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Data Communications & Networking

An Introduction

Scope of the course The course introduces the concepts & mechanisms underlying the modern communication systems & networks

The Internet (TCP/IP) model is used as a framework to introduce different protocols & standards

Evaluation Scheme
Evaluation Component Weightage (%) Remarks

Test I
Test II Labs/Lab assignments/ surprise test/seminars Comp. Exam

25 10 40


Hierarchical structure of the course

Introduction to data communication and the Network model (34 lectures)
Introduction to networking Network model, Physical topologies of networks, network categories etc Layered network architecture Protocols, syntax, semantics and timing of protocol Two reference models(ISO/OSI and TCP/IP or internet model)

Understanding the different layers and its function of TCP/IP model

The five layers as
Physical layer Data link layer Network layer Transport layer Application layer

Physical Layer: Understanding the services and the different standards and protocol at Physical layer, types of data and signals, types of media, digital transmission (digital to digital and analog to digital conversion), analog transmission (digital to analog transmission, analog to analog conversion), issues of bandwidth, bandwidth utilization using the techniques of multiplexing and spreading, using telephone and cable networks for data transmission.

Data link layer:- Understanding the services and the different standards and protocols at data link layer, framming,error detection and correction, data link control(flow and error control) protocols, multiple access techniques and protocols(random access, controlled access, channelization. Wired LANs IEEE standars(standard ethernet, fast ethernet, gigabit ethernet), wireless LANs IEEE802.11b, Bluetooth. Connecting devices like Hubs, bridges, switches, routers, gateways etc, backbone networks(bus backbone, star backbone) Virtual LANS.

Network layer:- Understanding the services and the different standards and protocols at Network Layer, logical addressing, IPV4 and IPV6 addressing, Internetworking and Protocols IPV4 and IPV6. Supporting Protocols for address mapping (ARP,RARP, DHCP), Error reporting and multicasting protocol(ICMP and IGMP). Data Packet delivery, forwarding and routing. Different forwarding Techniques, forwarding Process, Routing Table. Routing Protocols (Distance Vector Routing, Link State Routing, Path vector Routing)

Transport Layer:- Understanding the services and the different standards and protocols at transport layer, Three major protocols TCP, UDP,SCTP Application Layer:- Name space, Domain Name Space, Remote logging(telnet),File Transfer (FTP), Email architecture (SMTP,POP,IMAP) www, HTTP

Data Communication & Networking is one of the fastest growing technologies


The way people do business is changed Exchanging business critical documents & information Conducting mission-critical transaction across geographical boundaries

Sharing personal information with friends

Getting information from the far end of the world without actually being there

Data Communication Exchange of data between two devices via a transmission medium Communicating devices must be a part of Communication System

Communication System (Hardware & Software)

What is Data Communication? What is networking? How above two are interrelated?

What is data communication?

Not to be confused with telecommunication
Any process that permits the passage from a sender to one or more receivers of information of any nature, delivered in any easy to use form by any electromagnetic system.

Data communication Defined as a subset of telecommunication involving the transmission of data to and from computers and components of computer systems.
More specifically data communication is transmitted via mediums such as wires, coaxial cables, fiber optics, or radiated electromagnetic waves such as broadcast radio, infrared light, microwaves, and satellites.

Introduction to Networks
Can be defined as a single computer , called a host, together with communication circuits, communication equipment, and terminals.

Network Model

Effectiveness of the DCS depends on the following fundamental characteristics

Delivery Accuracy Timeliness Jitter

Data Communications & Networking


Rule 1: Rule 2: . . . Rule n:

Rule 1: Rule 2: . . . Rule n:

Protocol S


Semantics Timing

Data Representation Text




Audio Video

Direction of Data Flow


Main Frame


Data at Time1 R

Data at Time2 Half Duplex

Data R

Full Duplex

Distributed Processing Network Criteria Physical Structures

Categories of Networks

Network Criteria


Type of Connection


Type of Connection


Point to -Point

Spatially Shared Time Shared

Point to Multipoint

Physical Topology

Bus Ring



Advantages Avoids Traffic Problem Robust Privacy or security Fault id & isolation Easy Disadvantages Amount of Cabling and I/O ports more Installation & Reconnection are difficult Expensive h/w to connect each link




Less expensive than mesh

Easy installation and reconfiguration Robustness Easy fault identification and fault isolation

Although star requires less cabling than mesh each node must be linked to a central hub more cabling is required as compared to bus and ring Hub fails ntk down

Drop Line

Cable end

Drop Line Tap

Drop Line Tap


Cable end



Ease of installation Less Cabling

Disadvantages Difficulty in reconnection and fault isolation Bus cable is optimally efficient difficult to add new devices

Signal reflection at taps can cause degradation in quality If fault or break in the bus cable stops all tx The damaged area reflects signal back in the direction of origin creating noise in both direction



Advantages Easy to install and reconfigure To add /delete a device requires changing only two connections Fault isolation is simplified
Disadvantage A break in ring can disable the entire ntk


Network Categories


Protocols and Standards

Protocols Standards Standards Organization

Protocol is set of rules that govern Data communication. The sender and the receiver, the two key parties in data communication must agree on a common set of rules before they can communicate with each other. A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated.

Key Elements of protocol

Syntax (Structure or format of data) What is to be communicated Semantics (Meaning of each section of bits) How it is to be communicated Timing (when data should be sent and how fast they can be sent) When it should be communicated

De facto (by convention adopted as standard through widespread use) De jure (by law standards have been legislated by an officially recognized body)

Standards Organization
Standards creation committees Forums Regulatory Agencies (FCC)

Standards Creation Committees

ISO (International Organization for standardization) Technical recommendations for data communication interface ITU-T (International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standards) Technical recommendations about telephone, telegraph and data communications interfaces ANSI (American National Standards Institute) -Coordinating organization for US (not a standards- making body) IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Professional society; also develops mostly LAN standards

Standardization Process
Specification Identification of choices Acceptance