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There are some 30 government agencies and offices in the Philippines which are concerned with water resources

development and management responsible with their own sectoral concerns. These agencies deal with the water supply, irrigation, hydropower, flood control, water management, etc. For administrative supervision, these agencies are distributed among executive departments of the National Government. In the government-controlled corporations, councils, boards and development authorities, supervision is only exercised at the policy level.

National Water Resources Board (NWRB) was created in 1974 in our country as the authoritative national organization to coordinate and integrate all activities in water resources development and management.
Its main objective is to achieve scientific and orderly development and management of all the water resources of the Philippines consistent with the principles of optimum usage, conservation and protection to meet present and future needs. The mantle of authority of NWRB is derived from Presidential Decree (PD) 424 (NWRC Charter), PD 1067 (Water Code of the Philippines) and PD 1206 (Water Utilities).

Fragmentation among water-related agencies is evident in three areas of concern: water supply and distribution, economic and resource regulation, and planning and policy formulation.
Agencies that are involved in WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION: 1. the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Services (MWSS) and its two concessionaires (after it was privatized in 1997) for Metro Manila, servicing 62.68% of its total population; 2. the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) and its water district offices for other cities and municipalities, servicing 58% of the total urban population within its area of responsibility; and 3. the Departments of Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Public Works and Highway (DPWH) and local governments which manage community water systems (usually involving point sources and piped systems with communal faucets), servicing 86.85% of the countrys rural population.

The following agencies have the same function as RESOURCE REGULATORS: 1. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) formulates policies for the enforcement of environmental protection and pollution control regulations. It is primarily responsible for the preservation of watershed areas and ensures water quality with respect to rivers, streams and other sources of water. 2. The Department of Health (DOH) is responsible for drinking water quality regulation and supervision of general sanitation activities.

As for PLANNING AND POLICY FORMULATION, 1. The National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), serves as the highest socio-economic planning and policymaking agency of government. It ensures that programmes of government agencies are consistent with the government programmes as laid out in the Medium-term Development Plan, the Long-term Development Plan (also known as Plan 21) and the Medium-term Public Investment Programme. 2. The National Irrigation Administration (NIA) 3. The Department of Energy

The first important consideration is compiling a list of alternatives that is comprehensive. The planning process should be an evaluation of all possible alternatives with respect to project features and water use.
Planning should consider alternative and competing for water as well as the various possibilities for control and delivery of the water.

Engineering alternatives Nonstructural or Management alternatives Alternative objectives Institutional alternatives Alternatives of Timing

1. One or more aspects of water development can be eliminated on the basis of physical limitations. 2. Certain problems may be fixed in location. 3. The available water may be limited or subject only for minor changes. 4. Maximum land areas usable for various purposes may be definable. 5. A policy decision may reserve lands for specific purposes. 6. Legal constraints may reserve certain lands or prohibit certain activities or actions.

Engineering Alternative Pursuing proper maintenance and upkeep of existing drainage systems through the concerted efforts of Daet LGU. Management or Non-structural Alternative Putting up and maintaining viable and effective garbage collection and disposal systems for areas near rivers and waterways for drainage. Institutional Alternative Coordinating the development of flood control project with the implementation of irrigation project institutional alternative.

The role of planners and policy-makers (more importantly to NWRB) is to present alternatives for consideration of the public or their elected decision makers. They must be careful not to advocate or eliminate an alternative because of their own views or prejudices.

Planning agencies are required to seek participation of interested members of the public in the planning process. Input from the public can be achieved through: 1. Public hearings in which proposed plans are discussed and in which opportunity is provided for the public to ask questions and voice opinions are legally required in many instances. 2. Workshops in which various public and government representatives discuss issues are sometimes held. 3. Gaming simulation, the technique of role playing where real-world problems are simulated by individuals who play the part of decision-makers or citizens, provides an opportunity for citizens to experience decision-making problems and become sensitive to the complexities of the economic, social and environmental factors involved in decision making.

When alternatives have been defined, the planners task is to provide data which aids in the choice among alternatives. In response to the economic objective, data on benefits and costs are required. Each alternative must be specified in sufficient detail so that costs can be reliably estimated. All costs, including those induced by the project, should also be included. In addition to estimating water availability the study must determine energy production, irrigation use, etc. so that the benefits in pesos may be computed. Not all benefits or costs of water projects can be measured in money terms. Some can be presented in descriptive terms only. When dealing with social and environmental factors, a subjective approach is deemed best. Even after a rank ordering of the alternatives is made, political considerations may govern the choice among the most favorable alternatives.

An important element in planning of a water project is consideration of the means by which the project will be financed. And in order to implement a proposed project, finding the money to build and operate it is essential. The institutional setting is such that water projects are sponsored in a variety of ways. Some projects are sponsored by the government; some by irrigation(NIA), water conservation, and flood control sectors. And there are also projects that are jointly sponsored by a combination of these entities. Local governmental bodies finance projects in a variety of ways; through taxes, special assessments, revenues collected for services received, and bond issues.

In the Philippines, inadequate financial support to water, sanitation and sewerage programmes is one of the main sectoral concerns identified. Major investments in water supply and sanitation programmes are not a priority of local government units. Capital financing for major sanitation and sewerage programmes remains a problem. High capital costs make the construction of conventional sewers in many urban areas unaffordable without subsidies.

The integration of the concepts of environment and ecosystem into the national vision for water must take into account the fact that an integrated approach to water resources development and management is needed with a multi-sectoral involvement, based on the principle of sustainability. Therefore, it must be everybodys concern, and the collective objective is a must to make certain that an adequate supply of quality water is maintained for the entire population without harming the ecosystem.
National development and productivity must be achieved and sustained through the development and management of environmentally sound water resources.

There are three main areas of concern to consider in Planning: a. Watershed degradation The chronic shortage of water supply in and around Metro Manila in the past years has brought to the forefront recognition of the adverse effects of mans activities in the watersheds. Due to illegal logging, shifting cultivation, forest fires, natural calamities, conversion to agricultural land and allocation of land to human settlements due to population growth, the forests have been shrinking steadily. Rapid deforestation, coupled with inappropriate land use practices, has led to soil erosion, siltation and sedimentation problems in the countrys rivers, lakes and reservoirs, resulting in more frequent and more severe flooding and a reduced water supply in the dry season. This state of affairs has also resulted in a decrease in the recharging ability of the aquifers. The government has launched several programmes and projects for the rehabilitation of degraded watersheds and protection of those that are still in good condition. However, so far, these initiatives have been inadequate to address the alarming rate of watershed degradation, because of the lack of a clear strategy, limited financial resources, fragmented implementation responsibility, shortage of properly trained manpower and increasing socioeconomic pressure resulting from the rapid increase of population in the forested uplands where the vital watersheds are located.

b. Groundwater depletion and saline intrusion The uncontrolled withdrawal from groundwater aquifers in recent years has resulted in the continuous decline of groundwater levels and in saltwater intrusion in areas near the coast such as Metro Manila (WRR IV), Cavite (WRR IV), Iloilo (WRR VI) and Cebu (WRR VII). The indiscriminate use of groundwater wells for residential or industrial use was due to the failure of water utility providers to service these areas. Aside from the excessive abstraction of groundwater, there is no national groundwater data network to speak of, in the sense that there are very few observation wells for time series data on piezometric levels and pumping rates from production wells. The groundwater data being collected by many agencies are spatial and static information on the wells drilled such as location, lithology, well casings and the results of pumping tests during the development of these wells.

c. Water quality Water is becoming a critical resource in the Philippines. This is due to the increased pressure on freshwater resources by the rapid growth of population, improvement of living standards and increasing economic development. Although the country is endowed with abundant water resources, usable water is becoming limited due to contamination and pollution. Forty of the more than 400 main rivers in the country are reportedly polluted in varying degrees. All rivers in Metro Manila are considered biologically dead. Water pollution compounded by poor sanitation and hygiene practices has led to an upsurge of waterborne and water-related diseases. Pollution of water sources is due to uncontrolled industrial and agricultural development and to the rapid growth of the population without the development of waste disposal facilities. The runoff during floods flushes out contaminants and wastes such as industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides, traffic emissions, street refuse and uncollected garbage, which eventually find their ways into the rivers and the groundwater aquifers.

Where project seems to be essential, the planner will find it necessary to consider carefully the ecological impact on the stream and adjacent areas and try to develop a plan that will have a minimum of detrimental effects.

In the architectural design of structures special thought must be given to appearance. Special treatment of surfaces to avoid large expenses of concrete, colouring to blend with the surroundings, planting of grass, shrubs, or trees to enhance visual feeling, and other similar measures should be considered.

A partial list of environmental consequences of water-resources projects might include the following: Degradation of downstream channel or coastal beaches by loss of sediment trapped in a reservoir. Loss of unique geological, historical, archaeological, or scenic sites flooded by a reservoir. Flooding of spawning beds for migratory fish preventing their reproduction or destruction of spawning gravel by a channel dredging or lining. Change in stream water temperature as a result of a reservoir leading to changes in aquatic species in the stream. Release of reservoir bottom water that may be high in dissolved salts or low in oxygen resulting in a change in aquatic species. Drainage of swamps, potholes, etc decreasing the opportunity for survival of aquatic or amphibious animals or waterfowl. Change in water quality as a result of drainage from irrigation project which may encourage growth of algae in the receiving water or lead to a change in aquatic species as salinity of the receiving body increases. Creation of barrier to normal migration routes of land animals by a reservoir. Altering aquatic species by increased turbidity from man-induced erosion or from dredging operations. Damage to fish by passage through pumps or turbines or over spillways of high dams. Damage to stream-bank vegetation by alteration of flow patterns in a stream.

These are just a few consequences of water-resource projects. Thus a clear distinction should be made between damage that is temporary and effects that are long term and irreversible. The NEPA of 1969 requires that an environmental mpact statement (IES) be prepared for all projects proposed by different agencies. The IES should include a full and fair discussion of the probable impact of the proposed project alternatives, pointing out in detail any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided. If, after preliminary study, the agency finds that no significant environmental impacts are likely to occur , an IES is not necessary unless challenged by citizens or other entities. A multi-disciplinary team of specialists including biologists, hydrologists, social scientists, and others is required to conduct an environmental impact study. The task is to forecast the environmental impacts of alternate actions. During preparations of the IES, comments must be received from all agencies that have jurisdiction over the various aspects of the potential impacts.