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GROUP 6

  • - M. Satria Rizaldi (1110413026)

  • - Intan Noviarni

(1210413021)

  • - Muhammad Lucky Fajri (1210413030)

Elektromagnetic Radiation and its interaction with matter

Electromagnetic Waves

What are electromagnetic waves? How electromagnetic waves are formed? How electric charges produce electromagnetic waves? What properties of electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic Waves

Are made by vibrating electric charges and can travel through space by transferring energy between vibrating electric and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic Waves didn’t need matter to transfer energy.

How do moving charges create magnetic fields ?

Any moving electric charge is surrounded by an electric field and a

magnetic field.

How do moving charges create magnetic fields ? Any moving electric charge is surrounded by an

What happens when electric and

magnetic fields change ?

  • A changing magnetic field creates a changing electric field.

  • One example of this is a transformer which transfers electric energy from one circuit to another circuit.

In the main coil changing electric current produces a changing magnetic field

Which then creates a changing electric field in another coil producing an electric current

The reverse is also true.

Making Electromagnetic Waves

  • When an electric charge vibrates, the electric field around it changes creating a changing magnetic field.

  • The magnetic and electric fields create each other again and again

  • An EM wave travels in all directions. The figure only shows a wave traveling in one direction.

  • The electric and magnetic fields vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave travels so it is a transverse wave.

Properties of EM Waves

  • All matter contains charged particles that are always moving; therefore, all objects emit EM waves.

  • The wavelengths become shorter as the temperature of the material increases.

  • EM waves carry radiant energy.

What is the speed of EM

waves?

  • All EM waves travel 300,000 km/sec in space. (speed of light-nature’s limit!)

  • EM waves usually travel

slowest in solids and fastest

in gases.

Material

Speed

(km/s)

Vacuum

300,000

Air

<300,000

Water

226,000

Glass

200,000

Diamond

124,000

What is the wavelength &

frequency of an EM wave?

  • Wavelength

= distance from crest to crest.

  • Frequency

= number of wavelengths that

pass a given point in 1 s.

  • As frequency increases, wavelength becomes smaller

Can a wave be a particle?

  • In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered that shining light on a metal caused electrons to be ejected.

  • Whether or not electrons were ejected depended upon frequency not the amplitude of the light! Remember energy depends on amplitude.

  • Years later, Albert Einstein explained Hertz’s discovery: EM waves can behave as a particle called a photon whose energy depends on the frequency of the waves.

Electromagnetic Waves

How they are formed

Kind of wave

Sometimes behave as

Waves made by vibrating electric charges that can travel through space where

Transverse with alternating electric and magnetic fields

Waves or as Particles (photons)

there is no matter

Interaction between light and

matter

What is light?

• waves of electromagnetic energy, therefore is one of the four

fundamental forces in nature (the other three are: strong force, weak nuclear force, and gravity)

• fundamental particles called photons that carry energy and

momentum

Matter

  • Ancient Greeks considered that matters are composed by tiny, indivisible particles called atoms.

  • In modern physics, we have identified more than 100 different chemical elements

    • Each element is made of a different type of atom,

    • Example of elements are: hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, iron, gold, silver, etc.

  • Atoms have a nucleus, made up of protons and neutrons, with positive charges, and a electron clouds surrounding the neucleus.

    • Protons : each proton carries one positive electrical charge.

    • Neutrons: neutrons are electrically neutral. They don’t carry any electrical charge.

    • Electrons: each electron carries one negative electrical charge.

    • Proton and Neutron have about the same mass.

    • Electrons are much lighter than protons and neutrons.

  • P + N
    P +
    N

    e -

    Helium atom has two protons and two neutrons in its nucleus,

    surrounded by two electrons

    e - P + Hydrogen atom has only one proton and one electron
    e -
    P +
    Hydrogen atom has only one
    proton and one electron

    Interaction Between Light and

    Matter

    Matter can emit, absorb, transmit, or scatter/reflect light.

    • Emission:

      • Black Body Emission: An object with a finite temperature will emit light with a spectrum described by a black body spectrum.

      • Spectral Emission: The atoms of the object can absorb only light at certain frequency, and then re-emit light in these frequencies in all direction.

  • Absorption: Matter can absorb light, result in the increase of its temperature (conversion of radiative energy into thermal energy).

  • Transmission: Some matters (like glass) allow light to propagate through. The speed of light in these matters will be different from that in the vacuum. The direction of propagation will be changed also.

  • Reflection/scattering: Photons may bounce off the surface of some matters, like mirror (a thin coating of aluminum on the surface of glass).

    • Reflection: When the incident light travels toward the matter in the same direction are bounced toward a same general direction, or

    • Scattering: When the light that was bounced off the surface of an object is sent into random direction.

  • Examples of Light/Matter

    Interaction

    • Something that is white (to human eyes) means it reflect all the visible light…

    • Something that is black (to human eyes) means that it absorbs all the visible light.

    Examples of Light/Matter Interaction  Something that is white (to human eyes) means it reflect all

    Colorimetry

    • What is color?

    • Electromagnetic radiation between 380-780 nm

    • Color is one aspect of appearance

    • Color = light source + object properties + eye + brain

    • The human eye is most sensitive at 555 nm

    Colorimetry  What is color?  Electromagnetic radiation between 380-780 nm  Color is one aspect
    • Colorimetric methods are applicable to dilute solutions.

    • For a colorimetric method to be quantitative, it must form a coumpound with definite color characteristics.

    • Color amount must be directly proportional to the concentration.

    • Colored compound must obey Beer’s Law and Lambert’s Law.

    • Two objects may appear the same when viewed under one light source, but different under another = metamerism

    • Metamerism is one of the major industrial problems in color matching

    • Colorimetry attempts to quantify the perception of color

    • CIE is a voluntary organization giving recommendations concerning modern colorimetry