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INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY

QUALITY ASSURANCE

The textile industry complex


Supplier of raw materials

+
Manufacturer

+
Seller/Retailer
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Raw materials
Fibre, yarn, fabric, dyes, finishing chemicals, buttons, zippers, rivets, thread, labels, polybag, stickers, embroidery thread, sequins, beads, zari, clips, dabka, laces, piping, appliqu, fusible, lining, etc.

The need for Quality Assurance exists regardless of

whether you make it


or

someone else makes it!!!


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UNDERSTANDING Q.A.
Textile Quality Assurance is the process of
designing, producing, evaluating and checking

products to deliver the desired PRODUCT.


Points to ponder: Q. Who is responsible for the Quality of goods? Q. What is the difference between Q.C. & Q.A.?

UNDERSTANDING Q.A.
Two approaches : Quality control Quality management

UNDERSTANDING Q.A.
Quality satisfies customers expectations Today, you HAVE to produce quality products at a competitive price Q is inherent in a product and is incorporated in

the product during P.D., production & marketing


Textile Q.A. includes quality of goods as well as actions & interactions of the departments, materials and processes involved in production
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The Model

The Model
Outermost circle represents materials, processes and product characteristics and features which affect the quality of a product. Next circle indicates that the 3 factors must be defined, evaluated, inspected and analysed to ensure conformance and compliance. Innermost circle indicates that Q.A. is a never ending process Center of the model presents the 2 basic goals of Q.A.
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UNDERSTANDING Q.A.
Q. Why has quality become so important?

A. Competition, globalisation

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Improve quality to improve the

chances of your survival!!!

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Companies + employees must understand how quality affects organisations, standard practices within organisations, consumer behaviours, customer purchases and satisfaction, and

competition within the market place.

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Definition of Quality
Webster defines quality as that which belongs to something and makes or helps to make it what it is; characteristic element; any character or characteristic which may make an object good or

bad; the degree of excellence which a thing


possesses.

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Definition of Quality
Quality is defined as the total of the characteristics that help describe the overall object or service

COTTON is the best fiber available. T/F ??

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Product Perspective
Product quality is represented by the total of a set of precise & measurable characteristics or component of a finished product Difference in characteristic or component

difference in quality
Each parameter is quantified/benchmarked E.g. GSM, count, construction, colour fastness to washing/rubbing, etc.
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Product Perspective
* more, finer, etc. doesnt necessarily mean better, should be relevant. * sometimes lighter fabric is required, sometimes coarser fabric is required

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Producers perspective
Q = consistent conformance to specs & stds Q is achieved when products fall within acceptable range E.g. button

buttons may satisfy manufacturers expectations


but may or may not perform in a satisfactory fashion for the consumer
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Producers perspective
Point of view #1 Good Q enables a company to produce goods that

meet pre-determined criteria and which can be sold


at full price Point of view #2 Q is free | Production & material costs are same for 1st Q products as well as seconds | cost of producing 100 units is same regardless of whether 100, 75 or 50 units are first quality
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Crosbys 14 steps of Q improvement


1. Make it clear that management has a longterm commitment to Q 2. Form cross-department Q teams 3. Identify where current and potential

problems exist 4. Assess the cost of Q & explain how it is used as a management tool
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Crosbys 14 steps of Q improvement


5. Increase the Q awareness and personal
commitment of all employees 6. Take immediate action to correct problems identified 7. Establish a zero defect program 8. Train supervisors to carry out their

responsibilities in the Q program


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Crosbys 14 steps of Q improvement


9. Hold a zero defects program
10. Encourage individuals and teams to establish both personal & team improvement goals 11. Encourage employees to tell management about obstacles they face in trying to meet Q goals 12. Recognise employees who participate
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Crosbys 14 steps of Q improvement


13. Implement Q councils to promote continual
communication 14. Repeat everything to illustrate that Q improvement is a never-ending process

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Customer perspective
quality depends on the dimensions of product or service that are of importance to me Customer determines whether or not a product/service meets or exceeds expectation

* Companies need to respond to changes in


expectations and needs in order to survive in the market
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Customer perspective
superior colour fastness is desirable but higher price isnt Fabric manufacturer has to understand the wants of immediate customer and the ultimate

consumer

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T.Q.M.
Focus on customers and their satisfaction is the

basic underlying principle of TQM In TQM, all actions are directed toward
producing a quality product for the TG, satisfying the TG and meeting the companys business objectives
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T.Q.M.
Customer satisfaction doesnt occur JUST by

keeping

contact

with

customers

through

complaint departments, satisfaction surveys, and

warranties
Firms must understand all interactions

customers have with company & use that information to improve the system
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system wide approach used within a dyeing mill

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Demings management principles include 14

points that relate to adopting a philosophy of


improving products & services, remaining

competitive, staying in business and providing


jobs

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Demings 14 points:
1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement

of product and service


2. Adopt the new philosophy

3. Cease dependence on mass inspection


4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service
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Demings 14 points:
6. Institute training

7. Adopt and institute leadership


8. Drive out fear

9. Break down barriers between staff areas


10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force 11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force
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Demings 14 points:
12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of

workmanship
13. Encourage education and self-improvement

for everyone
14. Take action to accomplish the transformation

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Demings Cycle

Demings cycle links production, TG & business objectives


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Demings Cycle
1. Conduct consumer research, use the results in planning the product (PLAN) 2. Produce the product (DO) 3. Check the product to make sure it meets criteria identified in the plan (CHECK)

4. Market the product (ACT)


5. Analyse how the product is received by TG in terms of Q, cost and other criteria (ANALYSE)
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Joseph M.Juran Q Pioneer


Jurans approach concentrates on eliminating

the relatively few sources that cause the majority


of problems

Focus

is

on

understanding

customers,

communication within the company & with customers, and continuous improvement

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Jurans 10 steps to Q improvement


1. Build awareness of both the need for

improvement
improvement

&

opportunities

for

2. Set goals for improvement


3. Organise to meet the goals that have been set 4. Provide training 5. Implement problems projects aimed at solving
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Jurans 10 steps to Q improvement


6. Report progress

7. Give recognition
8. Communicate results

9. Keep score
10. Maintain momentum by building

improvement into the companys regular systems


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Value-based perspective
quality are those that perform/conform at

acceptable prices
Today, value & excellence are combined to

create affordable excellence


when benefits exceed cost, customer is satisfied & vice-versa

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Dimensions of Q
8 dimensions of Q have been identified as follows: 1. Performance 2. Features 3. Reliability 4. Conformance 5. Durability 6. Serviceability 7. Aesthetics 8. Perceived quality
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Dimensions of Q
1. Performance combines product & user-based approaches, and focuses on measurable product attributes 2. Features are secondary characteristics that supplement a products basic function

- E.g. style & design aspects


- feature for fashion products change more

quickly than basics


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Dimensions of Q
3. Reliability : describes the likelihood of product

failure within a given time period


-Important in case of durable goods.

-E.g. durability is not required in case of bridal


wear * Textiles are normally semi-durable goods Q. Give examples for product failure ??
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Dimensions of Q
4. Conformance is the degree to which a

products design and function match standard


and specs

- E.g. the product should meet the standards in


terms of the desired construction, fabric

strength, matching of plaids at c.f. seam, matching of trims and fabric in terms of colour
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Dimensions of Q
5. Durability : how long a product will be suitable

for its end use.


- A product cant be used if it has deteriorated to the point of unsuitability * Deterioration may be in terms of colour fastness, abrasion resistance, fit, style, fashion

product life span vary for different consumers


expectations from nightwear and work wear are very different
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Dimensions of Q
6. Serviceability : related to product repair. In textile, it means clean-ability Q. Can the product be cleaned & restored to its near-new condition? - A product may shrink, bleed or loose colour, wrinkle E.g. Process can be incorrect : hot water - Inappropriate material : dry cleaning, detergent - Inappropriate material used in product: pigment dyed cotton + silk
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Dimensions of Q
7. Aesthetics describes ones physical senses of sight, sound and touch. - In case of textile & apparel hand, weight,

texture, colour & fashion


- Aesthetics reflects individual preferences pastels, body-hugging

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Dimensions of Q
8. Perceived quality : customers rarely possess complete information about a product. They tend to rely on nebulous factors like brand name,

advertising, etc.

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Determining product markets


Why is identification/determining of TG important?

Demographics, psychographics, lifestyle, etc.

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Demographics
Gender Age & stage of lifecycle (teens, single working, micro-family, large family) Education level & socioeconomic status (design companies, accounting companies)

Geographic location
Ethnicity & cultural membership
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Lifestyle factors
Social activities, entertainment preferences, memberships in group & organisations, Shopping habits, hobbies, spending & saving habits, gift giving E.g. athlete, tennis player, horse rider

E.g. travel & vacation plan resort, trekking

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Lifestyle factors
E.g. wardrobe size & variety : - Alok owns 5 pairs of black pants IDENTICAL - Ravi owns 5 pairs of black pants DIFFERENT WT, TEXTURE, STYLING - Deval owns 1 pair of black pants JUST 1 PAIR!!

each of the above individuals has developed a


wardrobe to meet particular needs
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Lifestyle factors
Also, manner in which individuals clean, repair and store textile products has an impact on the market E.g. one consumer may replace an item when he/she looses a button

another consumer may replace the lost button or


replace all buttons. Q. What do the Sheikhs do in the Middle-East?
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Psychographics
Includes individual self concept, self esteem, body image, personal values, attitude towards fashion, standard of living, religious beliefs Environmental attitude organic clothing, frugality

Background in textile & apparel ??


Personal likes & dislikes discount stores; specialty stores; catalogues, web
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Relating TG to Product Attributes


ability to translate TG characteristics into product attributes for a specific product is the most important & difficult task

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CASE STUDY
T.G. Family of limited income, some vocational education, parents in early 30s, one or more small children, suburbans of a metro city of India, moderate interests in fashion, conservative attitudes. Avid watchers of cricket, laughter shows, talent shows, childrens programs, interested in crafts. Q. Describe the apparel product this TG would be interested in. Q. Describe a specific apparel product lets say T-shirts for a 5 year old kindergarten girl
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CASE STUDY-Answer to Q1.


This market may be more interested in products that are relatively low cost, durable, and easy care. Thus, a company that produced for this group would need to be extremely price conscious. Their products would probably incorporate cotton, cotton/PES, or 100% PES in fabrications that have good abrasion resistance, are strong, and dont require special care in laundering. Product would need to be constructed in a durable fashion and not incorporate any components that required dry cleaning.
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CASE STUDY-Answer to Q1.


These products would probably be somewhere in the middle of their fashion cycle, but the fashion component would be modified to appeal to the more conservative nature of this target market. Because of the interest in crafts, a special trim, appliqu, embroidery, or screen print might appeal to this group provided that the addition did not add much to the cost or affect care or durability.

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CASE STUDY-Answer to Q2.


This customer would likely shop at a discount mass merchandiser in the suburban community. The merchandiser is known for its everyday low prices and reasonably durable products. The tee shirts are made of either 100% cotton or cotton/PES blends and are machine washable. Some of the tee shirts are solid colours, some have lace trim and ribbons or embroidery, and some incorporate screen prints of currently popular childrens cartoon characters. No doubt this customer would find at least one product in this retailers offerings that would satisfy requirements for a girls tee shirt.

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Product attributes have to be derived from customer need or

expectation

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Identifying product attributes


Measurable physical attributes shrinkage, abrasion resistance, etc. Less measurable physical attributes fits, fashion

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Serviceability
Serviceability describes how well a product satisfies customer needs Components of serviceability include: Aesthetics

Durability
Cost Comfort Care Appearance retention
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Aesthetics
Appearance, fashion preference, fit & styling E.g. Does the facing extend far enough into the jacket front? - Does the wrap skirt fall open when the wearer sits? - Does the pocket facing show during wear? Does

the content spill out when the wearer sits or


walks?
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Durability
How long does a textile product be usable for its intended purpose? Durability is dependent on how a product is used, cleaned & stored * Therefore durability is difficult to define in absolute terms.

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Durability
Durability is often assessed in terms of tensile strength, resistance to abrasion, pilling, snagging and deformation E.g. for carpeting : resistance to matting and pile

soiling,

pile

crushing

may be measured

Expectation for durability may differ depending on whether the item is high fashion or basic product
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Durability
Q. What is your durability expectation from (a) a rug thats used in the living room, AND (b) a rug thats used as bed for the family pet?
(a) minimal shedding of fibers, abrasion & snag
resistance, shouldnt buckle with use, colour

permanence, fading, soiling, pilling, matting of surface yarns (b) regular m/c washing, wear & tear from the pet
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Durability
Equally important is durability of all components used in the product Fabric, thread, buttons, zippers, lining, etc. Durability is influenced by selection of appropriate stitch & seam type customers prefer that seam rupture before the fabric tears T/F ?? Durability factors also include the bond strength of fusible interlining Elastic, zippers
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Cost
Cost is used to differentiate & categorise textile products Customers have been led to believe that cost is an indicator of quality Customers have unrealistic expectations for expensive goods and may not understand other

factors that affect the cost of product. KIDSWEAR


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Cost
often moderately priced product deliver greatest value for the amount paid. T/F? Cost includes ?? raw material, labour, O/H, fees for registered trademarks, licence fee for copyrighted material, advertising, services such as alteration/home

delivery, ambiance (dcor, music, computer


animations, videos)
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Comfort
Items that are comfortable allow consumers to use or wear them w/o thinking about them or being annoyed or made uncomfortable by them Comfort includes how a product effects heat loss or heat gain Moisture absorption apparel, towelling,

industrial wipes
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Comfort
Water resistance/repellent umbrella, outerwear, awnings Static build up upholstery, carpeting, apparel, B +ve Fabric hand direct contact with skin How often have you torn out care labels

because they are stiff??


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Comfort
Excessively bulky seam (A/H area, W/B) Stiff threads (NYLON) Rivets & metal zippers (DRIER, SUN, CAMPFIRE) Fit (of course!!) (walk, sit, go through normal range of body motions)(COATS while driving)

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Care
care describes how the product responds to the procedure(s) recommended for returning a soiled item to its clean and as near-to-new condition as possible Dimensional stability (shrinkage, elongation, L, W, L x W)

Colour fastness (bleeding, fading, staining,


migration)
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Care
Pilling, snagging, fabric distortion, yarn slippage Metal zippers and buttons may tarnish Fabrics with wrinkle free finishes tend to hold on to oily soils tenaciously. E.g. ring around the collar Pleats, creases, seams, pockets, collars,

plackets, etc. can undergo drastic changes during


cleaning
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Care
Some care instructions are unrealistic or confusing. E.g. care label of a RED-and-WHITE striped T-shirt reads wash bright colours separately !!

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Appearance Retention
Describes the degree to which a textile product retains its original appearance during storage, use and care E.g.1 resistance to colour change (YELLOWING) | abraded denims may turn yellow or develop a green cast

E.g.2 aging of components |adhesives used in


fusible interlinings may darken & stiffen with age
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Appearance Retention
E.g.3 wrinkling, creases E.g.4 knit & bias cut garments when placed on hangers STRETCH bulky, loose knits when placed on hangers SHOULDER BUBBLE

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Customer perceptions of Quality


Considers the materials & production techniques used in the product, the uniformity or consistency

across similar products, the fashion statement


inherent in the design of the product, and the price of the product. Consumers continue to rely on price as an indicator of quality
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Customer perceptions of Quality


Companies should keep this in mind while
strategising

Button

producers

sell

to

apparel/home

furnishing manufacturer who in turn sell to ultimate consumer successful companies also consider the needs of individual consumers

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Customer perceptions of Quality


From a consumers perspective, button failure may include cracking, chipping, breaking, fading or

tarnishing,

rusting,

bleeding,

discolouring, or shanks cutting through sewing threads Button supplier has to satisfy the direct customer

as well as ultimate consumer


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Performance expectations
3 corners of quality: the product, the user, and training of the user or support during the life of the product Customers expectations are based on a holistic perspective that includes numerous factors like cost, comfort, durability, fashion, end use &

PERCEPTION of others
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Performance expectations
Customers develop their performance expectations based on previous experiences with similar products, information from family members & friends, and assumptions regarding trade names, brand names, fiber content, fabric type & colour

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Performance expectations
Customers have an extremely limited knowledge of textiles their expectation may be skewed in unrealistic directions E.g. customers unrealistically expected that frosted denim jeans would perform as well as untreated denim jeans

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Product performance in customers hands


Customer remains the ultimate judge of product quality and performance Its important to understand what customers look for, how they evaluate tangible & intangible attributes of a product

Perception changes with info, XP, etc.


Consumers also assess the performance of abstract factors which are hard to define
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Customer satisfaction
How well a product/service meets customer expectations

Know your TG in order to satisfy them


Know what your TG wants firms need to ensure that business objectives dont conflict with customer satisfaction customer evaluation process begins with the purchase process & continues throughout the use of the product
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Effect of expectations & performance on satisfaction


Performance
high high

Not satisfied Expectations


Slightly satisfied

Satisfied
Highly satisfied

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Effect of expectations & performance on satisfaction


customers are often unable to articulate the product attributes that are most important to them uninformed customers judge products!

attribute of little importance in producing


satisfaction maybe of great importance in

producing dissatisfaction E.g. FAN/ZIPPER/GLASS


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GREATEST CHALLENGE
To translate consumer/customer expectations into descriptions, characteristics and performance

requirements for the products Customer satisfaction surveys are undertaken to identify issues related to products/services that did

not meet customer expectations

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GREATEST CHALLENGE
- PROBLEM with M.R.: rapid product changes makes it extremely difficult to conduct a full

customer satisfaction assessment


- The entire season may elapse before the result of the survey is available When season changes fashion change materials change expectations change

results of survey have little application


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GREATEST CHALLENGE
Mail order companies & firms producing basic products are more likely to devote time to assessing customer satisfaction Mail order companies focus on returned

products

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Performance measure for companies


Q. Why is measuring performance important? Q. How do we measure performance? Gross income Total turnover

No. of merchandise returns


Productivity levels in manufacturing facility Rejection rates quality levels
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