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Exploring Engineering

Chapter 3
Force and Motion
What You Will Learn
Newtons 3 Laws of Motion
In SI and Engineering English units
g
c
usage to clarify units
Free body diagrams
Kinematics
Speed vs. t diagrams


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Newtons Laws of Motion
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Newtons First Law.
The speed v of a body remains constant unless the
body is acted upon by an external force F.
Newtons Second Law.
The acceleration a of a body is parallel to and directly
proportional to the net force F applied to it and
inversely proportional to its mass m, or a F/m.
Newtons Third Law.
The mutual forces of action and reaction between
two bodies are equal, opposite, and collinear.
Newtons 1
st
Law
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First law implies that speed v = constant
An object at rest will stay at rest unless an
unbalanced force acts upon it.
An object in motion will not change its speed
unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.


Throw up a very heavy ball in an open sports car and a
stationary observer sees the ball execute a parabola
In the car, an observer sees it go straight up and back
down
0
external
Forces =

Newtons 2
nd
Law
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An object will accelerate if the unbalanced force on
the object is not zero

The direction of the acceleration is the same as the
direction of the unbalanced force. The magnitude of
the acceleration is directly proportional to the
unbalanced force, and inversely proportional to the
mass of the object and written F ma.
0 = E Forces
External
Newtons 3
rd
Law
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For every action, there is an equal and
opposite reaction.
Free Body Diagrams, FBD, are used for
systems in static equilibrium such as bridges
and buildings and thus occupy much of the
activities of civil engineers
Newtons 2
nd
Law
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Recall the definition of force as proportional
to mass acceleration or F ma
What is the missing proportionality constant?
Suppose we knew a force F
1
corresponding to a
mass m
1
being accelerated by a
1
. Then F
1
m
1
a
1

Therefore
= or =
1
1 1 1 1 1
F F m a
F ma
F m a m a
| |
|
\ .
Newtons 2
nd
Law
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If we say the length scale is the meter, the mass
scale is the kilogram and the time scale is the
second, F is defined as being in newtons.
To complete the definition lets say F
1
is 1 m when m
1
is
1 kg and a
1
is 1 m/s
2
.
Then m
1
a
1
/F
1
= 1 [0] and F = ma, which is the way you
have previously seen Newtons 2
nd
Law.
Now we know the units of the force and its magnitude.
This is called the SI or MKS system.
Newtons 2
nd
Law
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If we say the length scale is in feet, the mass scale
in pounds mass and the time scale in seconds, F is
defined as being in pounds force.
To complete the definition lets say F
1
is 1 ft when m
1
is
1 lbm and a
1
is 32.174 m/s
2
.
Then g
c
= m
1
a
1
/F
1
= 1 32.174/1 [lbm][ft/s
2
]/[lbf] and F
= ma/g
c.
This is called the Engineering English unit
system
Now we know the units of the force and its magnitude.
Note g
c
= 32.174 [lbm][ft]/[lbf s
2
] and not to be
confused with g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.174
ft/s
2

Newtons 2
nd
Law
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What force in N is needed to accelerate a
frictionless motorcycle of 250. kg by 7.50 m/s
2
?
Need: F on a mass of 250. kg accelerated by 7.50
m/s
2

Know: Newton's 2
nd
Law
How: In SI units F = ma
Solve: F = ma = 250. 7.50
= 1.875 10
3
[kg][m/s
2
] = 1.88 10
3
N
Note: 1 N = about the wt of a small apple on earth!
Newtons 2
nd
Law
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Whats the force on a frictionless wheel-barrow of 50.0
lbm being accelerated at 2.10 ft/s
2
? Whats the weight
of the barrow?
Need: a) F on a mass of 50. lbm accelerated by 2.10 ft/s
2
; b)
wt of wheel-barrow
Know: Newton's 2
nd
Law, accel
n
due to gravity g = 32.2 ft/s
2
;
g
c
= 32.2 [lbm][ft]/[lbf s
2
]
How: Engineering English units F = ma/g
c

Solve:
a) F = ma/g
c
= 50. 2.10/32.2
= 3.26 [lbm ft/s
2
][lbf s
2
/lbm ft] = 3.3 lbf;
b) Wt = mg/g
c
= 50. 32.2/32.2 = 50. lbf
Newtons 3
rd
Law
If you push on something it pushes back with the
same force (but not the same acceleration since the
pushed masses may be different)
If you fire a 15.0 gram bullet from a 5.0 kg rifle. If
the initial acceleration of the bullet from the 60.0
cm barrel is 1000. m/s, what is the recall force you
experience from firing the gun at your shoulder?
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Newtons 3
rd
Law
Need: Recoil force from the rifle.
Know: Rifle weighs 5.0 kg, the bullet 0.015 kg. The
barrel (down which the bullet accelerates) is 0.60 m
and the bullet leaves the muzzle at 1000. m/s.
How: Assume the acceleration in the barrel is uniform
and use Newtons 3
rd
law to calculate the recoil force
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Newtons 3
rd
Law - Example
Please

accept (for the moment) that the acceleration
is v
2
/barrel length or a = 1000.
2
/0.60 [m/s]
2
/[m]
= 8.3 10
5
m/s
2
.
Therefore the Force on the bullet is
F = ma = 0.015 8.3 10
5
[kg][m/s
2
] = 1.3 10
4
N
The reaction on the rifle is in the opposite direction
to that on the bullet = - 1.3 10
4
N. (If you also want
the initial acceleration of the rifle it is - 1.3 10
4
/5.0
= -2.6 10
3
[kg m/s
2
][1/kg] = -2.6 10
3
m/s
2
)


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Free Body Diagram (FBD) Example
FBDs are used to keep track of forces
A stationary crate weighing 100. N sits on a 30.0 degree ramp
Resolve the forces on the crate and the slope parallel to the
hill and normal to it.
Need: FBD for crate on a 30 degree slope
Know: Forces on the crate and the slope are equal and opposite
How: Resolve forces parallel and normal to the slope

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100. N
30
Ramp
Crate
Free Body Diagram Example
Solve: The wt of the block resolves to 100. N cos30 =
86.6 N normal to the slope and 100.sin30 = 50.0 N
parallel to the slope.

The friction force F
r
on the block must be equal and
opposite to the force on the block. The frictional force
is thus 50.0 N.
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Kinematics
The study of motion without consideration of
the associated forces.
In this elementary treatment we will only use 1-
dimensional methods.
In > 1-D, speed is not equivalent to velocity because
velocity is vectorial with components in each direction.
In 1-D speed is the magnitude of velocity and is a scalar.
We will graphical solutions only. Basically no
equations are used and the method emphasizes
understanding not formula plugging.
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Cartesian Geometry
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Origin
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
x
0
t
0
t
x
Zero speed
Figure 1: Constant Speed
A
x

=

x

x
0
At = t t
0
Speed = Ax/At
Origin
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
x
0
t
0
t
x
Zero speed
Figure 1: Constant Speed
A
x

=

x

x
0
At = t t
0
Speed = Ax/At
Kinematics and Cartesian
Geometry
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0,0
S
p
e
e
d
Time
Constant
Speed, v
0
Constant
acceleration
Variable
acceleration
Figure 2: Acceleration is the local slope
0,0
S
p
e
e
d
Time
Constant
Speed, v
0
Constant
acceleration
Variable
acceleration
0,0
S
p
e
e
d
Time
Constant
Speed, v
0
Constant
acceleration
Variable
acceleration
Figure 2: Acceleration is the local slope
Kinematics, v-t and Constant a
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15. s
6.7 m/s
0.0 s
t
v
15. s
26.8 m/s 26.8 m/s 26.8 m/s 26.8 m/s
6.7 m/s
0.0 s
Max speed

v, Speed

Start acc
n
Time
Area under curve is
distance travelled.
Slope is
acceleration
Kinematics Example
You accelerate from rest at a constant 5.0 m/s
2
for 13 s.
Whats 1) Your final speed and 2) how far will you have
travelled?
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13 s
0 s
S
p
e
e
d
,

m
/
s

Time, s
Slope = Av/At = 5.0 m/s
2

Av = v = 5.0 13 [m/s
2
][s]
= 65 m/s
Distance travelled = Av At
= 65 13 [ m/s][s]
= 4.2 10
2
m
At
Av
Summary
Newtons 3 Laws:
1) Bodies that remain undisturbed continue until
external forces act on them
2) Force proportional to mass acceleration and
how to manipulate units for g
c
formulation
3) Action and reaction are equal and opposite
Kinematics:
Central position of speed vs. t diagrams.

Exploring Engineering