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Salient features of IR

More than 150 years old Beginning it was total private ownership Now it is owned and managed by the GOI Mix of the oldest technology to the latest state of the art Largest employer

Annual output measured in billions Largest network under single management Perceived as harbinger of economic development Considered the lifeline of the nation

IRs daily Transport Output

2 Million Train Kms 17 Million Passengers 2 Million Tonnes freight loading 8800 Passenger trains 5900 Freight trains

IR's trains cover the round _trip distance between earth and moon, four times a day !

To err is human

To safeguard against that is Rail Signalling

HISTORY OF RAILWAY SIGNALLING 1825: FIRST RAILWAY LINE FOR GOODS


TRAFFIC WAS OPENED BETWEEN DARLINGTON TO STOCKTON (U.K.) UNIFORMED MEN ON HORSES GUIDED THE TRAIN

1830 : FIRST PASSENGER TRAIN BETWEEN


LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER POLICEMAN WERE POSTED AT FIXED INTERVALS

HISTORY OF RAILWAY SIGNALLING


1838 : POLICEMEN WERE REPLACED BY FIXED
MECHANICAL SIGNALS

1853 :

FIRST TRAIN SERVICE INTRODUCED ON INDIAN RAILWAYS, SEMAPHORE SIGNALS WERE USED.

Development of Rail Signalling: Worldover


Continuous Braking System Auxiliary Warning System Track Circuit Interlocking Space Interval System Time Interval System First Train: Darlington Stockton

1825

1856

1872 1874

1906

Development of Rail Signalling: India

First Route Relay Interlocking : Churchgate,WR Centralised Traffic Control Became a Must for MAUQ by 1950s Gorakhpur- Chappra) Double Wire Signalling Interlocking: Ghaziabad- Peshawar 23 Stations First Train: Bombay VT Thane

Axle Counter

1853

1894

1920

1958 1966 1972

Development of Rail Signalling: India


First Solid State Interlocking (Srirangam Station, S Rly)

Train Management
System Churchgate Virar Section

AWS : On WR: Churchgate Virar Section


First AWS: ER (GayaMughalsarai, Howrah-Burdwan)

1970

1972

1987

2003

Areas wherein Signalling can prevent accidents


Accident at station.
Accident in Block Section. Accident Level Crossing gate.

INTERLOCKING
Signaling and interlocking was first introduced on 23 crossing stations between Peshawar and Ghaziabad in the country in 1894. Colour light signaling was introduced on Indian Railways by GIP Railways in 1928 between Bombay VT and Byculla stations. Today, over 82% of total 6527 block stations on Indian Railways are provided with some form of signalling and interlocking arrangements. Over 67% of total interlocked stations on Indian Railways are now provided with colour light signalling.

Interlocking Principle
CHECK
Complete route for reception of train is unoccupied All points are correctly set & locked All Conflicting signals are at Danger Position(RED) Level Crossing gates (if any) are closed

Till Then All above are True

* Progress of Interlocking
5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 19 5051 19 6465
ST D-III

19 7071

19 8081

19 9091

20 0001

20 0102

20 0506

ST D-II

ST D-I

MNI/NI

Installation

Status
Colour Light Signal Stations

(in units)
As on 31.03.07

Interlocked Stations Token less Block Working (No. of Block Sections)

5692 Nos. 1,930


3,356 3654 stns

Automatic Block Signalling (Track kms.) PI/RRI/SSI Multiple Aspect Colour Light Signalling (No. stations) of Automatic Block Signalling

Mech

lever frame

671 stns 4,318 3356 Tkm 982 stns 3250

Second Distant Signal Panel Interlocking (No. of stations)


Route Relay Interlocking (No. of stations)

Block Proving by Axle Counter


AWS Interlocked LC gates

220 stns
6708 nos.

234 157

329 RKms

Solid State Interlocking (No. of stations)

Signalling Growth on IR
Stations

1969

1979

1989
5403 1899 895 123 2051

2001
5647 3009 2103 219 14 3419

2007
5692 4318 3250 234 157 3356 8147 15872

Interlocked 4815 5091 MACLS 997 PI 314 RRI 90 SSI/EI Auto Signals 825 1437 (TKm.) Interlocked Gates Gates with phone -

5223 6283 9615 14227

Panel/Route Relay/Solid State Interlocking


Conventional mechanical lever frames highly prone to failures, miscreant activity and time consuming operation. In panel/route relay interlocking: centralized operation of points and signals.

Electronic interlocking is the modern signaling system using solid state technology.
3641 locations provided with PI/RRI/SSIs. Provision of 900 PI/RRI/SSI works are in progress, including about 230 SSIs.

S ignalling Solutions to take care of human error


S.NO. ITEM
1. 2. Reception on occupied line Train dispatched on occupied blocked section Driver passing signal at danger

Equipment/System
Track circuit Block working with axle counter,Automatic signalling,ACD AWS, ACD

and to prevent collision


4 Blank signal Double filament bulb LED signal

Track Circuit
Eliminates use of human agency to physically ensure occupation or otherwise of the track. Detects presence or otherwise of a train through an electrical circuit, in which rails form a part of the circuit. Prevents reception of a train on an occupied line.

Track Circuit
Insulation joints

Relay Feed End

Typical D.C. track circuit

Jointless Track Circuit


Eliminates tedious job of maintaining insulation joints, thus improving reliability. Requires less maintenance as equipments are centralized.
So far 1000 no. AFTCs have been provided.

Progress of Track Circuiting (Safety Device to prevent Collision)

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 200598 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 Total

Reduction in Collisions (at Stations) due to Track Circuits


100 90 87 80 70 69 60 69 50 40 30 20 10 2500 0
80 82 84 86 88 90 19 19 19 19 19 19

Total T.C. locations (in '000) Collisions


50

29 8064 5100

16 12234
98 99 00 01 02 20 07 20

92

94 19

19

19

96

19

19

20

20

Axle Counter
Eliminates requirement of insulated joints & wooden/concrete sleepers . Useful in station yards, where drainage is poor. Length of track circuit is not limited. More than 4000 nos. axle counters for track circuiting and 632 block sections for block working (last vehicle proving) are installed. Digital axle counter - high reliability. Indigenous Development/Cross Approval of DAC

Colour Light Signals


Improved visibility Improved safety Higher speed Boosts drivers confidence

ADVANTAGES ELIMINATION OF BULB FUSING HIGHER VISIBILITY

LED Signals (Light Emitting Diode)

CURRENT CONSUMTION LOW

So far about 3000 signal aspects have been provided with LED based signals and work in progress for another 5000 signal aspects

2nd Distant Signal


Sighting Board Distant Home

.4 Km

I Km (a) Existing signalling arrangement

1 Km 2 Distant
nd

1 Km Inner Distant

Home

1 Km 1 Km (b) Second Distant Signal

Provision of Second Distant Signal

DOUBLE DISTANT

Y y

y R

1 km

1 km

SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTION IN RUNNING TIME OF TRAINS DRIVERS CONFIDENCE INCREASED FOR RUN THROUGH TRAINS

Monitoring system

Microwave Backup

Communication line
,

1200 Stations provided with Data Loggers

Some Important Alarms


Audio visual popup on screen with details of the following:
Signal passing at danger Signal gone to Danger Point failure Failure of all AC supplies Low voltage of battery supplies Panel button stuck up Loose packing of points Train entering in block section with out line clear

THE NEW DIAGONSIS TOOL FOR SAFETY & IMPROVED TRAIN OPERATIONS- DATA LOGGERS

DATA LOGGERS HELP DETECTING Drivers passing a Signal at Danger Station staff making mistake of Placing Signal at Danger at last minute. Driver passing on a turnout at excessive speed. Station staff inattentive and delays in taking off the signal. Equipment failing in unsafe condition. Problems in signalling circuits due to design or maintenance. Problems due to electric power fluctuations. P-way deficiencies in the turnouts not noticed during maintenance. Improper maintenance of track circuits due to poor ballast conditions. Signal staff working on the equipment and making mistakes.

Auxiliary Warning System(AWS)


Applies Brakes automatically in case Driver disregards a Red Signal
Suburban Trains, Mumbai

Regulates Train Speed to 15 KMPH on Yellow Aspect

Controls Train speed on RED signal


(Available on WR (1987) & CR Suburban Sections on Mumbai).

ATP : Automatic Train Protection

Train Protection and Warning System(TPWS)


-TPWS, a variant of AWS , having functionality
and MMI of ETCS(level I) (Limited ) has now

been adopted for provision on Indian


Railways. -Works in progress on 280 TKms of section on Southern and North Central Railways

Train Protection and Warning Systems TPWS


Minimum Features catered:

Euro balise based . Functionality and MMI similar to ETCS-I (limited mobility) Prevention of Signal Passing at Danger (Red signal)- SPAD Automatic Speed Control and Train Protection. Speed Indication in the cab Enforcement of temporary speed restrictions at Work Sites

Automatic Train Control


So far no aid to drivers to operate train under adverse visibility (fog, dust storm etc.). Provides adequate safety and utilises full line capacity under adverse visibility Cab signalling: Signal aspects are displayed inside cab indicating optimum speed . Proposed in Metro/Kolkata & DMRC In future, cab signalling will be provided on high speed lines and metros

Block Proving by Axle Counter (BPAC)


Present system of manual verification of block clearance is a safety risk under heavy traffic density. With BPAC, block clearance is automatically proved with complete arrival of train. Improves line capacity & safety. At present 973 Block Sections have been provided with BPAC

Anti Collision Device ACD


A micro-processor based equipment to prevent head-on, side and rear-end collisions at high speed. Also Provides warning at level crossing gates. Works on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Angular Deviation Count principle. All ACDs communicate with each other with in 3 kms range.

ACD Status
ACD system on 1800 Kms of BG section of N.F. Railway introduced on trial in the year 2004-05 &

Commissioned in June 2007.


ACD Survey work of about 750 kms each on S.Rly. & S.C.Rly also started. Further ACD survey at 10000 RKms and ACD works at additional 1750 RKms also sanctioned .

Level Crossings
Unmanned Level crossings = 20738 Manned level Crossings =16607 Action plan in progress to provide:
Interlocking arrangements Telephones Train actuated warning devices (TAWD)

Manned LCs with Tele Interlocked LCs

=15872 (94%) = 8147 (49%)

Reduction in Accidents at LC gates - Safety Measures taken


100 90 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 3500 0 3800
19 80 19 84 19 88 19 92
No. of interlocked gates(in '000) No. of L C gates with telephone(in '000) Accidents

26

14729 6708 14

19 95

19 97

19 99

20 01

20 07

Audio-visual warning of approaching train to road users

Train actuated warning device (TAWD) for LC gates

Field trials were earlier conducted with types of


devices.

2 types of technologies , viz; axle detector based and


open track circuit based, short listed for further field

trials at 100 LC gates (90 manned & 10 unmanned).


Large scale adoption will be based on their performance.

S.No.

Description

Existing in use Technologies Lever frame, Panel/

Emerging and Future Technologies Electronic locking SSI inter-

1.

Interlocking

Route relay interlocking 2. Power supply Conventional Integrated power supply & Solar power packs

arrangement 3. Track circuits DC & AC Jointless track circuit e.g. AFTC suitable for both AC & DC. Digital

4.

Axle counters

Analog

5.

Signals

Semaphore and CLS (3 aspect)

CLS (4 aspect) Cab signalling

6.

Signal lamps

Double and pole lamps

triple

LED signals

7.

Signalling Cables

Copper

Optical Fibre Cable

8.

Point machines

Suitable for 115 mm switch opening and a rated life of 0.15 million operations

Fit for 160 mm switch opening with external clamp lock and a rated life of one million operations

9.

Predictive maintenance through diagnostics tool

Data loggers at station

Networking of data loggers and providing centralized NMS for maintenance of signaling system Block proving by axle counters, Automatic block Signaling , Radio block, Moving block

10.

Block working

Conventional single/double line Instruments, Automatic block Signaling

11.

Collision Protection

AWS only in Mumbai suburban on EMUs


Conventional interLocking with conventional barriers

ACD, TPWS, ATC, Radio based ETCS


LC GATE interlocking with electrically operated barrier and road user warning through ACD/TAWD.

12.

Level crossing gates

MAINTENANCE PRACTICES AND ASSET RELIABILITY MODERNISATION AND UPGRADATION


Manual operations have to be performed during the time of equipment failures.
Staff tend to adopt shortcut methods and are susceptible to create an unsafe condition leading to an accident. Equipment failure is properly analyzed and problem if any is taken up with vendor through RDSO.

Present Maintenance Practices


Frequent maintenance as per periodicity, Preventive maintenance, on the other hand, is applied when equipment is still operative and proactive treatment is given consisting of checks, examination and supervisory inspection.

Proposed Maintenance Practices


-

Reduced frequency of maintenance


Increased Mean Time Between Failures ( MTBF ) Reduced Mean Time To Repair ( MTTR )

Reduced cost of maintenance


Extensive use of Net-worked data loggers as a maintenance tool and for fault diagnostic thereby making maintenance need based. Providing means with the Staff for performing their tasks effectively and efficiently.

Problems faced by Signalling on IR


Multiple technology for same thing in one region making maintenance difficult. In adequate redundancy in the signalling system on high density routes making reliability low. Training of maintenance personnel in multiple technology. Large scale attrition of personnel.

Suggestions
Application of Modern Signaling & Telecom systems can provide specific solutions for permitting more and more trains to be run by capacity enhancement measures and at higher levels of speed, with adequate safety level and at an optimum cost but choice of Technology to improve safety through reduced human dependence, intervention should be based on reliability,maintainability,cost,proveness and made suitable for Indian conditions. Training in adopting new technology should be given at centralized training institutes like IRISET by the vendor before its introduction on IR.

Suggetions continued
-Industry, R&D Centres and Educational Institutions to work along with Indian Railways for developing and delivering solutions.
-The evaluation of Rail operation-related

personnel is a very delicate task if we bear in mind that what is at stake is the safety of a mode of public transport. Despite the technological improvements and the skill acquired through experience, it constitutes a preliminary condition for ensuring the reliability of the personnel directly related to safety.

The diagnosis of aptitude for Rail personnel is, in fact,


susceptible to evolution over a period of time, affected not only by the sociological professional or technological environment, but also by an ageing of aptitudes which is not always compensated for by experience.

- The safety system in which humans are involved must be subject to a permanent preventative monitoring process on the part of instructors, doctors and psychologists. - Human reliability in the Railway depends directly on the coherence of the multidisciplinary team in charge of the preventative monitoring of the aptitudes of the Rail employees in the performance of their duties and the tasks involved in their job.