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SocSci 1 Integ lec 03Dec13

THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES


Psych Socio Anthro

PSYCHOLOGY
Scientific study of mental processes (mind) and behavior Scientific? Notion that all knowledge can be acquired through observation, not on reasoning, tradition or common sense Scientific method: Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Argue that events support predictions

PSYCHOLOGY
Scientific study of the Mind (conscious experience) Typical questions: 1. how are sensations turned into mental awareness of the outside world? 2. what are the basic elements of thought? 3. what are the functions of thought?

Psychological Theories
1. Structuralism (Wundt, Titchner) analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related What is thinking? Introspection systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experiences

2. Functionalism (James) investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure [e.g., bricks and mortar of a house versus its usefulness] What is thinking for? Functionalist activities Leaned toward applied work and more natural settings Development in children Educational practices Usefulness of memory techniques

3. Gestalt Psychology (Wertheimer ) reaction against structuralism elementary thought particles don't capture experience ["the whole is different than the sum of its parts] Phi phenomenon [Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession]

4. Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner, Pavlov) attack on introspection psychology, as a science, should focus on observable behavior mental processes cannot be studied directly often referred to as Stimulus-Response Psychology

B.F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) like Watson, all behavior can be explained by stimulus-response pairing emphasized the importance of reinforcement and punishment

5. Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud, Jung) thoughts, memories, and desires exist below conscious awareness and exert an influence on our behavior personality, mental disorders and motivation explained in terms of unconscious determinants of behavior unconscious expressed in dreams and "slips of the tongue emphasis on the role of childhood experienced in shaping adult behavior

6. Humanistic Theory (Erikson, Maslow) rejects pessimistic view of Freud potential for selfawareness, responsibility and growth 6.1 Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy (non-directive) Argues that people tend to move toward growth and healing, and have the capacity to find their own answers. ...helped along by an accepting and understanding climate, which the CC therapist seeks to provide above all else.

6.2 Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and self actualization Self-actualization implies the attainment of the basic needs of physiological, safety/security, love/belongingness, and self-esteem.

7. Cognitive psychology (Chomsky)


A return to the study of learning, memory, perception, language, development and problem solving Cognition [the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, storing & using information] Advent of computers (late 1950's) provides a new model for thinking about the mind Developments in biology Physiological recording devices - single cell recording, EEG, CT, PET, MRI Understanding neurotransmitters

Cognitive psychology (Chomsky) Recognizing Culture before - searched for universal principles (psychic unity of mankind) now - cross-cultural factors important (child-rearing practices vary culturally) culture - shared values, customs, and beliefs (consciousness & religion/ritual)

What psychologists do 1. Research Psychologists conduct experiments or collect observations designed to uncover the basic principles of behavior and mind
2. Biopsychologists investigate the biological basis of behavior (is there a gene for a specific behavior?) 3. Personality Psychologists study the differences between individuals (what makes identical twins behave similarly and differently?)

4. Cognitive Psychologists conduct research on memory, language, problemsolving (how do individuals decide or solve problems? Is there a pattern?) 5. Experimental Psychologists conduct research on sensation, perception, and basic learning (how are geniuses produced?)

6. Developmental Psychologists study human mental and physical growth from conception to death (is intelligence associated with growth and development?) 7. Social Psychologists study how people influence one another (is personality development associated with socialization?)

8. Applied Psychologists try to extend the principles of scientific psychology to the practical, everyday problems of the world
9. School Psychologists assist in children's educational, intellectual and social development designing programs for special need children Testing Teaching

10. Industrial/Organizational use psychological principles to improve work environment predicting job performance, assessing leadership, factors contributing to job satisfaction

11. Human Factors/Engineering design and engineering of new products how best to design new keyboard or telephone touch pad best place to put knobs on stove 12. Environmental the relationship between the physical environment and psychological processes functioning of workers in different environments people's sense of personal space 13. Forensic Psychologists interface between psychology and the law assisting victims of crime profiling criminals selecting jurors for trials [U.S.]

14. Clinical Psychologists


specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders clinical psychologists versus counseling psychologists clinical psychologists versus psychiatrists

PSYCHOLOGY
What holds it all together?
...the desire to describe, predict, understand, and control behavior

Different perspectives/viewpoints

1. Biological Perspective 2. Behavioral/Clinical Perspective 3. Cognitive Perspective 4. Social-Cultural Perspective

Biological Perspective Focus


How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

Sample Issues
How do evolution and heredity influence behavior? How are messages transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?

Behavioral/Clinical Perspective

Focus
How we learn from observable responses. How to best study, assess and treat troubled people.

Sample Issues
How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter certain behaviors? What are the underlying causes of: Anxiety Disorders Phobic Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

Cognitive Perspective Focus

How we process, store and retrieve information

Sample Issues
How do we use info in remembering and reasoning? How do our senses govern the nature of perception?
(Is what you see really what you get?)

How much do infants know when they are born?

Social-Cultural Perspective Focus


How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.

Sample Issues
How are we, as members of different races and nationalities, alike as members of one human family? How do we differ, as products of different social contexts? Why do people sometimes act differently in groups than when alone?

PSYCHOLOGY
Types of Scientific Methods 1. Case Study 2. Survey 3. Naturalistic Observation 4. Correlation Coefficient 5. Experiment

PSYCHOLOGY
1. Case Study

In depth observation of one person or the effects of a single event and how it affects behavior Helps develop theories or hypotheses

2. Survey
a questionnaire about attitudes or behavior given to a sample of people

PSYCHOLOGY
3. Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations, trying not to manipulate the situation

4. Correlation Coefficient a measure that shows the extent to which two variables change together good for prediction Note: correlation does not imply causation!

Correlation and Causation

Three possible cause-effect relations


(1) Low self-esteem could cause Depression

or
(2) Depression could cause Low self-esteem

or
Low self-esteem (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause and

Depression

PSYCHOLOGY
5. Experiment a procedure for identifying the causes of behavior all experiments have two variables: Independent Variable: variable manipulated by a researcher (cause) Dependent Variable: observed consequence of IV on some behavior or mental process (effect)

Experiment

Experimental Group

these participants are exposed to the independent variable (treatment) these participants do not receive the independent variable is a comparison group we use to be able to see the effect of the independent variable (treatment)

Control Group

Note: the measure (DV) is taken for both groups

The Scientific Method

Comparing Research Methods


Research Method Basic Purpose How Conducted What is Manipulated Nothing Descriptive To observe and Case studies, surveys, (Goal: Describe) record behavior and naturalistic observations

Correlational To detect naturally Computing statistical Nothing (Goal: Predict) occurring relationships; association, sometimes to assess how well among survey responses one variable predicts Experimental (Goal: Explain) To explore cause Manipulating one or and effect more IVs and using random assignment to eliminate preexisting differences among subjects Independent variable(s)

SOCIOLOGY
THE DISCIPLINES ORIGINS
SOCIOLOGY SPRANG FROM THREE SEPARATE, YET INTERDEPENDENT REVOLUTIONS
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
A BELIEF IN SCIENCE BEGAN TO REPLACE TRADITIONAL FORMS OF AUTHORITY

THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION


INDUSTRIALISM AND CAPITALISM WERE CHANGING ECONOMIC PATTERNS

- THE POLITICAL REVOLUTION


MORE DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND STANDARDS WERE BEING ADOPTED

SOCIOLOGY

Emerged in the 18th century (1822)


when the French philosopher - Comte first proclaimed the possibility of studying society scientifically

Combination of 2 words: socius (Latin for companion or associate) logos (Greek for study

SOCIOLOGY
The systematic study of human societies, with special emphasis on social groups in modern industrialized systems.

study of interactions and relations among human beings; study of formal organizations, the functioning of whole societies, and even relations among societies; study of how human beings live together- in both good times and bad (study of rules for living together); how rules are organized and perpetuated; how we break rules and how the rules change over time science of social life

The scope of sociology: studying all human relationships, groups, institutions, and societies
E.g.: Health & illness, racial & ethnic conflicts, poverty, education, immigration, sexuality, gender, class, and crime & punishment, environment & economic development all come under the scope of sociology

Sociological viewpoints

3 main areas 1. Social structures (e.g. the family, education, social stratification, etc.) 2. Social systems (e.g. culture and identity, agents of social control, etc.) 3. Social issues (e.g. the causes of crime, the impact of unemployment, etc.)

Sociology Focuses on: How social relationships influence peoples attitudes and behavior How major social institutions affect us How we affect other individuals, groups, and organizations

Structuration Social World Human behavior & thinking

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Structuration - two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are shaped by society. - We are constantly engaged in the process of structuration...

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Slide 42

Culture Socialization Social interaction Social organizations & institutions Social inequality Environment

Human behavior & thinking

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Scientific sociology - Scientific sociology is the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior. - Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, information we can verify with our data, not common sense

- Scientific evidence sometimes contradicts common sense explanations of social behavior. - It is not what we do not know that get us into trouble, it is what we know that is not true

Is there such a thing as objective reality?? -Sociologists strive for objectivity, a state of personal neutrality in conducting research, whenever possible following Max Webers model of value-free research. - One way to limit distortion caused by personal values is through replication, repetition of research by others in order to assess its accuracy.

Limitations of scientific sociology Human behavior is too complex to allow sociologists to predict precisely any individuals actions. - Because humans respond to their surroundings, the mere presence of a researcher may affect the behavior being studied. Social patterns change; what is true in one time or place may not hold true in another

Because sociologists are part of the social world they study, being value-free when conducting social research is difficult. An alternative to Value Free is Interpretive sociology. - Not biased, just the opposite Max Weber, argued that the focus of sociology is interpretation.

Interpretive sociology

- Interpretive sociology is the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world. The interpretive sociologists job is not just to observe what people do but to share in their world of meaning and come to appreciate why they act as they

Critical sociology

Another alternative is Critical sociology. -Karl Marx, who founded critical sociology, rejected the idea that society exists as a natural system with a fixed order. Critical sociology is the study of society that focuses on the need for social change. - The point is not merely to study the world as it is but to change it.

Sociological Research Research is effected by the characteristics of the researcher. We have to strive to overcome this. Characteristics that can effect the design, conduct, and results of research Gender Race Ethnicity Religion Social Status The American Sociological Association has established formal guidelines for conducting research. Most professional associations do the same thing.

Developing Sociological Perspective OBSERVATIONS ARE CERTAINLY IMPACTED BY THE PERSONAL PERSPECTIVES THROUGH WHICH PEOPLE COME TO VIEW THE WORLD Sociological imagination An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, and the ability to view our society as an outsider might, rather than relying only on our individual perspective, which is shaped by our cultural biases (Mills, 1959)

C. Wright Mills (1959) -think ourselves away from the familiar routines of our daily lives -look at them anew -from anothers perspective

C. WRIGHT MILLS SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION SOCIETY IS OFTEN RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY OF OUR PROBLEMS WE NEED TO LEARN TO SEPARATE THINGS THAT HAVE TO DO WITH EXAMPLES:
PERSONAL TROUBLES, OR BIOGRAPHY SOCIAL ISSUES, OR HISTORY WOMENS OPPORTUNITIES AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY AND THESE DAYS LIFESTYLES OF THOSE WE LABEL DISABLED IN THE 1950S AND NOW

SEE THE GENERAL IN THE PARTICULAR GENERAL SOCIAL PATTERNS IN THE BEHAVIOR OF PARTICULAR INDIVIDUALS INDIVIDUALS ARE UNIQUEBUT SOCIETYS SOCIAL FORCES SHAPE US INTO KINDS OF PEOPLE CONSIDER THESE PEOPLE MORE LIKELY TO KILL THEMSELVES PEOPLE MORE LIKELY TO GO TO AND SUCCEED IN COLLEGE AND ENJOY A FAVORABLE QUALITY OF LIFE

The Sociological Perspective The sociological perspective helps us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals. It allows or forces us to look beyond the outer appearances of our social world and discover new levels of reality It also encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds to see the strange in the familiar Sociology also encourages us to see individuality in social context.

SOCIOLOGY
The Sociological Theories Structural-Functionalism perspective Conflict perspective Interactionist perspective

SOCIOLOGY
Structural-Functionalism perspective Parts of a social system work together to maintain a balance Functions are actions that have positive consequences Dysfunctions are actions that have negative consequences Manifest functions are intended Latent functions are unintended

SOCIOLOGY

THE BASICS

KEY ELEMENTS: SOCIAL STRUCTURE

A MACRO-ORIENTED (LARGE-SCALE) PARADIGM VIEWS SOCIETY AS A COMPLEX SYSTEM WITH MANY INTERDEPENDENT PARTS THE PARTS WORK TOGETHER TO PROMOTE SOCIAL STABILITY AND ORDER MAJOR CHANGES TO THE SYSTEMS PARTS IS NOT REQUIRED OR DESIRED; SYSTEM SEEKS TO MAINTAIN IT EQUILIBRIUM REFERS TO RELATIVELY STABLE PATTERNS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR FOUIND IN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS REFERS TO THE CONSEQUENCES OF SOCIAL PATTERNS FOR SOCIETY

SOCIAL FUNCTION

SOCIOLOGY
Conflict perspective Society is held together by who has power at a moment in time Power allows some to dominate others Dominance leads to conflict Conflict and change are inevitable Conflict holds society together as new alliances are formed and others fail

SOCIOLOGY

THE BASICS:
A MACRO-ORIENTED PARADIGM VIEWS SOCIETY AS A STRUCTURED SYSTEM BASED ON INEQUALITY SOCIAL CONFLICT BETWEEN GROUPS OVER SCARCE RESOURCES IS THE NORM SOCIETY IS STRUCTURED IN WAYS TO BENEFIT A FEW AT THE EXPENSE OF THE MAJORITY FACTORS SUCH AS RACE, SEX, CLASS, AND AGE ARE LINKED TO SOCIAL INEQUALITY DOMINANT GROUP VS. MINORITY GROUP RELATIONS INCOMPATIBLE INTERESTS AND MAJOR DIFFERENCES

KEY ELEMENTS:

SOCIOLOGY
Interactionist perspective The symbolic-interaction paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. The structural-functional and the social-conflict paradigms share a macro-level orientation, meaning that they focus on broad social structures that shape society as a whole. In contrast, symbolic-interactionism has a microlevel orientation; it focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings

SOCIOLOGY
Interactionist perspective Symbolic interactionism attempts to explain more clearly how individuals actually experience society. However, it has two weaknesses:

Its micro-orientation sometimes results in the error of ignoring the influence of larger social structures. By emphasizing what is unique, it risks overlooking the effects of culture, class, gender, and race.

SOCIOLOGY
THE BASICS:
THE VIEW THAT SOCIETY IS THE PRODUCT OF EVERYDAY INTERACTIONS SOCIETY IS A COMPLEX MOSAIC OF UNDERSTANDING THAT EMERGES FROM THE VERY PROCESS OF INTERACTING GOFFMANS DRAMATURGICAL ANALSYIS THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY

PRINCIPLES:

Table 1.1 (p. 15) Comparison of Three Theoretical Perspectives

2006 Alan S. Berger

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Three perspectivesa summary


Perspective Central concern Scope of Typical theorizing concepts Maro-level
Manifest functions, latent functions, dysfunctions Class struggle, selfinterests, domination of some social groups Definition of the situation, Looking glass self

Some proponent s
Durkeim Parsons Merton

Fuctionalist

How parts contribute to workings of total society or institutions

Conflict

Social conflict and inequalities; why they arise and how they are maintained,

Maro-level

Marx Dahrendorf Collins

interactionist

Everyday encounters between people and the symbols by which they are interpreted

microlevel

Mead Cooley Goffman

SOCIOLOGY
Other Theories Critical Theory which grew out of a dissatisfaction with 20th-century sociology in general and Marxism in particular Feminism intellectual movement in the humanities and social sciences that is having a profound impact on the nature and direction of sociology Postmodernism which expresses a deep distrust of science and the principle of objectivity

SOCIOLOGY
Feminism
Linking sociological theory and political reform womens lives and experiences

Gendered patterns and inequalities are socially constructed.

SOCIOLOGY
Feminism
Linking sociological theory and political reform womens lives and experiences

Gendered patterns and inequalities are socially constructed.

SOCIOLOGY
Postmodernism
Society is no longer governed by history or progress. Postmodern society is highly pluralistic and diverse, with no "grand narrative" guiding its development.

Benefits of the sociological perspective


The sociological perspective helps us assess the truth of common sense. The sociological perspective helps us assess both opportunities and constraints in our lives. The sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society. The sociological perspective helps us to live in a diverse world. It also encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds to see the strange in the familiar

2010 Alan S. Berger

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Sociologys Four Realms


Basic Science Expanding knowledge Critical Sociology Debate, argument, and controversy Applied Research Application of knowledge to real-world problems Public Activism Working for social change

2010 Alan S. Berger

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Practicing Sociology
Applied sociology: use of the discipline of sociology with the intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations Clinical sociology: dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions

2006 Alan S. Berger

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Using the Sociological Imagination


Globalization: worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas Our lives are more connected with and interdependent upon diverse groups of people Social problems must be addressed before they overwhelm the world

2010 Alan S. Berger

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7 Major Areas of Study in Sociology(Babie, 1994) 1. Social organization includes study of social groups, social institutions, social stratification, ethnic relations, bureaucracy and the like including sociology of work, agriculture, economy, industry, religion, politics and other sub-specialties 2. social psychology- focuses on the study of human nature as outcome of group life, personality formation, social attitudes and collective behavior

7 Major Areas of Study in Sociology(Babie, 1994) 3. social change, social organization and social disorganization includes study of change in culture and social relations and the current social problems in society.; studies crime and delinquency, family conflicts, population problems, religious problems, unemployment and poverty, civil liberties, ethnic conflict, health problems, revolutions and wars, etc. 4. human ecology studies the behavior of a given population and its relationship to the groups present social institutions (e.g. incidence of mental illness, crime and prostitution, urban life)

7 Major Areas of Study in Sociology(Babie, 1994) 5. population studies focuses on population statistics, composition, change and quality and its impact on peoples economic, political and social life 6. sociological theory and method concerned with testing the applicability and usefulness of the principles of group life as bases for the regulation of humans social environment

7 Major Areas of Study in Sociology(Babie, 1994) 7. applied sociology - applying pure sociological research to the various fields of criminology, penology, social work, community development, education, communication, propaganda, industrial relations, marketing, ethnic relations, marriage and family counseling.

Why Study Sociology?


1.To study society
2. Encourages critical thinking Famous Peter Berger quote: It can be said that the first

wisdom of sociology is this things are not what they seem 3. Knowledge of social forces gives us power over those forces 4. Ultimately, make the world a better place?

Why Study Sociology?


Education and Liberal Arts

Well-rounded as a person
Social expectations More appreciation for: Diversity The global village Domestic social marginality Enhanced life changes Micro and macro understanding Increase social potentials

What do sociologists study?


Society

Culture
Socialization Social Stratification (economic inequality) Deviancy (Crime & Deviant Behavior) Race and Ethnicity Gender The Family Religion Politics, Population, Urbanization

Important Concepts
Society

Any relatively self-contained and self-sufficient group

united by social relationships. Two central components of society: Social Structure and Culture

Society Is Studied via:

Variations in social structures


Variations in social Institutions How they are held together How they change How they affect the people who interact in them

Important Concepts
Social Structures

Any characteristics of a group rather than of

individuals. % No Religion, Mobility, Population density, % Female, Age composition are all characteristics of the group Most common, most important is stratification

Important Concepts
Culture

The pattern of living that directs human social life.


Everything that humans learn and the things they

learn to use: language, religions, science, art, notions of right and wrong, explanations of the meaning of life

Important Concepts
Stratification describes the way in which different groups of

people are placed within society. The status of people is often determined by how society is stratified -the basis of which can include: Wealth and income - this is the most common basis of stratification Social class Ethnicity Gender Political status Religion (e.g. the caste system in India

Important Concepts
Socialization as the process of learning the rules (we

are all socializing each other all the time through the use of positive and negative sanctions rewards and punishments)

Political socialisation (Gupta, n.d.)

Political socialisation is the method by which we

acquire political norms and values, and we experience political socialisation throughout our lives. For example, our early political views are usually influenced by our parents. This may take the form of identifying with a particular party, or taking a negative view of an opposing party

Important Concepts
Institutions:

Sociologists traditionally refer to 5 major institutions

governing domains of social life: marriage/family, religion, government, economy and education. This set of established and persistent agreements governing a broad aspect of social life and referred to as institutions are a set of organizing principles, customary patterns, a context for organizations but not specific organizations

Components of Institutions (Babbie, 1994)


Norms : represent the ways we expect people to behave or expected pattern of behavior (e.g. voting as a role associated with the status citizen); Norms are accomplished through the use of positive and negative sanctions (rewards and punishments) Norms are often justified or legitimated on the basis of values which represents views about whats better than what (speed limits are based on value of public safety; required years of schooling are based on the value we put on education) Values are justified on the basis of beliefs : views about what is true (valuing of mass participation is based on a belief that all are created equal)

Norms specify values and values specify beliefs; beliefs justify values and values justify norms (Babbie, 1994)

Justify

Specify

ANTHROPOLOGY

Addresses the question of human being


Who and what we are, where we come

from, what we do and why we do what we do? Anthropos (man/humans) + logos (study) Kung saan may mga tao, doon din ang aghamtao

BIO ANTHRO

LINGUISTIC ANTHRO

ANTHRO

ARCHEOLOGY

CULTURAL ANTHRO

Paleoanthro Primatology Population genetics Osteology/anatomy Anthropometry Forensic

BIO ANTHRO Human evolution Human variation

Prehistoric archeo Historical archeo Ethnoarcheology Experimental Museology/Cultural Resource Management

LINGUISTIC ANTHRO history, structure, function, physiology of human language


Historical Structural/descriptive Sociolinguistics Semiotics/hermeneutics

ANTHRO

CULTURAL ANTHRO Extant cultures via ethnohistory, ethnography, ethnology

ARCHEOLOGY Reconstruct human history via remains of the past Medical anthro Economic, Political, Geography, Psychological, Educational, Comparative religion, Folklore & Arts, Gender & ethnicity, etc.

Trans-disciplinary in character Draws on the natural and social sciences as well as on the humanities Bio anthro: human evolution and human

variation Archeology: memories of our distant and not so distant past Linguistic anthro: symbolic realm Cultural anthro: ways of life

Holistic :

involves the biological, social and

cultural aspects of human adaptability what it is to be human Anthro is the most scientific among the humanities and most humanistic among the sciences (Wolf, )

Has a tool kit, itself evolving - concepts, theories and methodologies to address questions of human adaptability at the individual, group and global level taking into account biological, social and cultural dimensions of being human Discursive: madaling maging tao (homonization), mahirap magpakatao (humanization)

Contribution to Research: Field Work The Field is where human beings are:
Schools/Universities Archeological sites The laboratory The village/local community Other human groupings The global village The virtual community

Trains you to stop, look and listen Trains you to connect the dots with the obvious and the taken-for-granted as well as the hidden Trains you to see the small and the large, the short and the long term, and everything in between

Trains you to dig up the past to understand the present and peer into the future; Trains you to imagine anthropologically and to act realistically and ethically; These are large claims, and so it must be made clear that anthropology cannot do these things by itself; it needs to collaborate, as it actually does, with other disciplines

An anthropologist must be scientifically objective (truthful) and relevant to the national and community goals; sincere to the host community and obliged to explain to them the objectives and implications of his research; to listen to criticism by his host community of the research he/she has conducted; and eventually to provide them a copy of his/her work, ideally in their language, for the host community to be the final arbiter of the validity of his/her work.

An anthropologist doing research has the obligation to make available the results of research data only to the host community, but also to the larger community.

The anthropologist has the right and the obligation to criticize unethical practices of fellow anthropologists and other individuals and institutions that affect the practice of anthropology (Art. 2, sec. 2 UGAT Constitution and ByLaws, 1978)

Where human beings are, there shall anthropology be Kung saan may mga tao, doon din ang aghamtao

School/Theory Major assumptions

Principal advocate s

Evolutionism Diffusionism

All societies pass through a series of stages Tylor, Morgan All societies change as a result of cultural borrowing from one another;culture circles as sources of diffusion (German-Austrian School); Egypt as the origin of all cultural traits (British school) Smith, Perry, Graebner, Schmidt

Historicism

All societies are product of their own particular Boas, histories and experiences; Kroeber The collection of ethnographic facts through direct fieldwork must precede the development of cultural theories

Functionalism Sought to understand how parts of Malinowski contemporary cultures functioned for the well-being of the individual (and society) 3 types of individual needs: basic needs (food, sex, protection) instrumental needs (education, law, social control) integrative needs (psychological security, social harmony and common worldview)

StructuralThe task of anthropologist is to determine Radcliffefunctionalism how cultural elements function for the well- Brown being of society (social functions rather than indiv functions) Used social structure as a unit of analysis (network of relations found within a group of people) Viewed anthro as comparative sociology

Structuralism Human cultures are shaped by certain preprogrammed codes of the human mind
(LS own version of the psychic unity of humankind);

LeviStrauss

Seeks explanations in the human mind


One of the basic tenets of human mind is it is programmed to think in binary opposites; Directs relationship between culture and cognition; Draws on a linguistic model; View human behavior from a rational perspective.

Psychological The central task of anthropologist is to show Benedict, anthropology the relationship between psychological and Sapir, (Culture and cultural variables; Mead Personality)
Looked at child-rearing practices and personality from a cross-cultural perspective; Child-rearing help shape the personality structure of an individual which in turn influences the culture ( interactive relationship between child-rearing practices, personality structure and culture).

Cultural Material conditions determine human consciousness and Harris materialism behavior; Study material constraints that arise from the universal needs of producing food, technology, tools and shelter as distinguished from mental constraints (values, ideas, religion, arts); See material constraints as the primary causal factors accounting for cultural variations; Relies heavily on etic research methodology; . Share common ideas with Marx (materialist interpretation) but rejects the Marxist notion of dialectic materialism which calls for destroying capitalism and empowering the working class; No political agenda but to the scientific study of culture

Interpretative Human behavior stems from the way people perceive anthropology and classify the world around them. At the opposite end of cultural materialism, argues that the way people perceive (and classify) those objective conditions are the most significant factors in human behavior (satisfaction of human needs vs ideas, values, satisfaction of social relationships); See cultural anthro more as a humanistic enterprise rather than as a scientific one and finds affinity with art and literature than with biology and psychology; Idiographic in approach not to generate laws but to focus on cultural description, literature, folklore, myths and symbols.

Geertz

Neoevolutionism Cultures evolve in direct proportion to their capacity to harness energy. White : C = E x T Culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year increases or as the efficiency of the means of putting energy to work is increased (1959: 368-69) ; Cultural evolution is caused by advancing levels of technology and a cultures capacity to capture energy

White

Cultural ecology/ Steward: distinguished between 3 different types of Multilinear evolutionary thought that is unilinear evolution or stages Evolution model (Tylor, Morgan), universal evolution or cultural laws (White), multilinear evolution (Steward) which focuses on the evolution of specific cultures without assuming that all cultures follow the same evolutionary process

Steward

EthnoScience The ethnographer must describe a culture Sturtevant, in terms of native categories (emic view) Goodenough rather than in terms of his/her own categories (etic view) Same approach as structuralism but differ in method Culture is described by how it is perceived, ordered and categorized by the members of that culture rather than by the impositions of the ethnographer

Researches in:
Prehistory/history (Tabon man, Balangay) Material cultures (lithic, pottery, ceramics) Health and diseases (IKSP, HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, malaria,

pranic healing, diet, etc.) Development (issues and approaches) Environment (biodiversity conservation, climate change) Indigenous Peoples cultures (Aytas/Agtas/Ati, Mangyans, Igorots, Lumads, etc.) Comparative religion Gender Cyber-culture

In the epoch of Anthropocene, human beings, instead of simply being affected by the way the Earth works, are themselves already affecting how the Earth works This change in the dominance of large- scale and secular changes by human agency, challenges anthropology to continually address the question of bio-cultural change and evolution as an unconscious process and as an intentional human practice