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A Seminar On

Radar Introduction and basic concepts


By Arti D. Shinde Msc CS-I Roll No. 13120

Outline

Introduction to radar
Radar history Radar principles Radar System Applications Classification of Radar System Radar Parameters

Two important concepts


Ambiguity Function Matched filter

Radar history

First radar test (1904)


German high frequency engineer Christian Hulsmeyer Traffic supervision on water: he measures the running time of electro-magnetic waves to a metal ship and back

World War II
Radar development underwent a strong push during W. W. II. Radar was developed for military purposes during W.W. II. The British used to radars to detect incoming bombers, locate ships and airplanes During the war, radar operators found annoying blips continually appearing on the radar screen. Scientists had not known that radar would be sensitive enough to detect precipitations

Today, radar is an essential tool for predicting and analyzing the weather.

Radar Principles

A radar does nothing but measures the round-trip time delay the range R = c t / 2

radar: radio detection and ranging

The radar beam can be focused to a specific direction azimuth and elevation
Mechanical rotation / phased-array

Radars work in high frequencies


High resolution (small wavelength small object) Small antenna size

Frequency ranges
GHz

Airborne radar (small size, shirt range, high resolution)

Over the horizon (high power, low resolution)

Radar System

All RADAR systems measure target characteristics, including position by transmitting electromagnetic energy and processing the reflected energy. The major components of RADAR are the antenna, the tracking computer and the signal processor.

Qu. Explain the block diagram of modern RADAR system?

Applications

The radar was actually built for military application and it finds use in many applications in this field. Mainly it is used in aircrafts, missiles, artillery projectiles, ships, land vehicles and satellites. the radar is also use to control missiles to guide them to their target. The radar now is put to use in diverse applications and fields like weather monitoring, disaster control and monitoring and many other applications. This motivated us to understand the working of a modern radar system and more specifically, where and how DSP is put to use in. Qu. Write a short note on Radar System and Radar applications?

Classification of radar systems

Radar Parameters
1. Antenna Aperture and Wavelength:

The formula for antenna beam width is given by

where b is beamwidth, is wavelength, and D is antenna width. If the antenna geometry is symmetric, as in a parabolic reflector, then same in both horizontal(azimuth) and vertical(elevation) dimensions. The maximum unambiguous range Rmax is given by,

2. Range and Range Resolution:

where c is velocity of light and T is the pulse repetition interval. If T is decreased, targets at ranges greater than Rmax will appear after the next radar pulse has been transmitted causing an ambiguity in the interpretation of measured range

cT R max 2

Radar Parameters
3. Doppler Filtering:

Radars use Doppler frequency to extract target radial velocity (range rate), as well as to distinguish between moving and stationary targets or objects such as clutter.

2 2 f f0 c

where f0 is the carrier frequency, v is the target velocity, is the wavelength (c= f0 ), and f is the resultant shift in the received
frequency.

Ambiguity Functions

Radar signal design is directed toward achieving the best range and velocity measurement on the one or more targets. The ambiguity function is an idealized mathematical model of the system.

s(nT 1)

s (t )

s(t )e

j 2 f ( t )

s ( nTs )e j 2 f ( nTs )

Fig: Block diagram of the radar model leading the ambiguity function

Qu. Draw and explain the block diagram of radar model leading to AF?

Ambiguity Functions
Ambiguity function A(,) is a two-dimensional function of delay and Doppler frequency that measures the correlation between a waveform and its Doppler distorted version:

The ambiguity function along the zero-Doppler axis ( = 0) is the autocorrelation function of the waveform:

Matched filter

Probability of detection is more related to SNR rather than the exact shape of the waveform
A matched filter maximizes SNR at the output of the filter

Equality holds if and only if

Matched filter output:

Auto-correlation function

The matched filter

Its impulse response is linearly related to the timeinverted complex-conjugate signal When the input to the matched filter is the correct signal plus white noise, the peak output is linearly related to the signal's energy. At the peak output, the SNR is the highest attainable, which is 2E / N0 The response is described by the autocorrelation function of the signal

MF response to Doppler-shifted signals

Ambiguity function

The AF describes the output of a matched filter when the input signal is delayed by tau and Doppler shifted by nu relative to nominal values for which the matched filter was designed.

References
Theory And Application of digital signal processing
www.wikipedia.com

Thank you