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A Tank Guidance Dwi Hermawan


Introduction Scope Appendices Responsibilities Design

Materials Loads Capacity Special Considerations Shell Design Fabrication Inspection & Testing

Construction of tanks


Storage Tanks


Fixed Roof Tanks Floating Roof Tanks Atmospheric tanks They are usually operated at internal pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure. The fire codes define atmospheric tank as operating from atmospheric up to 3.5 kN/m2 above atmospheric pressure or having pressure up to 2.5 psig Low pressure tanks Within the context of tanks, low pressure means that tanks are designed for a pressure higher than atmospheric tanks, This also means that tanks are relatively high-pressure tanks. Tanks of this type are designed to operate from atmospheric pressure up to about 100 kN/m2 Pressure vessels (high pressure tanks)

Classification based on internal pressure

Fixed Roof Tanks


This standard establishes minimum requirements for material, design, fabrication, erection, and testing for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed and open top, welded carbon or stainless steel storage tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure The internal pressure not exceeding the weight of the roof plates


Applies only to tanks whose entire bottom is uniformly supported Tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a maximum design temperature of 93oC (200oF) or less The Standard has requirements given in two alternate systems of unit of SI units or US Customary units The Purchased and Manufacturer shall mutually agree on the units that will be used All tanks and appurtenances shall comply with the Data Sheet and all attachments


Appendix A

provides altenative simplified design requirements for tanks where the stressed components such as shell plates and reinforcing plates, are limited to a maximum nominal thickness of 12.55 mm(1/2 in), including any corrosion allowance and whose design metal temperatur exceeds the minimums stated in the appendix


Appendix B

provides recommendations for the design and construction of foundations for flat-bottom oil storage tanks
provides minimum requirements for pontoon type (single and double deck type) external floating roofs provides requirements for submission of technical inquiries regarding this standard

Appendix C

Appendix D


Appendix E

It provides minimum requirements for tanks subject to seismic. An alternative or supplemental design may be mutually agreed upon by the Manufacturer and the Purchaser
It provides requirements for the design of tanks subject to a small internal pressure. This appendix applies to the storage of non-refrigerated liquids (see also API Std 620, Appendices C and R). For maximum design temperature above 93oC (200oF) see Appendix M It provides requirements for aluminium dome roofs

Appendix F

Appendix G


Appendix H

It provides minimum requirements that apply to an internal floating roof in a tank with fixed roof at the top on the tank shell It provides acceptable construction details that may be specified by the Purchaser for design and construction of tank and foundation systems that provide under-tank leak detection and subgrade protection in the event of tank bottom leakage and provide tank supported by grillage It provides requirements covering the complete shop assembly of tanks that do not exceed 6 m (20 ft) in diameter It provides a sample application of the variable design point method to dettermine shell plate thicknesses

Appendix I

Appendix J

Appendix K


Appendix L

It provides the Data Sheet and the Data Sheet instructions for listing required information to be used by the Purchaser and the Manufacturer. The use of the Data Sheet is mandatory unless waived by the Purchaser It provides requirements for tanks with a maximum design temperature exceeding 93oC (200oF) but not exceeding 260oC (500oF) It provides requirements for the use of new or unused plate and pipe materials that are not completely identified as complying with any listed spesification for use in accordance with this Standard

Appendix M

Appendix N


Appendix O

provides recommendations for the design and construction of under-bottom connections for storage tanks
provides requirements for design of shell openings that conform to table 5-6 that are subject to external piping loads. An alternative or supplemental design may be agreed upon by the Purchaser or Manufacturer.

Appendix P


Appendix R

It provides a description of the load combinations used for the design equations appearing in this Standard
It provides requirements for stainless steel tanks It summarizes the requirements for inspection by method of examination and the reference sections within the Standard. The acceptance standards, inspector qualifications, and procedure requirements are also provided. This appendix is not intended to be used alone to determine the inspection requirements within this Standard. The specific requirements listed within each applicable section shall be followed in all cases

Appendix S

Appendix T


Appendix U

It provides requirements covering the substitution of ultrasonic examination in lieu of radiogaphic examination It provides additional requirements for tanks that are designed to operate under external pressure (vacuum) conditions.
It provides recommendations covering commercial and documentation issues. Alternative or supplemental requirements may be mutually agreed upon by the Manufacturer and the Purchaser

Appendix V

Appendix W


The rules of this Standard are not applicable beyond the following limits of piping connected internally or externally to the roof, shell, or bottom of tanks constructed according to this Standard :
a.The face of the first flange in bolted flange connections unless covers or blinds are provided as permitted in this standard. b.The first sealing surface for proprietary connections or fittings. c.The first threaded joint on the pipe in a threaded connection to the tank shell. d.The first circumferential joint in welding end pipe connections if not welded to a flange.


The Manufacturer is responsible for complying with all provisions of this Standard Inspection by the Purchasers inspector does not negate the Manufacturers obligation to provide qruality control and inspection necessary to ensure such compliance The Purchaser retains the right to provide personnel to observe all shop and job site work within the scope of the contracted work (including testing and inspection). Such individuals shall be afforded full and free access for these purposes, subject to safety and schedule constraints


In this Standard, languange indicating that the Purchaser accept, agrees, reviews, or approves a Manufacturers design, work process, manufacturing action, etc., shall not limit or relieve the Manufacturers responsibility to conform to specified design codes, project specifications and drawings, and professional workmanship.

Importance Definitions

Design Thickness

The thickness necessary to satisfy tension and compression stregth requirements by this Standard or, in the absence of such expressions, by good and acceptable engineering practice for specified design conditions, without regard to construction limitations or corrosion allowance
The lowest temperature considered in the design, which, unless experience or special local conditions justify another assumption, shall be assumed to be 8oC (15oF) above the lowest one-day mean ambient temperature of the locality where the tank is to be installed. The temperatures are not related to refrigerated-tank temperature

Design Metal Temperature

Important Definitions

Maximum Design Temperature

The highest temperature considered in the design, equal to or greater than highest expected operating temperature during the service life of the tank.
The criteria must be used unless the Purchaser and the Manufacturer agree upon a more stringent alternative design The criteria provide a good acceptable design and may be used at the option of the Purchaser and the Manufacturer. A weld made to hold the parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made.



Tack Weld

Service Conditions

The Purchaser shall specify any applicable special metalurgical requirements. When the service conditions might include the presence of hydrogen sulfide or other conditions care should be taken to ensure that the materials of the tank and details of construction are adequate to resist hydrogen-induced cracking. The purchaser should consider limits on the sulfur content of the base and weld metals as well as appropriate quality control procedures in plate and tank fabrication. The hardness of the welds, including the HAZ in contact with these conditions should be considered. As a reference, Rockwell C 22 and can be expected to be more susceptible to cracking than un welded metal is. Any hardness criteria should be a matter of agreement between the Purchaser and the Manufacturer


Use of cast iron for any pressure part or any part attached to the tank by welding is prohibited Because of hydrogen embrittlement and toxicity concern, cadmium-plated components shall not be used without the expressed consent of the Purchaser The tensile test shall be performed on each-plate if heat treated Subject to the Purchasers approval, controlled-rolled or thermo-mechanical-control-process (TMCP) plates (plates produced by a mechanical-thermal rolling process designed to enhance notch toughness) may be used where normalized plates are required Each plate-as-rolled shall receive Charpy V-notch impact energy testing. The test specimens shall be Type A specimens (see ASTM A370)



Toghness Requirements

The thickness and design metal temperature of a shell plates, shell reinforcing plates, shell insert plates, bottom plates welded to the shell, plates used for manhole and nozzle necks, plate-ring shell-nozzle flanges, blind flanges, and manhole cover plates shall be in accordance with Figure 41 In addition, plates more than 40 mm (1.5 in) thick shall be of killed steel made to fine grain practice and heat treated by normalizing, normalizing and tempering, or quenching and tempering, and each plate as heat treated shall be impact tested

Toughness Requirement

Plate less than or equal to 40 mm (1.5 in) thick except controlled-rolled plates may be used at or above the design metal temperatures indicated in Figure 4-1 without being impact tested.

Material Selection (Figure 4-1)

Material Selection



Dead Load (DL) The weight of the tank or tank component, including any corrosion allowance unless otherwise noted


Design External Pressure (Pe) Shall not be less than 0.25 kPa (1 in. of water). This Standard does not contain provisions for external pressure greater than 0.25 kPa (1 in. of water). Design requirement for vacuum exceeding this value and design requirements to resist flotation and external fluid pressure shall be a matter of agreement between the Purchaser and the Manufacturer (see Appendix V)


Design Internal Pressure (Pi)

Shall not exceed 18 kPa (2.5 lbf/in2) Hydrostatic Test (Ht) The load due to filling the tank with water to the design liquid level


a. a.





Minimum Roof Live Load (lr) 1.0 kPa (20 lb/ft2) on the horizontal projected area of the roof Seismic (E) Seismic loads determined in accordance with E.1 through E.6 (see Data Sheet Line 8) Snow (S) not defined in Indonesiafollow ASCE 7 Wind (V) Follow ASCE 7, and windward & leeward horizontal wind loads on the roof are concervatively equal and opposite (not included in the above pressures Stored Liquid (f) The load due to filling the tank to the design liquid level (see with liquid with the design spesific gravity specified by the Purchaser Test Pressure (Pt) As required by F.4.4 or F.7.6

Tank Capacity

The Purchaser shall specify the maximum capacity Maximum capacity is the volume of product in a tank when the tank is filled to its design liquid level as defined (see Figure 5-4) The net working capacity is the volume of available product under normal operating conditions. The net working capacity is equal to the maximum capacity less the minimum operating volume remaining in the tank, less the overfill protection level (or volume) requirement (see Figure 5-4)

Scheme of Tank

Scheme of Tank (Fig. 5-4 - API 650)

Foundation and Corrosion Allowance


The adequacy of the foundation is the responsibility of the Purchaser Sliding friction resistance shall be verified for tanks subject to lateral wind loads or seismic loads Guidance to the Purchaser for considering corrosion allowance Corrosion allowance for anchor bolts shall be added to the nominal diameter Corrosion allowance for anchor straps and bracket shall be added to the required strap and bracket thickness For internal structural members, the corrosion allowance shall be applied to the total thickness unless otherwise specified

Corrosion Allowance

Shell Design

One foot method

Allowed for shells with diameter lesser than 60 m (200 ft) Sd and St is selected from the table 5-2 of permissible materials and allowable stresses The 1-foot method calculates the thickness required at design point 0.3 m (1 ft) above the bottom of each shell Course. Appendix A permits only this design method The required shell thickness, including any corrosion allowance, or the hydrostatic test shell thickness but the shell thickness shall not be less than the following :

Shell Design

Unless otherwise agreed to by the Purchaser, the shell plate shall have a minimum nominal width of 1800 mm (72 in) Plates that are to be butt-welded shall be properly squared

Shell Design - Sd and St Table 5-2

Shell Design

Foot Method Equation in SI unit

Shell Design

Variable Design Pt Method Shell with diameters greater than 60 m (200 ft) See Appendix K Only be used when the Purchaser has not specified that the 1-foot method be used and when the following is true

Shell Design

Bottom course design

The bottom course thickness t1d and t1t for the design and hydrostatic test conditions shall be calculated using the following formulas

For the design condition t1d need not be grater than tpd

For the hydrostatic test condition, t1t need not be greater than tpt To calculate the bottom-course thickness, preliminary values tpd and tpt for the design and hydrostatic test condition shall first be calculated from the formulas in one foot equations

Shell Design

Second course design


calculate the second course thickness for both the design condition and the hydrostatic test condition, the value of the following ratio shall be calculated

Shell Design

Elastic Analysis Method (FEA)


tanks where L/H is greater than 1000/6 (2 in US units), the selection of shell thickness shall be based on an elastic analysis that shows the calculated circumferential shell stresses to be below the allowable stresses given in Table 5-2 The boundary conditions for the analysis shall assume a fully plastic moment caused by yielding of the plate beneath the shell and zero radial growth


Shop Inspection
Materials Welders qualification Factory acceptance during farication, shaping (can be done)

Tanks and their structural attachments shall be welded by the shielded metal-arc, gas metal-arc, gas tungsten-arc, oxyfuel, flux-cored arc, submerged-arc, electroslag, or electrogas process using suitable equipment Use of the oxyfuel process is not permitted when impact testing of the material is required


No welding of any kind shall be performed when the surfaces to be welded are wet from rain, snow, or ice; when rain or snow is falling on such surfaces; or during periods of high winds unless the welder and the work are properly shielded Each layer of weld metal or multiplayer welding shall be cleaned of slag and other deposits before the next layer is applied The edges of all welds shall merge smoothly with the surface of the plate without a sharp angle All welding shall be free from coarse ripples, grooves, overlaps, abrupt ridges, and valley that interfere with interpretation of NDE results During the welding operation, plates shall be held in close contact at all lap joints


Erection - welding
If protective coatings are to be used on surfaces to be welded, the coatings shall be included in welding procedure qualification tests for the brand formulation and maximum thickness of coating to be applied Low-hydrogen electrodes shall be used for all manual metal arc welds in annular rings and shell courses, including the attachment of the first shell course to bottom or annular plates as follows :

Where the plates are thicker than 12.5 mm (1/2 in) and made of material from Groups I-III For all thickness when the plates are made of material from Group IV, IVA, and VI

Fabrication - Preheat


Fabrication - Sheet Joint

Vertical shell joint

Shall be butt joints with complete penetration and fusion attained by double welding Vertical joint in adjacent shell course shall not be aligned, but shall be offset from each other a minimum distance of 5t (t : plate thickness of the thicker course at the point of offset

Fabrication - Sheet Joint

Horizontal shell joint

Complete penetration and fusion Top angles may be attached to the shell by a double-welded lap joint. Unless otherwise specified, abutting shell plates at horizontal joints shall have a common vertical centerline

Fabrication - Roof & Bottom Joint

Roof & Bottom joint

Fabrication - Shell to Bottom Joint

Shell to Bottom


Erection Shell

Plates to be joined by butt welding shall be matched accurately and retained in position during the welding operation. Misalignment in completed vertical joints for plates greater than 16 mm (5/8 in) thick shall not exceed 10% of the plate thickness or 3 mm (1/8 in), whichever is less; misalignment for plates less than or equal to 16 mm (5/8 in) thick shall not exceed 1.5 mm(1/16 in) In completed horizontal butt joints, the upper plate shall not project beyond the face of the lower plate at any point by more than 20% of the thickness of the upper plate, with a maximum projection of 3 mm (1/8 in); however for upper plate less than 8 mm (5/16 in) thick, the maximum projection shall be limited to 1.5 mm(1/16 in)


Erection Shell
The reverse side of double welded butt joints shall be thoroughly cleaned in a manner that will leave the exposed surface satisfactory for fusion of the weld metal to be added, prior to the application of the first bead to the second side. This cleaning may be done by chiping; grinding; melting out; or where the back of the initial bead is smooth and free from crevices that might entrap slag, another method that, upon field inspection, is acceptable to the Purchaser. For circumferential and vertical joints in tank shell courses constructed of material more than 38 mm (1.5 in) thick , multipass weld procedures are required, with no pass over 19 mm (1/4 in) thick permitted


Butt Welds

Complete Penetration and Fusion RT, UT VI DPT (if required) RT (one joint per 30m/100ft, if required) VI Vacuum box test Tracer gas test Water test (A head of 150 mm (6 in) of liquid shall be maintained using a temporary dam to hold that depth around the edge of the bottom.

Fillet Welds

Tank Bottom

Reinforcement plates

fabrication is completed but before the tank is filled with test water, the reinforcing plates shall be tested by the Manufacturer by applying up to 100 kPa (15 lbf/in2) gauge pneumatic pressure between the tank shel and the reinforcement plate on each opening using the telltale hole
hydrostatic test of the tank shall be conducted before permanent external piping is connected to the tank

Hydro-testing of tank


Hydro-testing of tank

welded joints above the test-water level shall be examined for leakage by one of the following methods:

coating all of the joints on the inside with a highly penetrating oil, such as automobile spring oil, and carefully examining the outside of the joints for leakage 2. applying vacuum to either side of the joints or applying internal air pressure as specified for the roof test in 7.3.7 and carefully examining the joints for leakage or 3. using any combination of the methods stipulated in

Resume API 650

Used for the design, vertical storage tank (aboveground cylindrical) With pressure up to 2.5 psig and a maximum temperature of 500 degree G Tanks have flat-bottomed Roof can be open-topped, self-supported conical or doomed roofs, or structurally supported cones

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