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INTRODUCTION TO RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Definition of Terms Reservoir: Dictionary meaning- A Place where something valuable is kept in storage Something valuable = Oil and Gas Engineering definition- A reservoir is a three-dimensional rock body in the earth space where hydrocarbons (gas alone, oil alone or oil and gas together) reside. Reservoir Engineering: Colhoun The phase of engineering which deals with the transfer of fluids to, from or through the reservoirs.

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Functions Of Reservoir Engineering To continuously monitor the reservoir and collect relevant data and interpret it to be able to: Determine (present conditions) Estimate ( future conditions) and Control the movement of fluids through the reservoir. Objectives of reservoir engineering To enhance ( increase recovery factor) and To accelerate ( increase production rate) the oil recovery.

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Basic concerns of reservoir engineers (i.e. Reservoir engineer has to continuously answer:) 1. To calculate the volume of the initial hydrocarbon present in the reservoir ? 2. How much of the initial fluids have been recovered ? 3. How much is left ?

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


4. How can we increase recovery economically? 5. What data are needed to answer the questions? 6. How can I measure the performance of the reservoir? 7. How can I improve the performance?

Reservoir Engineering Terms Porosity: this is the ration of pore volume to bulk volume. It is expressed in fraction Permeability: this is the property of a reservoir that enables the movement of fluid (Darcy) Effective Permeability: this is the permeability of a reservoir when 100% saturated with a particular fluid Relative Permeability: this is the ration of effective permeability to absolute permeability Effective Porosity: this is the ratio interconnected pore volume to bulk volume Water Saturation: this is the ratio of the volume occupy by water to the pore volume Critical water saturation: critical water saturation defines the maximum water saturation that a formation with a given permeability and porosity can retain without producing water. Irreducible water saturation: This is the minimum water saturation at which water will remain immobile Formation volume factor: this is the ration of the volume of fluid in the reservoir to the volume at the surface Shrinkage factor: this is the inverse of formation volume factor

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Classification of Reservoirs
Petroleum reservoirs are broadly classified as oil or gas reservoirs. These broad classifications are further subdivided depending on:
The composition of the reservoir hydrocarbon mixture Initial reservoir pressure and temperature Pressure and temperature of the surface production

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Pressure-Temperature Diagram
phase diagrams used to determine different conditions at which hydrocarbon reservoir exists.

Typical p-T diagram for a multi-component system.

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


These multi-component pressure-temperature diagrams are essentially used to:
Classify reservoirs Classify the naturally occurring hydrocarbon systems Describe the phase behavior of the reservoir fluid.

Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Terms used in P-T diagrams Cricondentherm (Tct)The Cricondentherm is defined as the maximum temperature above which liquid cannot be formed regardless of pressure (point E).
The corresponding pressure is termed the Cricondentherm pressure pct.

Cricondenbar (pcb)The Cricondenbar is the maximum pressure above which no gas can be formed regardless of temperature.
The corresponding temperature is called the Cricondenbar temperature Tcb.

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Critical pointThe critical point for a multicomponent mixture is referred to as the state of pressure and temperature at which all intensive properties of the gas and liquid phases are equal (point C).
At the critical point, the corresponding pressure and temperature are called the critical pressure pc and critical temperature Tc of the mixture.

Phase envelope (two-phase region)The region enclosed by the bubble-point curve and the dew-point curve (line BCA), wherein gas and liquid coexist in equilibrium, is identified as the phase envelope of the hydrocarbon system.

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Quality lines-The dashed lines within the phase diagram are called quality lines.
They describe the pressure and temperature conditions for equal volumes of liquids. Note that the quality lines converge at the critical point (point C).

Bubble-point curve-The bubble-point curve (line BC) is defined as the line separating the liquid-phase region from the two-phase region.
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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Dew-point curve-The dew-point curve (line AC) is defined as the line separating the vaporphase region from the two-phase region.
In general, reservoirs are conveniently classified on the
basis of the location of the point representing the initial reservoir pressure pi and temperature T with respect to the pressure-temperature diagram of the reservoir fluid. Accordingly, reservoirs can be classified into basically two types. These are:

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Oil reservoirs- If the reservoir temperature T is less than the critical temperature Tc of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is classified as an oil reservoir. Gas reservoirs- If the reservoir temperature is greater than the critical temperature of the hydrocarbon fluid, the reservoir is considered a gas reservoir.
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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Oil Reservoirs Depending upon initial reservoir pressure pi, oil reservoirs can be subclassified into the following categories: Undersaturated oil reservoir.
If the initial reservoir pressure pi, is greater than the bubble-point pressure pb of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is labeled an undersaturated oil reservoir.

Saturated oil reservoir.


When the initial reservoir pressure is equal to the bubblepoint pressure of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is called a saturated oil reservoir.
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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Gas-cap reservoir.
If the initial reservoir pressure is below the bubblepoint pressure of the reservoir fluid,the reservoir is termed a gas-cap or two-phase reservoir, in which the gas or vapor phase is underlain by an oil phase.

The appropriate quality line gives the ratio of the gas-cap volume to reservoir oil volume.

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


General classifications of oil includes: Ordinary black oil Low-shrinkage crude oil High-shrinkage (volatile) crude oil Near-critical crude oil reservoirs

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Ordinary black oil
Following the pressure reduction path as indicated by the vertical line EF on Figure below. When produced, ordinary black oils usually yield gas-oil ratios between 200700 scf/STB and oil gravities of 15 to 40 API. The stock tank oil is usually brown to dark green in color.

A typical p-T diagram for an ordinary black oil.


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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Low-shrinkage crude oil

Oil formation volume factor less than 1.2 bbl/STB. Gas-oil ratio less than 200 scf/STB Oil gravity less than 35 API Black or deeply colored

A typical phase diagram for a low-shrinkage oil.


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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


High-shrinkage (volatile) crude oil Oil formation volume factor less than 2 bbl/STB Gas-oil ratios between 2,0003,200 scf/STB Oil gravities between 4555 API Lower liquid recovery of separator conditions as indicated by point G on Figure below. Greenish to orange in color

A typical p-T diagram for a volatile crude oil.


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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Near-critical crude oil

Temperature near critical temperature Tc. GOR in excess of 3,000 scf/STB. Oil formation volume factor of 2.0 bbl/STB or higher.

Phase diagram for the near-critical crude oil.


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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Gas Reservoirs

In general, if the reservoir temperature is above the critical temperature of the hydrocarbon system, the reservoir is classified as a natural gas reservoir. On the basis of their phase diagrams and the prevailing reservoir conditions, natural gases can be classified into four categories:
Retrograde gas-condensate Near-critical gas-condensate Wet gas Dry gas

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Retrograde gas-condensate reservoir
If the reservoir temperature T lies between the critical temperature Tc and cricondentherm Tct of the reservoir fluid, The reservoir is classified as a retrograde gas-condensate reservoir.

Gas-oil ratios between 8,000 to 70,000 scf/STB. Generally, the gas-oil ratio for a condensate system increases with time due to the liquid dropout and the loss of heavy components in the liquid. Condensate gravity above 50 API

A typical phase diagram of a retrograde system.

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Near-critical gas-condensate reservoir.

Reservoir temperature near critical temperature as shown below. Because all the quality lines converge at the critical point, a rapid liquid buildup will immediately occur below the dew point as the pressure is reduced to point 2.

A typical phase diagram for a near-critical gas condensate reservoir.

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Wet-gas reservoir
A typical phase diagram of a wet gas is shown in Figure below, where reservoir temperature is above the cricondentherm of the hydrocarbon mixture. Gas oil ratios between 60,000 to 100,000 scf/STB Stock-tank oil gravity above 60 API. Liquid is water-white in color Separator conditions, i.e., separator pressure and temperature, lie within the twophase region

Phase diagram for a wet gas.


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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Dry-gas reservoir.

The hydrocarbon mixture exists as a gas both in the reservoir and in the surface facilities. The only liquid associated with the gas from a drygas reservoir is water. Usually a system having a gas-oil ratio greater than 100,000 scf/STB is considered to be a dry gas.

Phase diagram for a dry gas.


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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


Types of reservoir energy Energy of compression of water and rock within the reservoir Energy of compression of oil within the reservoir. Energy of compression of gas within the reservoir. Energy of compression of water that are in adjacent or underlying aquifers.

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Oil and Gas Reservoirs


The gravitational energy that causes oil and gas to segregate within the reservoir. The surface energy manifesting itself in capillary pores.

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