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EML 4550: Engineering Design Methods

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) (Examples)

EML4550 2007

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Design For X (DFX)  A successful design must consider all relevant considerations throughout the life cycle of a product by analyzing the causes and effects of the product.  A common set of design guidelines for X includes:        Assembly Environment Manufacturing Quality Reliability Safety Serviceability EML4550 2007 .

Definitions  Design for Manufacturing (DFM)  Concerned with reducing overall part production cost  Minimize complexity of manufacturing  Use common axes and common processes  Design for Assembly (DFA)  Concerned with reducing product assembly cost  Minimize number and complexity of assembly operations  Individual parts may be more complex in design  Trade-off between DFM and DFA ===> DFMA  Why? EML4550 2007 .

Principles of DFM (DFM Guidelines)  Simplify and reduce the number of manufacturing operations  Standardize materials and use common parts  Design for efficient joining  Open tolerance as much as possible  Allow over-travel in part design  Avoid special tooling and frequent tool changes  Select materials for best manufacturability  Specify „acceptable‟ surface finish for functionality  Machine for one primary axis whenever possible EML4550 2007 .

Grooves  Consider degree of difficulty in cutting grooves  Use as big a radius as possible in corners (sharp edges are difficult to cut and keep uniform) EML4550 2007 .

Holes  Keep L/D < 3 whenever possible  Do not specify holes that „turn corners‟ EML4550 2007 .

Plastic injection molding  Minimize wall thickness variations to allow for uniform cooling rate (warped parts)  Features should be on top or sides of part to allow for ease of forming  Consider molding + machining as an option EML4550 2007 .

Principles of DFA (Guidelines for Assembly)        Minimize part count Design parts with self-locating features Design parts with self-fastening features Minimize reorientation of parts during assembly Emphasize „top-down‟ assemblies Standardize parts Encourage modular design EML4550 2007 .

Symmetry Illustration of principle: Which part can be ‘aligned’ with minimum rotation? How many axes of symmetry? EML4550 2007 .

Self-locating parts EML4550 2007 .

Self-locating parts EML4550 2007 .

Top-down assembly EML4550 2007 .

Fastening  Consider the least expensive fastening method that meets the requirements EML4550 2007 .

Design efficiency  A quantitative measure of time and cost required to assemble a product  A rating which can be used to judge the effectiveness of a current design (a benchmark for future improvements)  Design efficiency is the end result measure as calculated by the Boothroyd-Dewhurst process     Symmetry of parts (repeatability for orientation) Size and thickness Handling time Insertion time Boothroyd & Dewhurst complexity factor EML4550 2007 .

Handling Handling Time  How many hands required?  Any grasping assistance needed?  Effect of part symmetry on assembly  Is part easy to align/position? Handling difficulty  Size  Thickness  Weight  Fragility  Flexibility  Slipperiness  Stickiness  Necessity for using:  Both hands  Optical magnification  Mechanical assistance Insertion time  Is part self-securing?  Need to hold down?  What fastening process?  Easy to align/position? EML4550 2007 .

EML4550 2007 .

should not count as positive answer)  Must the part be of a different material than all other parts already assembled? Only fundamental reasons concerned with material properties are acceptable  Must the part be separate from all other parts already assembled because otherwise necessary assembly or disassembly of other separate parts would be impossible? EML4550 2007 . then the part is a candidate for elimination (“0” in column 9)  During operation of the product does the part move relative to all other parts already assembled? Only gross motion should be considered (small motions that can be accommodated by elastic hinges.BDI criteria for part minimization (Column 9)  If the answer to ALL THREE of these questions is NO. for instance.

BDI Example EML4550 2007 .