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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science


1.1 What is Science? What is science? Importance of science Career in science 1.2 A Science Laboratory Common laboratory apparatus Safety hazards 1.3 The Steps in a Scientific Investigation The steps in a scientific investigation 1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units Physical quantities and their units
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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Science


1.5 Weight and Mass Weight Mass 1.6 Measuring Tools Measuring length Measuring area Measuring volume 1.7 The Importance of Standard Units The importance of standard units

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1.1 What is Science?


Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects us and our environment Science covers a broad field of knowledge that deals with observed facts and the relationship among those facts
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1.1 What is Science?


Importance of science
Improve our standard of living Improve the quality of the environment Understand the world around us Increase food supply Prevention and treatment of diseases
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1.1 What is Science?


Career in science
Doctor Architect Engineer Astronaut Veterinarian Pharmacist Chemist Computer programmer
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Areas of science are biology, physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, meteorology and biochemistry

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1.2 A Science Laboratory


Common laboratory apparatus
Apparatus Crucible Test tube Stopwatch Caliper Uses Heating chemicals

Used to contain chemicals


To measure time

To measure diameters

Thermometer To measure temperature


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1.2 A Science Laboratory


Common laboratory apparatus
Apparatus Uses Evaporating liquid from a solution

Evaporating dish

Cork and rubber Use as a stopper for test tubes or conical flasks stopper Hold specimen for observation Glass slide under a microscope Test tube holder Hold test tubes
Syringe Transfer small quantities of liquids
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1.2 A Science Laboratory


Safety hazards

Corrosive

Radioactive

Toxic/poisonous

Harmful/irritant

Explosive
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Highly flammable
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1.3 The Steps in a Scientific Investigation


Determine what to find out Analysing the data that has been collected Form a hypothesis Plan a systematic experiment for the hypothesis

Write down the data that has been observed


Making conclusion to decide whether the data is true or not
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Controlling of variables

Interpreting the data

Write a report on the scientific investigation


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1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units


A physical quantity is a quantity that can be measured Physical quantity SI unit Length () metre (m) Mass (m) kilogram (kg) Time (t) Temperature (T) second (s) kelvin (K) Instrument Metre rule Lever/beam balance Stopwatch Thermometer Ammeter
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Electric current (I) ampere (A)


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1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units


Prefix giga mega kilo centi milli micro nano pico Symbol G M k c m n p
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Value 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001
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1.5 Weight and Mass


Weight
The pull of the Earth on an object The force that pulls the body towards the centre of the Earth is called gravitational force SI unit is Newton (N) The weight of an object is not always the same
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Type of tools for measuring weight

A spring balance
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A compression balance
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1.5 Weight and Mass


Mass
The quantity of matter in an object The mass of an object is constant and not affected by gravitational forces SI unit is kilogram (kg) The mass of an object does not change

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Type of tools for measuring mass

A beam balance

A lever balance
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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring length
Length is the distance between two points Its SI unit is the metre (m) Other units that can be used for length are kilometre (km), centimetre (cm) and millimetre (mm) The relationship between the units of length 1 cm = 10 mm 1 m = 100 cm = 1 000 mm 1 km = 1 000 m = 100 000 cm
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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring the length of a straight line
Correct

Measuring the length of a curve

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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring the external diameter

Measuring the internal diameter

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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring area
Area is a measure of the amount of a surface. Its SI unit is square metres (m2) The area of regular and irregular shapes can be estimated by tracing the shapes onto a piece of graph paper
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Estimating the area of a leaf

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1.6 Measuring Tools


Measuring volume
R
S

S is the correct eye position

Volume is a measure of the space occupied by a substances Its SI unit is cubic metres (m3) Tools for measuring volume of liquid are measuring cylinder, burette and pipette
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1.7 The Importance of Standard Units


Makes it easier for people from different countries to communicate with each other A measurement in that unit has the same value anywhere in the world
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THE END

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Bab 1 : Pengenalan kepada Sains


1.1 Apakah itu Sains? Apakah itu sains? Kepentingan sains Kerjaya dalam sains 1.2 Makmal Sains Alat radas makmal Simbol berbahaya 1.3 Langkah-langkah dalam Penyiasatan Saintifik Langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik 1.4 Kuantiti Fizik dan Unitnya Kuantiti fizik dan unitnya
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Bab 1 : Pengenalan kepada Sains


1.5 Berat dan Jisim Berat Jisim 1.6 Alatan Pengukuran Mengukur panjang Mengukur luas Mengukur isipadu 1.7 Kepentingan Unit Piawai The importance of standard units

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1.1 Apakah itu Sains?


Sains adalah susunan pembelajaran ke atas alam sekeliling dan bagaimana kesannya kepada kita dan persekitaran Sains meliputi pelbagai bidang ilmu pengetahuan

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1.1 Apakah itu Sains?


Kepentingan sains
Meningkatkan taraf kehidupan Meningkatkan kualiti persekitaran Memahami dunia di sekeliling kita Menambahkan bekalan makanan Mencegah dan merawat penyakit

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1.1 Apakah itu Sains?


Kerjaya dalam sains

Cabang dalam sains Doktor adalah seperti biologi, Arkitek fizik, kimia, astronomi, Jurutera geologi, meteorologi dan biokimia Ahli astronomi Doktor haiwan Ahli farmasi Ahli kimai Pakar komputer
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1.2 Makmal Sains


Alat radas makmal
Alat radas Kegunaan Memanaskan bahan kimia

Mangkuk pijar
Tabung uji Jam randik Kaliper Termometer

Mengisi bahan kimia


Mengambil bacaan

Mengukur diameter
Mengukur suhu
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1.2 Makmal Sains


Alat radas makmal
Alat radas Makmal Menyejat cecair daripada suatu larutan Digunakan sebagai penutup tabung uji atau kelalang kon

Mangkuk penyejat Gabus dan penutup getap


Slaid kaca

Memegang spesimen untuk pemerhatian di bawah mikroskop


Memegang tabung uji Memindahkan sedikit cecair
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Pemegang tabung uji Picagari

1.2 Makmal Sains


Simbol berbahaya

Mengakis

Beradioaktif

Beracun

Merangsang Mudah meletup Mudah terbakar


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1.3 Langkah-langkah dalam Penyiasatan Saintifik


Menentukan tujuan eksperimen Membentuk

hipotesis

Merancang eksperimen secara sistematik

Menganalisis data yang telah dikumpul

Merekod data yang diperhatikan Membuat kesimpulan

Mengawal pembolehubah

Menginterpretasi data

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sama

1.4 Kuantiti Fizik dan Unitnya


Kuantiti fizik adalah kuantiti yang boleh diukur Kuantiti fizik Panjang () Pembaris Jisim (m) Masa (t) Suhu (T) Arus elektrik (I) Unit SI Peralatan meter (m) kilogram (kg) Neraca tuas saat (s) kelvin (K) ampere (A) Jam randik Termometer Ammeter
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1.4 Kuantiti Fizik dan Unitnya


Imbuhan awal giga mega kilo senti mili mikro nano piko Simbol G M k c m n p Nilai 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001
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1.5 Berat dan Jisim


Berat
Tarikan Bumi ke atas objek Daya yang menarid jasad ke arah pusat Bumi dikenali sebagai daya graviti Unit SI adalah Newton (N) Berat sesuatu objek tidak selalunya sama

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Jenis alat untuk mengukur berat

Neraca spring

Neraca pemampat

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1.5 Berat dan Jisim


Jisim
Kuantiti jirim dalam sesuatu objek Jisim objek adalah tetap dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh daya graviti Unit SI adalah kilogram (kg) Jisim sesuatu objek adalah tidak berubah

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Jenis alat untuk mengukur jisim

Neraca palang
Neraca tuas
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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur panjang
Panjang adalah jarak di antara dua titik Unit Sinya adalah meter (m) Unit lain yang boleh digunakan untuk panjang adalah kilometer (km), sentimeter (cm) and milimeter (mm) Hubungan antara unit-unit sukatan panjang 1 cm = 10 mm 1 m = 100 cm = 1 000 mm 1 km = 1 000 m = 100 000 cm
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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur panjang garisan lurus

Mengukur panjang garisan melengkung

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Mengukur diameter luar

Mengukur diameter dalam

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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur luas
Luas adalah ukuran jumlah permukaan. Unit Sinya adalah meter persegi (m2) Luas objek sekata dan objek tidak sekata boleh ditentukan dengan melakar bentuk objek di atas sekeping kertas graf

Menganggar luas daun

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1.6 Alatan Pengukuran


Mengukur isipadu
R
S
Isipadu adalah ukuran yang memenuhi ruang oleh bahan terlarut Unit SInya adalah meter padu (m3) Alatan untuk mengukur isipadu cecair adalah silinder penyukat, buret and pipet

T S adalah kedudukan mata yang betul

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1.7 Kepentingan Unit Piawai


Memudahkan orang ramai dari negara yang berlainan berkomunikasi Unit pengukurannya adalah sama di mana-mana tempat di dunia

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