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Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor-identified media space or time in order to promote a product, service or an idea.

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.

Competitive Comparative


Types of Communication/Advertising Models:AI A Model A!MA" Model #ierarchy-$ffect Model %C& !rid

AI A model is initiatory and simplest. AI A model 'as presented by $lmo (e'is to e)plain ho' personal selling 'or*s. It sho's a set of stair-step stages 'hich describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase. The stages, Attention, Interest, esire, and Action, form a linear hierarchy. $)p:- "eliance Communication !+M (aunch. Attention:- can elaborate by advertisement 'here Mu*esh Ambani spo*e about the ne' pro,ect being introduced on his father-s ./th birthday.

Interest:- is generated as the company spo*esperson featured in

the ad, as a representative of the company image and also spo*e about introducing a ne' technology 0 !+M.

+T calls, 2"s./day, (ifetime validity and various coupons etc.

esire:- 'as created 'ith various offers li*e free +M+, 1/paise

Action:- In the last stage people are moved to action in the form
of buying product/+ervice etc. It demonstrates that consumers must be a'are of a product3s e)istence, &e interested enough to pay attention to the product3s features/benefits, and #ave a desire to have benefits from the product3s offerings. Action, the fourth stage, 'ould come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages.

+implest$)plain ho' 4ersonal +elling 'or*sA set of stair-step stagesescribe the process leading a potential customer to purchase-

"ussell Colley 567869 developed a model for setting advertising ob,ectives and measuring the results. This model 'as entitled : efining Advertising !oals for Measured Advertising "esultsA!MA".A!MA" model suggests that the ultimate ob,ective of advertising must carry a consumer through four levels of understanding: from una'areness to A'areness;the consumer must first be a'are of a brand or company Comprehension;he or she must have a comprehension of 'hat the product is and its benefits< Conviction; he or she must arrive at the mental disposition or conviction to buys the brand< Action;finally, he or she actually buy that product.

efine advertising ob,ectives and measuring the resultsuna'areness to A'areness$asy to =nderstand-

Among advertising theories, the hierarchy-of-effects model is predominant. It sho's clear steps of ho' advertising 'or*s #ierarchy of effects Model can be e)plained 'ith the help of a pyramid.

A'areness:- If most of the target audience is una'are of the

ob,ect, the communicator-s tas* is to build a'areness, perhaps ,ust name recognition, 'ith simple messages repeating the product name. (i*e:- 4arle-!. ! mane !enius.

>no'ledge:- The target mar*et might have product a'areness

but not *no' much more< hence this stage involves creating brand *no'ledge. This is 'here comprehension of the brand name and 'hat it stands for become important. $)p- Aircel 4oc*et Internet

(i*ing:- If target mar*et *no' the product, ho' do they feel about
it? If the audience loo*s unfavorably to'ards the product so communicator has to find out 'hy. $)p- India Today- +end +uggestions to us

4reference:- The target audience might li*e the product but not

prefer it to others. In this case, the communicator must try to build consumer preference by promoting @uality, value, performance and other features.

Conviction:- A target audience might prefer a particular product but 4urchase:- %inally, some members of the target audience might

not develop a conviction about buying it. The communicator-s ,ob is to build conviction among the target audience.

have conviction but not @uite get around to ma*ing the purchase. They may 'ait for more information or plan to act later. The communicator must need these consumers to ta*e the final step, perhaps by offering the product at a lo' price, offering a premium, or letting consumers tried out.

4redominantClear steps of ho' advertising 'or*s$asy to e)plain/understand-

%C& grid,A is suggested by ave &erger and "ichard Baughn. This model combines high and lo' involvement, and left and right brain specialiCation. It sho's a visually coherent matri) 'hich has four @uadrants 'ith t'o factors;high and lo' involvement, and feeling and thin*ing. The communication response 'ould certainly be different for high versus lo' involvement products and those 'hich re@uired mainly thin*ing 5left brain9 and feeling 5right brain9 information processing

#igh Involvement: Bery important decision (ot to lose if you choose the 'rong brand ecision re@uires lot (o' involvement : (ittle to lose if you choose the 'rong brand. ecision re@uires little thought ecision is not mainly logical or ob,ective ecision is not based mainly on functional facts (o' %eel or emotional approach ecision does not e)press one-s personality ecision is not based on loo*s, tastes, touch, smell, or sound 5sensory effects9

#elps to analyCe the a'areness in target audience#elps to create, develop, refine or sustain the a'areness in the target mar*et.