8 views

Uploaded by Renu Sekaran

Heat Transfer

- Transfer of Thermal Energy
- PerPan.pdf
- hot air balloon
- Curriculam Vitae 2003 Updated
- 7.2 - Heat English Version
- Heat Conduction
- Industrial Furnaces
- Practice Chapter 7
- Lecture 4B.2 Background to Thermal Analysis
- Unit - 1 Basic Concepts
- 1-s2.0-S0306261909003171-main
- hmt ppt1
- 7.2) Heat Flow
- Background to Thermal Analysis
- Pass the Heat
- Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
- Mechanical Engineering
- (1)ME250 ReviewQuestions Solutions
- Cracking
- Abubakar 729

You are on page 1of 25

TOPIC OUTCOMES

It is expected that students will be able to:

Explain

the principle and mechanisms of heat transfer. units involving heat transfer.

Utilize

CONTENTS

Units

and Dimensions Energy and Heat Units Conservation of Energy and Heat Balances Introduction and Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Dimensions

are: properties that can be measured such as length, time, mass, temperature properties that can be calculated by multiplying or dividing other dimensions, such as velocity (length/time)

Units

are means of expressing the dimensions such as feet or meter for length, hours/seconds for time.

valid equation must be dimensionally homogeneous: that is, all additive terms on both sides of the equation must have the same unit

Every

CONVERSION OF UNIT

A

measured quantity can be expressed in terms of any units having the appropriate dimension convert a quantity expressed in terms of one unit to equivalent in terms of another unit, multiply the given quantity by the conversion factor factor a ratio of equivalent values of a quantity expressed in different units

To

Conversion

SYSTEM OF UNITS

SYSTEM OF UNITS

Components of a system of units: Base units - units for the dimensions of mass, length, time, temperature, electrical current, and light intensity. Multiple units- multiple or fractions of base unit e.g. time can be hours, millisecond, year, etc. Derived units - units that are obtained in one or two ways: by multiplying and dividing base units; also referred to as compound units e.g. ft/min (velocity), cm2(area), kg.m/s2 (force)

UNIT

Base Unit

Quantity Temperature Time Mole Mass Length SI Kelvin Second Gram mole Kilogram meter K s mole kg m American Rankine Second pound mole Pound mass feet R s lbmole lbm ft CGS Kelvin Second Gram mole Gram Centimeter K s mole g cm

Multiple Unit

Multiple Unit Preferences tera (T) 1012 109 106 103 centi (c) 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9

UNIT

Derivatives SI unit

Derived SI Units Quantity Volume Force Pressure Energy/ Work Power Unit Liter Newton (SI) Dyne (CGS) Pascal Joule Calorie Watt Symbol L N Pa J cal W Equivalent to the Based Unit 0.001 m3 = 1000 cm3 1 kg.m/s2 1 g.cm/s2 1 N/m2 1 N.m = 1 kg.m2/s2 4.184 J = 4.184 kg.m2/s2 1 J/s = 1 kg.m2/s3

Force

is proportional to product of mass and acceleration Usually defined using derived units : 1 Newton (N) = 1 kg .m/s2 1 dyne = 1 g .cm/s2 1 Ibf = 32.174 Ibm .ft/s2

Weight

of an object is force exerted on the object by gravitational attraction of the earth i.e. force of gravity, g. of gravitational acceleration: g = 9.8066 m/s2 = 980.66 cm/s2 = 32.174 ft/s

Value

TRY THIS

An

engineer who is working on the heat transfer analysis of a brick building in English units needs the thermal conductivity of brick. But the only value he can find from his handbooks is 0.72 W/m.oC, which is in SI units. To make matters worse, the engineer does not have a direct conversion factor between the two unit systems for thermal conductivity. Can you help him out? From your conversion table, you find that 1 W = 3.41214 Btu/h 1 m = 3.2808 ft 1oC = 1.8oF

Heat

form of energy that is transferred across the boundary of a system at a given temperature to another system at lower temperature. Heat the energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree.

Specific

HEAT CONT

Definition of: Latent Heat - energy required to change the phase of a

substance (solid to liquid: ???, liquid to gas: ???)

Sensible

Heat

heat required to change the temperature of a substance the heat given to a body, when the body is in such a state that the heat gained by it doesn't convert to latent heat, or the energy supplied is not used up to change the state of the system In thermodynamics, they are called thermal energy.

Thermal

Heat

transfer is thermal energy transport due to a temperature difference. Thermal energy is associated with the translation, rotation, vibration and electronic states of the atoms and molecules that comprise the materials. It represents the cumulative effect of microscopic activities and is directly linked to the temperature of matter. Heat transfer occur because of a temperature difference driving force and heat flows from the high to the low temperature region. 3 mechanism of heat transfer are; i) Conduction ii) Convection iii) Radiation

The general balance for heat transfer: (Rate of heat in) + (Rate of generation of heat) = (Rate of heat out) + (Rate of accumulation of heat)

If we assume steady-state heat transfer, no heat generation. rate of accumulation is zero. rate of heat input = rate of heat output. rate of heat transfer is then constant with time. temperature at various points in the system do not change with time. rate of a transfer process is equal to driving force over resistance Rate of = Driving Force

Transfer

Resistance (R)

Conduction: the transfer of heat from a solid to another solid touching each other. Convection: the transfer of heat by circulation or movement through liquid or gases. Radiation: the transfer of heat from an object traveling through a space until absorbed by another object.

CONDUCTION

In

conduction, heat is transfer between the adjacent molecules because of the difference in their thermal energy. The hotter molecules have a greater energy and they give or impart an energy to the adjacent molecules which have lower energy levels. e.g.: when we heat one side of a metal plate, the other side will also become hot. This is because heat is transfer in that metal plate by conduction. Energy can also be transferred by free electrons, which is quite important in metallic solids.

Flux of conduction heat transfer can be calculated by Fouriers Law qx dT k Fouriers Law A dx qx : heat-transfer rate in the x direction (SI: W or J/s; cgs: cal/s; Eng.: btu/h) A : cross sectional are normal to the heat flow (m2) k : thermal conductivity ( SI: W/m. K; cgs: cal/s. cm. C; Eng.: btu/h. F. ft ) dT/dx : temperature different in the x direction The minus sign is required in Fouriers equation because the heat transfer is positive in the direction from initial point 1 to the final point 2. Since the T1 > T2 (heat is transport from high temperature to lower temperature region), minus sign is needed to make the value of heat rate positive.

EXERCISE 1

One

face of a copper plate 3 cm thick is maintained at 400oC, and the other face is maintained at 100oC. How much heat is transferred through the plate per unit area if k(copper) = 370 W/m.oC?

Answer:

3.7 MW/m2

Convection transfer of heat by bulk transport and mixing of macroscopic element of warmer portions with cooler portions of a gas or a liquid. It often involves the energy exchange between a solid surface and a fluid. Example : loss of heat from radiator where air is circulated by a fan. q hA(Tw T f )

q A Tw Tf h

: heat transfer rate (W) : area (m2) : temperature of solid surface (K) : average temperature of bulk fluid flowing to the solid : convective heat transfer coefficient (SI: W/m2. K; Eng.: btu/h. ft2. F)

2 types of convection: Natural Convection - motion of the fluid arises solely due to the temperature differences existing within the fluid. Example: hot air rising off the surface of a radiator. Forced Convection - motion of the fluid is imposed externally (such as by a pump or fan). Example: a fan-powered heater, where a fan blows cool air past a heating element, heating the air.

Tw

Fluid Flowing

Tf q

q hA Tw T f

Tf 1 hA

Tf R

EXERCISE 2

Air

at 20oC blows over a hot plate 50 by 75 cm maintained at 250oC. The convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2.oC. Calculate the heat transfer.

Answer:

2.156 kW

Radiation is the transfer of energy through a space by electromagnetic waves. One of the easiest example is the transfer of heat from the sun to the earth. When thermal radiation falls upon a body, a part of this radiation is absorbed as heat, a part is reflected back into space and a part may be transmitted into body. Radiation heat transfer can be calculate from Stefan-Boltzmann equation: 4 4 q A1 (T1 T2 )

A1 : area of object (m2) T1 : temperature of object (K) T2 : temperature of surrounding/enclosure (K) : emissivity (dimensionless) : Boltzmann constant (5.676 x 10-8 W/m2. K4 or 0.1714 x 10-8 btu/h. ft2. R4)

EXERCISE 3

Two infinite black 300oC exchange

plates at 800oC and heat by radiation. Calculate the heat transfer per unit area. (for black body, = 1)

Answer:

69.03 kW/m2

- Transfer of Thermal EnergyUploaded byPeter Kachouh
- PerPan.pdfUploaded byAditya Paiker
- hot air balloonUploaded byapi-402522439
- Curriculam Vitae 2003 UpdatedUploaded byvivek_1551986
- 7.2 - Heat English VersionUploaded byarmsX
- Heat ConductionUploaded byDaniel Manogaran
- Industrial FurnacesUploaded byasif712
- Practice Chapter 7Uploaded byMuhamad Zahid Azis
- Lecture 4B.2 Background to Thermal AnalysisUploaded byShashank Babu
- Unit - 1 Basic ConceptsUploaded byShubham Yadav
- 1-s2.0-S0306261909003171-mainUploaded byResearcherz
- hmt ppt1Uploaded byDrAneesh Somwanshi
- 7.2) Heat FlowUploaded byMohd Saiful Hisyam Jasni
- Background to Thermal AnalysisUploaded byMihajloDjurdjevic
- Pass the HeatUploaded bymimi_moncada
- Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat ExchangerUploaded byAna Quintana
- Mechanical EngineeringUploaded bysathishmt
- (1)ME250 ReviewQuestions SolutionsUploaded byjohnsucceed
- CrackingUploaded byEman El Dsouky
- Abubakar 729Uploaded byabubakar chohaan
- 06_acv_duskaUploaded byoresteb2703
- Transport Phenomena in Food EngineeringUploaded byVane Ánady Mosqueda
- Me 5sem SyllUploaded bySiddharth Solanki
- 1-s2.0-S014070071200196X-mainUploaded byDicky Zul
- 1 基础知识.pptUploaded byGama Ajiyantono
- Comparative Analysis of Different Fluids in One Shell Pass And Two Tube Heat ExchangerUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Extended surfaceUploaded byAlper Sevinç
- Design Optimization of Heat Wheels for Energy Recovery in HVAC SystemsUploaded byJeanLuc
- Trasmision de calor Mc Adams 1985Uploaded byDaniel Perez Perez
- Analysis of Pinch Point in Liquid Vapour Heat Exchanger of R134a DMAC Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System 2013 Applied Thermal EngineeringUploaded byMauri Altamirano

- Lesson Plan Format 28-3Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- CHEM FORM 4.docxUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- F1C2 CellsUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Rate of ReactionUploaded byzizi
- Lesson Plan Format 24-2Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Lesson Plan Format 17-02 (Opal)Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Lesson Plan Format 27-1Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Lesson Plan Format 24-2 (Opal)Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- chemistry-perfect-score-module-form-4-set-1Uploaded bysiti zalikha
- 2fUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- SCIENCE FORM 3.docxUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Lesson Plan Format 31-3Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Lesson Plan Format 27-1 (Opal)Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Science Form 1Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Lesson Plan Format 28-3 TopazUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Intensive 4 Page 3Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Intensive 3 Page 2Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Intensive 4 Page 3.pdfUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- School Culture Climate & AchievementUploaded byPutra Rahmat Army
- FORM 2 - PAGE 2Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- FORM 2 - PAGE 2Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- ArticleUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- FORM 2 - PAGE 1Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- F1 - Intensive 3 Page 1.pdfUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- F1 - Intensive 3 Page 1.pdfUploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Intensive 4 Page 2Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- F1 - Intensive 4 Page 1Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- School Culture and Organization: Lessons from Research and ExperienceUploaded byIsabel Garrido Casassa
- Intensive 4 Page 4Uploaded byRenu Sekaran
- Teacher Leaders Impacting School CultureUploaded byYugesh D PANDAY

- Heat TransferUploaded bytaher
- IndexUploaded byTuan Hoang
- Practical Thermal Design Of Shell-and-tube Heat ExchangersUploaded bywasp14989
- 10.5923.j.mechanics.20130305.04Uploaded byFawaz Parto
- Finned Tube Heat ExchangerUploaded bybluishgolden
- Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger DesignUploaded byDaniel James Watkins
- solucionario ccc 1Uploaded byYaiza Martin
- Corollary of 2nd Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded byHusnain A Ali
- ME3122 Handbook of Heat Transfer Equations 2014Uploaded byNian Wee Wu
- Effects of Temperature and Concentration on DiffusivityUploaded byb000293713907
- K13THT Laboratory GuideUploaded byjingyuan
- Thermal TransferUploaded byHakim Habibi
- Shell&Tube Exchanger DesignUploaded byabhmars
- Mass TransferUploaded byEddz Del Rosario Rodriguez
- Heat Transfer- Principles And Applications_B. K. Dutta.pdfUploaded bydebdeep
- Unit 11problemsheetUploaded byKelmy Thomas Maria
- chapter_5Uploaded byLesleyWhaleyFranks
- Convection SummaryUploaded bycacafaruq
- TE-HT Lab Manual FinalUploaded byparchure123
- M. B. Hastings, Z. A. Daya, E. Ben-Naim, and R. E. Ecke- Entropic Tightening of Vibrated ChainsUploaded byKeomss
- bs99_pa-19Uploaded byΔημητρηςΣαρακυρου
- MSQ in - CopyUploaded byAdel Handi
- physics ch 13Uploaded bysuperfr3shm
- 04.Conduction_Part2 (2)Uploaded bydharshanaab
- HVAC CalculationUploaded byAdel Khafajah
- Exp 4 Combined Convection and RadiationUploaded byHaitham S Khouri
- Step by step design heat exchangerUploaded bymusaveer
- thermal lab reportUploaded byMainakendra Nath Mandal
- Xiong_Wei سه مثال ساده کامسولUploaded bysafasaba
- Problem Set 2Uploaded by洪琳雅