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Industrial Revolution

Effects of the Industrial Revolution

What was the industrial revolution?
Machines coordinated to make goods Energy from non-animal sources Industry grew 4 times faster

Changed all as ects of society

Most rofound effect since agriculture !overnment change

$ransformed social classes %igher standard of living for most

"olitical and military #alance Euro e as dominant ower

Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Effects of the Industrial Revolution

&gricultural revolution
%orse and steel low 'ertili(er use )ields im roved *++, -.++--/0+

!rowth of foreign trade for manufactured goods

'oreign colonies Increase in shi s and si(e

1uccessful wars and foreign con2uest

Origins Why England?

'actors in England
3o civil strife !overnment favored trade Laissez faire 4arge middle class Island geogra hy Mo#ile o ulation Everyone lived within 5+ miles of naviga#le river $radition of e6 erimental science Weak guilds

7What were the factors that already marked 8ritain9 rather than any other Euro ean country9 as the destined first home of the industrial revolution? $he answer lies artly in things remote from technology9 such as the religious freedom which #rought in the %uguenots and other refugees with their numerous arts and encouraged the native "uritan ca italist: $here was the confident attitude natural to an island eo le that had ceased:::to reckon seriously with the ros ect of invasion: $he island ossessed a valua#le stimulus to trade in its long coastline and fre2uent naviga#le rivers:::Moreover9 the &ct of ;nion in -.+. had made 8ritain into a single economic unit long #efore any other area of com ara#le wealth and resources had ceased to #e divided #y numerous customs #arriers: 8ut even with the addition of the 1cots9 the smallness of the o ulation as com ared with the 'rench gave at the same time an im ortant incentive to the use of la#orsaving devices: 4astly9 there was the lentifulness and accessi#ility of coal in the island:7 $:<: =erry and $: I: Williams9 A Short History of Technology

7In most of Euro e9 then9 craft guilds eventually #ecame res onsi#le for a level of regulation that stifled com etition and innovation: $hey did this #y laying down meticulous rules a#out three elements of roduction that we might term >the three >s>? rices9 rocedures9 and artici ation:7
Mokyr9 @oel9 The Gifts of Athena9 "rinceton ;niversity "ress9 5++59 :50A:

7$he weak osition of the guilds in 8ritain in the eighteenth century can go some way in e6 laining the series of technological successes we usually refer to as the 8ritish Industrial Bevolution and why it occurred in 8ritain rather than on the Euro ean continent9 although clearly this was only one of many varia#les at work:7
Mokyr9 @oel9 The Gifts of Athena9 "rinceton ;niversity "ress9 5++59 :5C+:

4-0 s inners er weaver

Flying Shuttle

Manufacturing Textiles
Cotton gave stronger fi#ers Invention of 1 inning @enny
=emand for skilled weavers

Mechanical looms Dflying shuttleE @ac2uard looms

Richard Arkwright 1771

Invents the spinning water frame C nstructs the first spinning fact ry
Reali!ed that several machines c uld "e linked t create a fact ry #eeded water p wer t turn the machines $water wheel e%pert& #eeded gears $watchmaker& 'he creati n f the first spinning fact ry was the "eginning f the Industrial Rev luti n

(dmund Cartwright17)7
* wer l m fact ry

Manufacturing Textiles
@ac2uard looms

Manufacturing Negatives
"oor working conditions Children su lied la#or 4uddites
%andicraftsmen re laced #y machine Frgani(ed to sto industriali(ation

Energy and Transportation

&nimal ower and lant #urning Water emerged as energy source Iron industry energy crisis
4ack of wood Coal discovered 1team um s for mines

1team engines Bailroads

73ewcomen>s engine consisted mainly of a large9 vertical iston and a #eam that rocked #ack and forth on a central su ort like a giant seesaw: $he iston sat several feet #elow one end of the #eam9 attached to it #y a chain: Each time the iston moved downward9 it would ull down on that end of the rocking #eam9 forcing the other end u : $he o osite end was attached to a suction um 9 similar to the hand-o erated um s you still see on come old water wells9 and each downstroke of the iston would #ring gallons of water gushing u through a i e from the mine #elow:7 "ool9 Bo#ert9 Beyond Engineering9 F6ford ;niversity "ress9 -AA.9 : -55:

7When the steam flowed in under the rising iston Gof the 3ewcomen engineH9 Watt reali(ed9 all #ut a fraction of it condensed immediately #ecause the surrounding cylinderhaving Iust #een cooled #y a Iet of waterwas at a relatively low tem erature: $his meant that several times as much steam was usedand several times as much fuel was consumedas was theoretically sufficient to fill the iston on each stroke::: Watt suddenly reali(ed how to fi6 the ro#lem? #uild a machine with a condensing cham#er se arate from the cylinder and kee the two at different tem eratures:7 "ool9 Bo#ert9 Beyond Engineering9 F6ford ;niversity "ress9 -AA.9 :-54--50:

England vs. ontinental Europe

England vs. ontinental Europe

"roduced 5+, of industrial goods !ross national roduct rose 46 "o ulation increase Inventors took inventions a#road 8elgiumJs coal and iron resources !ermany iron and wool factories 'rance slow to industriali(e Mechani(ation came #ut late

$he Industrial Bevolution was #uilt on ra id advances in technology

7$echnology com rises all that #ewilderingly varied #ody of knowledge and devices #y which man rogressively masters his natural environment:::7
- $:<: =erry and $: I: Williams9 A Short History of Technology, 3

Is technology good?

short" #ediu# and long$ter# conse%uences
1hort-term? 8enefits are hel ful and desira#le Dthis is why we use itE: If roven to #e a dud9 it is discarded 2uickly: Medium-term? 3egative conse2uences are noted and strong resistance often arises: 1ometimes the short term causes disru tions Dloss of Io#s9 etc:E and attem ts are made in the medium term to sto technology D4uddites9 etc:EK #ut these are rarely successful De6ce t current efforts #y environmental grou s who have the #acking of oliticians9 courts9 and many eo leE: $his resistance is outside market forces: 4ong-term? May re2uire changesLevolution in the technology #ut we rarely a#andon the technology all together #ecause the #enefits are great and the negatives are worked around:
Mokyr9 @oel9 The Gifts of Athena9

Is com le6ity good?

7Com le6ity creates un redicta#ility: $he more com le6 a system9 the more difficult it is to understand all the different ways the system may #ehaveand9 in articular9 to antici ate all the different ways it may fail: Interde endence among arts creates entirely new ways that things can go wrong9 ways that engineers often overlook or ignore: $hus many technological failures chalked u to mechanical #reakdown or design flaws are more accurately descri#ed as the children of com le6ity:7 "ool9 Bo#ert9 Beyond Engineering9 F6ford ;niversity "ress9 -AA.9 :-*-:

%ow do we control technology without stifling rogress?

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