and cells.

Drug delivery system:

carbon nanotubes useful as drug delivery vehicles because their nanometer size enables them to move easily inside the body.

Paclitaxel: protein-stabilized nanoparticle

which is used to treat breast, bladder cancer.

Bio-detection of pathogens:

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsors a project in Biosensor.

“This project is detect bacteriological infections.

Chemiluminescence Based E. Coli Detection. Microbivore

Bio-detection of pathogens: • The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsors a project in Biosensor.

Microbivore:

It is nanorobotic device, called a microbivore.

which eradicates blood-borne pathogens by digesting.

It is similar to natural scavenger cells.

Detection of proteins:

Gold nanoparticles are used in immunohistochemistry to identify protein-protein interaction.

A silver coating biotin is to detect surface recognition proteins.

Raman scattering spectroscopy is a well technique for detection and identification of single dye molecules.

In this single dye molecules used in protein detection.

Tissue Engineering:

The osteoblasts are responsible for growth of the bone matrix and are found on the developing bone.

Titanium is a well-known bone repairing material widely used in orthopaedics and dentistry

ceramic nanoparticles and poly (methyl methacrylate)

copolymer.It is remove human teeth

a viscoelastic behaviour of the

Cancer diagnosis and treatment :

Many nanotechnology tools possible for clinicians to run tests without physically altering the cells or tissue.

Cantilevel is cncer diagnosis tool. It diagnosis various stages of cancer.

Nanotubes, carbon rods about half diameter of a molecule of DNA, will also help identify DNA changes in cancer.

Treatment:

Nanotechnology may useful for developing ways to eradicate cancer cells without harming healthy.

Commercial exploration:

Most of the companies developing pharmaceutical

applications for drug delivery. A number of companies are applying nano-ceramic

materials to tissue engineering and orthopaedics. Colloidal silver is widely used in antimicrobial formulations and dressings.

Titania nanoparticles is used for bactericidal purposes in filters.

Nano-ceramics also commercialisation.

The Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT) uses antibodies to target particular cells.

Ethics:

Potential dangerous:

*

Weapons:

o Miniature Weapons and Explosives o Disassemblers for Military Use Nanomachines:

o Self Replicating Nanomachines Surveillance:

o Monitoring o Tracking

References:

Nanotechnology and Cancer-National Institutes of Health,November 7, 2001.

Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine-OV Salata

Published: 30 April 2004.

Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology-by Ineke Malsch

Nano-Bio-Genesis: tracing the rise of nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology as 'big science‘ by Rajan P Kulkarni

Published: 14 July 2007.

Thank you…