<1>

2 times

every year

3 days

>450,000

Comic Market

Comiket

buy/sell doujinshi

media by fans

amateurs

enthusiasts

[Lilian Fourhand video]

original

original

“rip”

“mix”

“burn”

[Gradius video]

[Airrade video]

Comiket

RW

culture

not only consume

“produced elsewhere”

actively

make

customize

<2>

2006

web service

ニコニコ動画 (Nico Nico Douga)

real-time comments

fly across the screen

novel interactions

1.sing along

1.sing along 2.cheer

1.sing along 2.cheer 3.boo

1.sing along 2.cheer 3.boo 4.survey

1.sing along 2.cheer 3.boo 4.survey 5.typing lessons

content

evolve

Kumikyoku Nico Nico Douga

[Kumikyoku video]

So what?

100+ derived versions

slight modifications

crossovers

personal, artistic touches

build upon one another

Something always gets created

creativity

visible

in your face

inviting

fun

RW

culture

<3>

why?

meme

“a theoretical unit of cultural information”

1.catch phrases 2.tunes 3.beliefs 4.fashions 5.technologies

1.catch phrases

1.catch phrases 2.tunes

1.catch phrases 2.tunes 3.beliefs

1.catch phrases 2.tunes 3.beliefs 4.fashions

memes ≈ genes

replicate

propagate

natural selection

extinct

survive

evolve

mutation

inheritance (crossovers)

Nico Nico Douga

a meme = a video

large complex of memes (memeplex)

evolve fast

conducive to evolution

user interface

norms

fosters

natural selection

evolution

<4>

user interface

real-time comments

easy to give impressions

want to comment

fun

see

sing along

make noise

a part of the mob

contribute

decorate

fun to upload

more feedback

see how people react

much more fun

visualization

more incentives to create

discovery of interesting videos

promote social causes

detract from natural selection

editors

agendas

steal spotlight

from truly popular videos

<5>

norms

doujinshi

encourage

derivative works

evolution

easy access

source material

rapid feedback

people already want to derive

not only the Japanese

everyone wants to derive

no doujinshi in America?

doujinshi = derivative works

no permission

America

lawsuits

Japan

opposite

Comiket

>30 years

increasingly commercial

$245M in 2007

15% of Otaku industry

anime DVDs manga video games figures

lack of resources

“We don’t have enough lawyers. There just aren’t enough resources to prosecute cases like this.”

norm

legacy

live with it

manga creators

manga creators were/are doujinshi creators

restricting

strong repercussion

consumers

creators

adapted

Comiket

best opportunities to sell goods

“Lucky Star no

Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~

“Lucky Star no

Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~

“Lucky Star no

Kiwami, AAA” [Shiteyanyo]~

norm

held by industry

enforced loosely by consumers/creators

free to build upon

evolve

<6>

Nico Nico Douga

UI

user participation

accelerate

creativity

norm

encourage derivation

informally

protects uploaders

publishers’ control

moral of the story

foster creativity

2 things

(1) make it fun

(2) make it free

commons

(1) easy

(2) much harder

change law

reduce copyright’s scope

make doujinshi norm strong

do something

rights to derive

protected by the law