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Smart Materials

And their application in Architecture

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Functional, Smart, Innovative Materials


Functional Materials or Smart Materials:
Smart Materials is a relatively new term for materials and products that have changeable properties and are able to reversibly change their shape or color in response to physical and/or chemical influences

Semi-smart materials are notable for their ability, for example, to change their shape in response to an influence once or a few times
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Smart Materials exhibit the following characteristics:


Immediacy they respond in real-time. Transiency they respond to more than one environmental state. Self-actuation intelligence is internal to rather than external to the material. Selectivity their response is discrete and predictable. Directness the response is local to the activating event
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Smart materials may be classified in two basic ways:


Type 1- property changing Materials that undergo changes in one or more of their properties Chemical, Mechanical, Electrical, Magnetic, Thermal, in direct response to a change in the external stimuli associated with the environment surrounding the material
Type 2- energy exchanging Materials that transform energy from one to an output energy in another form, and again do so directly and reversibly (piezoelectric, thermoelectric, photovoltaic'setc.) Free Powerpoint Templates

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Project Proposal:

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Architectural Needs for Optimization in Hot and Dry Climates:


1. Control of Solar Radiation transmitting through the Buildings Envelope 2. Control of Conductive Heat Transfer through the Buildings Envelope 3. Control of Interior Heat Generation 4. Secondary Energy Supply 5. Optimization of Lighting Systems 6. Optimization of HVAC Systems (Passive Cooling)
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1.

Control of Solar Radiation transmitting through the Buildings Envelope


Smart Material Application:
Electrochromics

Proposed Products
Electrochromic Glass systems incorporating Metal Oxides ( Electrochromic glass utilizes a thin film of metal oxides that can tint a window when hit with a small amount of voltage. The glass stays clear or translucent on the inside and gets darker on the outside, lowering cooling loads and reducing the need for window shades)
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1. Control of Solar Radiation transmitting through the Buildings Envelope


Smart Material Application:
Photochromics

Proposed Products
Photochromic Pigments Photochromic Glass Photochromic Plastics

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1.

Control of Solar Radiation transmitting through the Buildings Envelop

Smart Material Application

Liquid Crystal Displays

Proposed Products

LCDs (are made out of special thin flat panel that can let light go through it, or can block the light. The panel is made up of several blocks, and each block can be in any shape. Each block is filled with liquid crystals that can be made clear or solid, by changing the electric current to that block.)
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1. Control of Solar Radiation transmitting through the Buildings Envelope


Smart Material Application
Louver control systems Exterior radiation sensors (photo voltaics) Interior daylight sensors (photo-electrics) Controls (shape memory alloys)

Proposed Products
Organic Photovoltaic Cells (OPV)
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2. Control of Conductive Heat Transfer through the Buildings Envelope


Smart Material Application
Thermotropics : thermo-tropics are materials or components that are able to reversibly change their optical characteristics (e.g. transparency) in response to temperature.

Proposed Products
Thermo-tropic Glass

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2.

Control of Conductive Heat Transfer through the Buildings Envelope


Phase Change Materials (PCM): absorbs and
releases thermal energy in order to maintain a regulated temperature within a product such as textiles, building materials, packaging, or electronics.

Smart Material Application

Proposed Products
Microencapsulated PCM: The capsule wall or
shell provides a microscopic container for the PCM. Even when the core is in the liquid state, the capsules still act as a solid keeping the PCM from melting away.

Plaster with PCM Gypsum Plasterboard with PCM Aluminum foil bags with PCM
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3. Control of interior heat generation

Smart Material Application

Fiber-optic systems: Heat-Free lighting (fiber transmits the light but isolates the heat from the light source from the illumination point)

Proposed Products

Fiber-optic systems

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3. Control of interior heat generation

Smart Material Application

Thermo-electrics: They react to temperature differences by absorbing heat and generating an electric current

Proposed Products

Thermoelectric Generators (TEG)


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3. Control of interior heat generation

Smart Material Application

Photoluminescents

Proposed Products Daylight-Luminous Dispersion-Based Paints: They can be applied by brush, roller or spray to surfaces such as wood, plastic, textiles, paper, cardboard, concrete and masonry/ High flexibility, good adhesion.

Daylight-Luminous Paints Based on TwoComponent Acrylate-Based Paint: Good resistance to mechanical loads, good adhesion, highly dirt-repellent, simple to clean, resistance to wear with additional Powerpoint Templates protective Free coating.

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3. Control of interior heat generation

Smart Material Application

Light-emitting diodes

Proposed Products

Light-emitting diodes

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4. Secondary Energy Supply

Smart Material Application

Photovoltaics

Proposed Products

Organic Photovoltaic Cells (OPV)

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5. Optimization of Lighting Systems

Smart Material Application

Electroluminescents

Proposed Products

Injection Electroluminescence Powder Electroluminescence Thin Film Electroluminescence Thick Film Electroluminescence Polymer-/Small Molecule Electroluminescence

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6. Optimization of HVAC Systems (Passive Cooling)

Smart Material Application

Pyroelectrics: releases electrical charge due to a materials change in temperature and vice versa

Proposed Products

Pyroelectrics

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6. Optimization of HVAC Systems (Passive Cooling)

Smart Material Application

Photoelectrics

Proposed Products

Dye Solar Cells (DSC): are a


photovoltaic enabling technology which enables metal, glass and polymeric based products in the building, transport and electronics sectors to generate energy and improve energy efficiency.

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6. Optimization of HVAC Systems (Passive Cooling)

Smart Material Application

Thermoelectrics

Proposed Products

Thermoelectric Generators (TEG): by absorbing the heat to transfer it to electricity, it helps in reducing the temp of the space.
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CASE STUDY
The Faculty of Architecture Building University of Khartoum

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University of Khartoum is a multi-campus, co-educational, public university located in Khartoum, between Jamaa Street and the Nile Street.

Faculty of Architecture

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Faculty of Architecture

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The Faculty consists of 4 main buildings


Building A:
GF: 3 Lecture Halls 1st F.: Studio/Exam Hall

Building B:
GF: Lecture room + Computer Lab 1st F.: Administration Offices 2nd F.: Staff Offices + Girls Lounge
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Building C:
GF: 2 Studios 1st F.: 2 Studios 2nd F.:1 Studio + Library

Building D:
GF: Adm. Offices + Lab 1st F.: Staff Offices 2nd F.: Staff Offices
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Case study will take place on Building B.


Characteristics: Structure: R/C Column and Beam Walls: Brick + Plaster Finish Ceilings: R/C Flat Slab + Plaster/Gypsum Board Finish Windows: Aluminum Frame + Glazing + Louvers Air-conditioning System: Split Units
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Computer Lab

Masters Lecture Room

Reception

Ground Floor Planc


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Deans Office

Reception

Meeting Room

Faculty and Students affairs

First Floor Plan


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Girls Lounge & Rest Rooms

Staff Offices

Staff Offices

Second Floor Plan


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Northern Elevation
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Southern Elevation
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Proposed Changes
All plaster finishes + paint + gypsum board panels be replaced by materials that includes PCM. This will help in controlling the amount of heat conducted from the outside to the inside, therefore reducing the temp. inside the space and leading to less usage of cooling systems

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Louvers should be removed and Glazing in windows should be replaced with Smart Glass. Windows in the Lecture Rooms on the Ground floor are creating a lot of distraction for students. So they should be replaced by Electrochromic Glass, in order to be easily controlled by a switch. When there is a lecture or an exam the switch is turned on and the glass becomes opaque or darker. Creating privacy and the space becomes isolated from the outdoor environment.

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The windows of the administration and staff offices can be replaced by either photo-chromic or thermo-tropic glass. Whereas when subjected to light or heat the glass changes color to darker to reduce the amount of heat and light transmitted into the space. Dye solar cells can also be used and integrated in the glass so as to generate electricity as well as giving an aesthetic value.

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When it comes to the electricity generation, OPV cells can be used on the exterior of the building to absorb solar energy and provide the building with electricity as well as an aesthetic value.

Fiber optic systems and light emitting diodes can be used for internal lighting systems because they dont release heat energy which will help in keeping the space cool Free Powerpoint Templates Page 39

Thank You
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