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Kick-Off Techniques

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Hassan Alemi
Drilling & Measurement Instructor UTC

Objectives
On completion of this module you will be able to: Describe the four primary kick-off methods Explain where and why each method is preferred Design a BHA for each type of method Select appropriate Bits for the chosen technique Work as a second hand on a kick-off operation
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What is a Kick-off
A kick-off is the deflection of well bore while maintaining control of Azimuth, Inclination and DLS.

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Kick-off Methods
The following are methods of Kick-off: Jetting deflection Whipstock deflection Motor deflection Rotary Steerable deflection

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Kick-off Methods
Lithology is the key to selecting the most appropriate method: Igneous & Sedimentary Metamorphic
1 4 5 6 7 8

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Kick-off Methods
Igneous & Metamorphic
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Sedimentary
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Jetting

Motor

Whipstoc k

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Jetting
Jetting is the utilization of hydraulics to wash a pocket beneath and to the side of the bit to cause deflection.
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Jetting was, until recently considered redundant. However with the increased requirement to exit mature platforms where clearances between wells are too tight to utilize anti-collision practices with steerable motor systems, jetting has become the only economic alternative.
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Jetting Bits
Two cone jetting bits like this one from RBI are available but rarely seen in the field:

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-500/SEC Nozzle Velocity -Strong right hand walk 2 cone


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Jetting Bits
Conventional roller cone bits are commonly used for jetting and are adequate for the task :

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Jetting BHA
BHAs for jetting need to be designed on the principles of conventional Rotary Build BHAs:
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Jetting Bit (oriented) Near Bit Full Gauge Stabilizer Orientation Sub (UBHO) (dependent on measurement tool) Up to 3 Drill Collars ( 12 to 26 hole) or (MWD + 2 DCs) String Stabilizer (optional, as is gauge if present) Transition string, jars etc. as required
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Jetting Procedure
The steps to follow are: 1. Orient BHA prior to commencing (Scribe or survey) 2. Come on bottom using maximum flow rate (>500/sec) 3. Spud for +/- 6 (2m) 4. Rotate remainder of double at reduced flow rate. 5. Survey (if retrievable tool or use cont. D&I if MWD) 6. Adjust orientation and distance spudded as
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Whipstocks
Whipstocks are highly effective tools designed to provide lateral displacement from the well-bore.
They do not give very large changes in dogleg but due to the fact that what is provided is done in a very small change in MD. They generate high DLS values. Though whipstocks are a niche market tool their range and diversity is on the increase.
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Whipstocks
Whipstocks come in five primary types:
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Open Hole Retrievable Whipstocks Open / Cased Hole Cemented Whipstocks Open Hole Packer Whipstocks Cased Hole Mechanical Set Whipstocks

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Cased Hole Hydraulic Set Whipstocks

Open / Cased Hole Cemented Whipstock


Features: 2 run (minimum) system Hollow, Bladed & Ported tail
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Inexpensive
Simple & Reliable Problems in field when making Low side kick-offs

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Open / Cased Hole Cemented Whipstock


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Open Hole Packer Whipstock


Features:
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2 run system Cement inflated Packer Costly Complex but Reliable (hole conditions)

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Open Hole Packer Whipstock

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Open Hole Packer Whipstock

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Cased Hole Mechanical Set Whipstock


Features:
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1, 2 or 3 run system Mechanically Set Packer Inexpensive Simple

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Requires Cement Plug or Bridge Plug to set

Cased Hole Mechanical Set Whipstock

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Cased Hole Hydraulic Set Whipstock


Features:
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1, 2 or 3 run system Hydraulically Set Packer Costly Simple

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Set at any depth or orientation required

Cased Hole Hydraulic Set Whipstock

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Motors
Motors are the predominate method of kicking off a well for the following reasons:
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Plentiful Supply, usually already on location Cost effective for most applications Tenacious Able to meet objectives after the Kick-off is completed Highly flexible in controlling DLS

Motors
For the vast majority of side-tracks there is little or no issue. A history of successful sidetracks are documented in many of the formations that we encounter. The focus of this presentation is on the exceptions to this rule, where side-tracks are problematic or where this is the second or subsequent attempt to side-track the well.
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Motors
When there is doubt attached to the probability of the side-track a different approach is required. Issues need to be addressed in the following areas: Clients attitude Bit selection Available Data

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Bend setting & Orientation


Time Drilling

Client Attitude
When the success of a side-track is not a foregone conclusion the client needs to be made aware of: The Side-track is the objective of the current operation Our commitment to success
The Time drilling program The likely outcome of our actions The factors that have limited our success previously

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The contingency plan

Bit Selection
Bit selection should be based on the short term requirement: Is durability a requirement? NO

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What are our requirements?


Ability to side-cut into this formation What kind of bit will do this?

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Bit Selection
There are specialized PDC side-tracking bits:
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Bit Selection
And specialized Natural Diamond side-tracking bits:
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Bit Selection
There are certain characteristics common to fixed cutter bits designed for side-tracking: The bit must not be inherently stable
Shallow Cone Negligible Taper Minimal Gauge Protection Short Shank

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High cutter density on the edge

Bit Selection
When a dedicated fixed cutter bit is not available we need to select the most appropriate roller cone bit. The qualities that we are looking are those that will give us the best side-cutting action. Which bit will be most effective in side-tracking? a) An insert bit

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b) A milled tooth bit


c) It depends on the formation
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Bit Selection
To decide we need to consider the method used to protect the gauge in the two different roller cone bit types. Insert bits are fitted with gauge inserts Milled Bits have no such apparent protection

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Bit Selection
Another feature to consider is Skew: Insert bits mostly have a Low Skew
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Milled tooth bits for soft formation have a High Skew

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Bit Selection
Recap When a problematic side-track is expected:
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Dedicated Side-track bits are most effective Milled tooth bits are preferred to Insert bits 1-1-X bits are not suitable except in soft formations Hydraulics must be considered

Available Data
When Preparing a Side-track it is advisable to use all the information available to you to ensure success. Sources of relevant data include:

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Mud Log
Lithology ROP Problems and Observations i.e. losses, torque

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Available Data
Sources of relevant data include:

Geolograph / Martin Decker Sheet


ROP Comments & Observations
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Wireline logs
Caliper Porosity Resistivity Passive Gamma

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Available Data
Sources of relevant data include:

D&M data
Surveys Observations
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IADC Report

Some of this data will need to be interpreted as few people like to report actions or events that reflect badly on themselves, preferring to cloud the issue.
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Bend Setting & Orientation


Bend Setting function of DLS requirement
Increasing the bend provides a greater offset and thus a higher side-force. The exception is when coming off a plug that has stringers in it.
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Bend Setting & Orientation


Orientation is a function of Objective: We need to decide what is most important To never reenter the old hole
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To correct the direction of the well toward a target


To facilitate to the maximum the side-track

Each of these will require a different approach


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Time Drilling
To time drill we need to plan our strategy based on: ROP when drilled Type & Behavior of Formation
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Well Path close to the Side-track


Logs of this well or similar offset well Use all available sources of information

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Time Drilling
Decide your game plan: Time drilling Rate & Distance for each step
Inform Client Rep & Driller / Toolpusher
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Maximize Block height


Be aware of Lag time
Watch cutting ratios Sample catch quality Switch to WOB drilling

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Time Drilling Rules


In a tough sidetrack: Dont let the client fluster you Yes you can slow down again
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It is never as bad as it seems


Patience wins through The cost of setting a new plug is higher than drilling slower

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Open hole Sidetrack

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Rotary Steerable
That can be in three following part:
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PD & whipstock kickoffs

Kick off from vertical


Open hole side tracks

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Ensure a decent rat hole is drilled 2-5m minimum, but do not drill too far as mill may start to drop angle and track casing. Ensure that the mills are in gauge after milling the window. Ideally set toolface angle of the whipface at between 60 and 110 either left or right. This reduces the chance of tracking down along the casing. Do not rotate the tool through the window if possible. Wash through the window and use low flow to prevent pad damage.
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Sidetracking with PowerDrive Whipstock

Start drilling with reduced drilling parameters (WOB/RPM) to prevent pad damage. Use 100% setting to prevent PowerDrive tracking down the side of the casing. Then cut back to required setting once clear of the sidetrack. If Whipstock, is a cased hole Whipstock then gravity toolface must be used and if that is the case then sufficient angle must be in the hole ie + 4-5 degrees. (SQ failure NS)
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Sidetracking with PowerDrive Whipstock

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Kick off out of Whipstock PD475 (XOM


B57)
Casing Interaction at kick off point
24 23.5 23 22.5 100 90 80 70 60
Drop Rate 28deg/10 0

PDINCL (DEG) Steering Setting 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Steering Setting) 2 per. Mov. Avg. (PDINCL (DEG))

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Powerdrive Inclination

22 21.5 21 20.5 20 19.5 19


Build Rate 5+deg/100 Build Rate 1.5deg/100

50 40 30

Casing Interaction areas 20 10 0 Bit damaged ?

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10000

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Hole Depth

10070

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10090

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Hole angle: 24 degrees.


Kevin Gray 12th OctoberPD 2002BHA At low initial setting started to track Casing.

Kick off from vertical


Close to full gauge stabilizer (1/8 UG) Allows maximum 3D steerability

Select bit type with aggressive side cutting action


Fully active gauge Program the SCB for 4 pulse telemetry (GTF / MTF)
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Start with maximum bias on the required magnetic TF


Establish kick off before reducing bias % Downlink to gravity TF once above +/- 5 degrees inc. Make any azimuth corrections early
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Do not work pipe close to bottom on connections

Sidetracking off a Cement plug


Ensure the cement is of sufficient quality and quantity Consider using a flex joint and a near or full gauge control stabilizer to maximize the steering response Set the tool to a suitable steer angle with the maximum proportion (100%)
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If the cement plug is firm and able to take weight, attempt to drill off using normal drilling RPM but controlled ROP

If the cement plug remains soft, consider waiting for the cement to harden Monitor the Inc from the tool to avoid excessive doglegs
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Openhole sidetracking with PowerDrive


Should only be considered in high angle holes. Formation drillability is key, softer/easier/quicker. Choose a point with abrupt change in profile. ChevTex UK put customized build sections into profile to enable OHST. Be patient when creating ledge. Set tool to 100% lowside, this only helps initially, then gravity takes over. Use high RPM and a bit with good side cutting ability. After sidetrack is initiated monitor cont inc to control DLS.
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Summary
Four primary kick-off methods
- Five primary types of Whipstocks Explain where and why each method is preferred
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Issues need to be addressed in Motor deflection


Rotary Steerable

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Question????????????????????

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