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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

METHODS USED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT


PHYSICAL TREATMENT METHODS CHEMICAL TREATMENT METHODS BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT METHODS

PHYSICAL TREATMENT METHODS


OPERATION Screening Comminution Flow equalization APPLICATION Removal of coarse and settleable solids by interception. Grinding of coarse solids to a uniform size. Equalization of flow and mass loadings of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and suspended soils. Promotes the aggregation of small particles to enhance their removal by gravity sedimentation.

Flocculation

Sedimentation

Removal of settleable solids and thickening of sludges.

OPERATION Floatation

APPLICATION Removal of finely divided suspended solids and particles with densities close to that of water; also thickens biological sludges. Addition and removal of gas; gas tripping. Removal of fine residual suspended solids remaining after biological or chemical treatment. Same as filtration; also removal of algae from stabilization pond effluents.

Gas transfer Filtration

Microscreening

CHEMICAL TREATMENT METHODS


PROCESS Chemical precipitation APPLICATION Removal of phosphorus and enhancement of suspended solids removal in primary sedimentation facilities used for physical-chemical treatment. Removal of organics not removed by conventional chemical and biological methods; also used for dechlorination of wastewater before final discharge of treated effluent. Selective destruction of diseasecausing organisms, usually with chlorine or ozone.

Adsorption

Disinfection

PROCESS Dechlorination Others

APPLICATION Removal of chlorine residual that exists after chlorination. Various other chemicals can be used to achieve specific objectives in wastewater treatment.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT METHODS


Biological Treatment involves the conversion of the dissolved and colloidal organic matter in wastewater to biological cell tissue to end products.

HEADWORKS & PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

PUMP STATION
Pumping station is required to raise the sewage to an appropriate level to facilitate gravity flow through the plant.

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Parsall flume - is an empirical rated measuring device. The dimensions of the flume are fixed so that there is a flow transition from subcritical to supercritical flow. At a critical flow depth , energy is minimized and there is a direct relationship between water depth and velocity that allows the flume to act as measuring device.

Parsall flume

MAGNETIC FLOW METER

BAR RACKS AND SCREENS


Bar racks or Coarse screens are used to remove large solids, rags and debris. They are installed ahead of pumps to prevent clogging. Chain Driven Reciprocating Rake Catenary Screen Continuous Belt

BAR RACKS AND SCREENS

Chain Driven

Reciprocating Rake

BAR RACKS AND SCREENS

Catenary Screen

Continuous Belt

COARSE SOLID REDUCTION


An alternative to capturing coarse solids using a mechanical device to shred or grind the solids and return them to the flow.

COARSE SOLID REDUCTION


Macerators - are slow-speed grinders that typically use two sets of counterrotating blade assemblies. The tolerance on the macerators blades assemblies is small enough ( 6 to 9mm ) that the material passing through is effectively chopped. This chopping action reduces the potential for producing ropes of rags and plastic.

Macerator

GRIT REMOVAL
Specially designed grit chambers are used to remove inorganic particles such as sand, gravel, eggshells and bone 0.2mm or larger in size to prevent damage to pumps and to prevent the accumulation of this material in treatment facilities and sludge digesters.

GRIT REMOVAL

FLOW EQUALIZATION
May be accomplished by storing the wastewater that is in excess and delivering it downstream during the time that the flow rate is below the average flow rate.

ALTERNATIVE PRELIMINARY PROCESS ARRANGEMENTS

ALTERNATIVE PRELIMINARY PROCESS ARRANGEMENTS

PRIMARY TREATMENT
To remove a significant fraction of organic particulate matter (suspended solids).

SEDIMENTATION
The major function of a plain sedimentation basin in wastewater treatment is to remove the larger suspended material from incoming wastewater.

SEDIMENTATION
Type I Sedimentation characterized by particles that settles discretely at a constant settling velocity. They settle as individual particles and do not flocculate during settling. Type II Sedimentation characterized by particles that flocculate during sedimentation.

Type III & IV Sedimentation when the water contains high concentration of particles ( for example, greater than 1,000 mg/L ) both Type III ( hindered settling ) and Type IV ( compression settling ) occur along with discrete and flocculant settling.

SEDIMENTATION
Circular Tanks
Center-Feed Type is more commonly used for primary treatment wherein wastewater is carried to the center of the tank by a pipe suspended from a bridge that is encased in concrete below the tank floor.

SEDIMENTATION
Rectangular Tanks wastewater is carried to the tank in a covered channel then enters the tank through one inlet ports.