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EML 4550: Engineering Design Methods

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) (Examples)

EML4550 2007

Design For X (DFX)


A successful design must consider all relevant considerations throughout the life cycle of a product by analyzing the causes and effects of the product. A common set of design guidelines for X includes:
Assembly Environment Manufacturing Quality Reliability Safety Serviceability

EML4550

2007

Definitions
Design for Manufacturing (DFM)
Concerned with reducing overall part production cost
Minimize complexity of manufacturing Use common axes and common processes

Design for Assembly (DFA)


Concerned with reducing product assembly cost
Minimize number and complexity of assembly operations Individual parts may be more complex in design

Trade-off between DFM and DFA ===> DFMA


Why?

EML4550

2007

Principles of DFM (DFM Guidelines)


Simplify and reduce the number of manufacturing operations Standardize materials and use common parts Design for efficient joining Open tolerance as much as possible Allow over-travel in part design Avoid special tooling and frequent tool changes Select materials for best manufacturability Specify acceptable surface finish for functionality Machine for one primary axis whenever possible

EML4550

2007

Grooves
Consider degree of difficulty in cutting grooves Use as big a radius as possible in corners (sharp edges are difficult to cut and keep uniform)

EML4550

2007

Holes
Keep L/D < 3 whenever possible Do not specify holes that turn corners

EML4550

2007

Plastic injection molding


Minimize wall thickness variations to allow for uniform cooling rate (warped parts) Features should be on top or sides of part to allow for ease of forming

Consider molding + machining as an option

EML4550

2007

Principles of DFA (Guidelines for Assembly) Minimize part count Design parts with self-locating features Design parts with self-fastening features Minimize reorientation of parts during assembly Emphasize top-down assemblies Standardize parts Encourage modular design

EML4550

2007

Symmetry

Illustration of principle: Which part can be aligned with minimum rotation? How many axes of symmetry?
EML4550 2007

Self-locating parts

EML4550

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Self-locating parts

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Top-down assembly

EML4550

2007

Fastening
Consider the least expensive fastening method that meets the requirements

EML4550

2007

Design efficiency A quantitative measure of time and cost required to assemble a product A rating which can be used to judge the effectiveness of a current design (a benchmark for future improvements)

Design efficiency is the end result measure as calculated by the Boothroyd-Dewhurst process
Symmetry of parts (repeatability for orientation) Size and thickness Handling time Insertion time

Boothroyd & Dewhurst complexity factor


EML4550 2007

Handling
Handling Time How many hands required? Any grasping assistance needed? Effect of part symmetry on assembly Is part easy to align/position? Handling difficulty Size Thickness Weight Fragility Flexibility Slipperiness Stickiness Necessity for using:
Both hands Optical magnification Mechanical assistance

Insertion time Is part self-securing? Need to hold down? What fastening process? Easy to align/position?

EML4550

2007

EML4550

2007

BDI criteria for part minimization (Column 9) If the answer to ALL THREE of these questions is NO, then the part is a candidate for elimination (0 in column 9)
During operation of the product does the part move relative to all other parts already assembled? Only gross motion should be considered (small motions that can be accommodated by elastic hinges, for instance, should not count as positive answer) Must the part be of a different material than all other parts already assembled? Only fundamental reasons concerned with material properties are acceptable Must the part be separate from all other parts already assembled because otherwise necessary assembly or disassembly of other separate parts would be impossible?

EML4550

2007

BDI Example

EML4550

2007