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There lived two woodcutters,

Rahim and Rahman

They earned barely enough

to survive
Their earning was merely

hand to mouth

One sunny day, the

woodcutters having lunch A beggar comes to them Rahim wanted to offer the share of his lunch Rahman stopped Rahim and offered the job to beggar

Rahman offered his axe to beggar

and taught how to cut the wood

beggar mutter angrily: " It would

have been so much simpler if these men had been generous by sharing their food
In the mean time, a person

stepped out and purchased the whole bundle of wood

Rahman told Rahim, " Had

you given the beggar some food, he would have eaten it quickly and would have been again hungry tonight.

By teaching him how to start his own trade in firewood, we have both taught him a skill, which will last him a lifetime.

Now he will never go hungry

As a very famous saying goes,

" Don't give them fish but teach them how to catch the fish. "



Training is expensive. Without training it is more expensive Nehru

Training refers to a planned effort by a company to

facilitate employees learning of job-related competencies.

Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and

organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skill (Steinmez)
The goal of training is for employees to
master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized in

training programs, and apply them to their day-to-day activities

To increase productivity and quality

To promote versatility and adaptability to new methods

To reduce the number of accidents To reduce labour turnover

To increase job satisfaction

To increase efficiency

1. 2.

3. 4.


To impart the basic knowledge and skills needed for an intelligent performance of a definite task. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills needed in their fields of work. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of the outlook that may arise from over-specialization. To impart customer education for the purposes of meeting the needs of the customers effectively.


TO THE ORGANIZATION It improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. It improves the morale of the workforce and helps people to identify with organizational goals. It fosters openness and trust by improving the relationship between superiors and subordinates. It leads to improved profitability. It helps development for promotion from within. It helps in developing leadership skill, motivation, loyalty and better attitudes. Facilitate conflict handling, adjust to change. It helps to improve corporate image & reduce outside consulting cost.


Encourages self-development and self-confidence. Facilitate employees to handle stress, tension &conflict. Helps in better decision making and problem solving. Improves leadership skills, communication & attitude. Encourages to take job involves risk. Enhances group cohesiveness. Increases job satisfaction, reduce labour turnover & absenteeism. It helps in avoiding accidents, waste elimination and damage to equipments.


1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and testing, expensive to operate 2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time 3. Equips staff to leave for a better job 4. Bad habits passed on 5. Narrow experience


To increase productivity To improve quality To help fulfill future manpower requirements.

To improve work environment.

To improve safety to prevent accidents. To achieve personal growth. To improve creativity and initiatives of employees. installation of new equipment/ techniques A change in working methods A realization that performance is inadequate

A desire to reduce the scrap and improve quality

An increase in the number of accidents Promotion or

transfer of individual employees.

Shortage of skills: As skilled and knowledgeable people

are on short supply it is advisable to improve skill and knowledge of existing employees. Technological Obsolescence: There is a great need to update technology as it obsolete over a period and hence need to update through training. Personal Obsolescence: As time passes knowledge and skill of employees become obsolete and there to up date it through training. Organizational obsolescence: To prevent obsolescence of organization, employees must be exposed to modern techniques of management through training.

Upgrading ability: New employees require extensive

training to bring them up to the minimum level of performance standard. Conversion of Agrarian labour to industrial worker: Employees coming from agrarian/farming background need to be trained to industrial culture or workshop ethos. Coercive training by Govt.: Apprenticeship training conducted by Govt. of India. Human Capital: The latest thinking is to treat employees as human capital. The expenses involved in training and development are now considered as investment.


Communications: The increasing diversity of today's

workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity


Human relations Quality initiatives Safety

Steps in the Training Process 1. Organizational objectives 2. Assessment of Training needs 3. Establishment of Training goals 4. Devising training programme 5. Implementation of training programme 6. Evaluation of results


The first step in the training process in an

organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. Needs Assessment

Needs Assessment Definition

A needs assessment is the process of identifying performance requirements and the "gap" between what performance is required and what presently exists.

How can a need to identified?

Complaints from staff, customers/clients
Poor quality work Frequent errors

Large staff turnover

Deadlines not being met Conflict amongst staff

New equipment systems

Techniques for carrying out TNAs

Survey questionnaires Job descriptions and person specifications Critical incidents Log books and other company records Industry seminars Supervisors reports

On the job:

Apprentice and coaching Job rotation Committee assign Job instruction Training Vestibule Lecture Class room lectures Conferences/seminars Group discussions/case study

Off the job:


Role playing/games T Group/Sensitivity Audio-visual/film shows Simulation


Class room training: It is to convey rules, policies, procedures. It is

simple and efficient, have only minimum cost and time. The disadvantages are: One way communication, passive participation. Conferences, seminars , workshops: Discuss points of common interest for enriching knowledge and skill. This is a group activity. Group discussions/case study analysis: Case study is based on the belief that managerial competence can be best attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases (Bass). Experience is the best teacher is the principle used in this method. Vestibule Training: Employees are trained on the equipment they are employed, but the training is considered away from the work place. For training a machine shop operator necessary equipment required in an actual machine are duplicated. Simulation: Any training activity in which actual working environment is artificially created as near and realistic as possible.

TRAINING METHODS-Off the job training.

Role playing/Games: A real life situation is simulated by

a group of trainees in which each take up the role of different persons-customers, vendors, accountants, supervisors as the case may be. T Group Training: T stands for training. This is also known as Sensitivity Training or Laboratory Training. It is originated in 1940s. In this programme, an attempt is made to change attitude and behaviour of people in the group. It is a small discussion group without any leader. Trainer raises a question and encourage open discussion, which is unstructured, without any set task or agenda. In T group the members train one another.

TRAINING METHODS-Off the job training.

In Basket Exercise: This is for developing decision making skills

among the trainees. The trainee is provided with a basket or tray of papers/files related to his functional area. The trainee is expected to study and make recommendations on the problem situation.

Programmed Instruction: It incorporates a prearranged and

proposed acquisition of some specific skills or general knowledge. It includes teaching machines, instructions and programmed learning. The core feature of this method is participation by the trainee and immediate feedback by him. Programmed Instruction include film, tapes, programmed books, illustrations, printed materials etc.

Management games: It is a classroom exercise, in which teams of

students compete each other to achieve certain common objectives. In this method the trainee learn by analyzing problems by using some intuition and by taking trial and error type of decisions.

No one is a perfect fit at the time of hiring and some training

& development must take place. Flexibility to adapt to changing requirements Moulds employees attitude Helps them achieve better co-operation Creates greater loyalty to the orgn Reduces wastage and spoilage Reduces constant supervision Improves quality Planned development programs will return values to the organization in terms of :
increased productivity reduced costs Morale

Responsible for Training

Top Mgmt Frames the Trg policy HT Dept plans, establishes and evaluates Supervisors implement and apply development

procedure Employees provide feedback, revision and suggestions

Development is an inclusive process with which both managers and individual employees are involved. It offers opportunities to learn skills, but also provide an environment designed to discovering and cultivating basic attitudes and capabilities and facilitating continuing personal growth (Dale Yoder).

Decision making:

In basket Business games Case studies Role play Sensitivity Behaviour Position rotation Multiple mgmt



Education is training people to do a different job.

It is often given to people who have been identified as

being promotable with potential.


Increases job skills It shapes attitude

specific skills Short term perspective Job centered The role of a trainer is very important

overall growth Long term perspective Career Centered Internally motivated for self development