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# Water - Cement Ratio

The number of pounds of water per pound of cement. A low ratio means higher strengths, a high ratio means lower strengths. For NCDOT, the ratio depends on the class of concrete, whether an air agent is used or not, and the shape of the stone - rounded or angular.

Water/Cement Ratio

## W/C Ratio Cont.

Example:
W/C = 0.500, and Water = 250 pounds

How much cement is needed? 250 / 0.500 = 500 pounds of `````````````````````` cement

## W/C Ratio Cont.

Example: W/C = 0.500, and Cement = 600 pounds How much water is needed? 0.500 X 600 = 300 pounds of water 300 pounds / 8.33 = 36.0 gallons

Water/Cementitious Problem
Cement Used in Mix 436 pounds Fly Ash in Mix 131 pounds Maximum Water 36.0 gallons Total Water 33.5 gallons Metered Water 27.5 gallons Free Water in aggregates 50 pounds

Determine the design w/c ratio and the batched w/c ratio

## SOLUTION: Design W/C

Add Cement And Fly Ash: 436 + 131 = 567 pounds Convert Design Water Into Pounds: 33.5 X 8.33 = 279 pounds Plug Into Formula W/C = Ratio: 279 / 567 = 0.492
(carry answer to three places after decimal)

## Batched W/C Ratio

Add Cement And Fly Ash: 436 + 131 = 567 pounds Convert Metered Water Into Pounds: 27.5 X 8.33 = 229 pounds Add free water 229 + 50 = 279 Lbs 279 / 567 = 0.492

## W/C Ratio with Ice

Determine the W/C ratio if 68 pounds of ice is used to lower the temperature of the concrete. The W/C ratio remains the same because the quantity of total water does not change.

QUESTIONS

In determining mix designs, you must use an aggregate dry rodded unit weight. This weight is determined at the lab. In the procedure for determining this weight, only the coarse aggregate is used. Therefore, there is a % of solids and a % of voids in the container.

## Formula : % Solids & Voids

% Solids:
Dry Rodded Unit Weight (Spec. Gravity) X (62.4) The Answer Is Then Multiplied Times 100 To get % Voids: Subtract % Solids from 100

Example:
Dry Rodded Unit Weight: Specific Gravity Of Agg.: % Solids = 96.6 pcf 2.80

100 - 55 = 45%

% Voids =

## Terms I Should Know.

Abrasion Resistance of an Aggregate Durability Hydration Ph Saturated Surface Dry Set Retarder Unit Weight Water / Cement Ratio THAT IS ENOUGH FOR A MONDAY!!

## Pass Out Day 1 Mix Design Problems

PROBLEM SOLUTION
1.Water: 209 + 15 = 224 gals 224 X 8.33 = 1866 pounds Add all material: 4060+7733 +13,586 +1866 = 27,245 Divide by unit weight: 27,245 = 7.1 cu. yd. (142.10 X 27)

PROBLEM SOLUTION
2. Water / Cement = Ratio 1866 / 4060 = 0.460

3. (A) % Solid 88.6 = 0.508 X 100 = 51% (2.79 X 62.4) (B) % Void = 100 51 = 49%

PROBLEM SOLUTION
4. Wet Sand: 5.9 - 0.5 = 5.4% 5.4 / 100 = 0.054 0.054 X 1102 = 59.5 pounds 1102 + 60 = 1162 pounds (batch weight) Dry Sand: 0.5 / 100 = 0.005 0.005 X 1102 = 5.5 pounds 1102 - 6.0 = 1096 pounds

PROBLEM SOLUTION
5. SSD sand weight ? 1720 / 1.062 = 1620 pounds SSD sand

PROBLEM SOLUTION
6. Gallons of Water from Wet Sand

HOMEWORK PROBLEM

QUESTIONS