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Job Analysis

Gary Dessler & Biju Varkkey

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HRM

The Flow
What is Job Analysis? Job Description & Job Specification Uses of Job Analysis Methods of Job Analysis Steps in Job Analysis Some Terms

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What is Job Analysis?

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What is Job Analysis?

F.W. Taylor & Industrialization Procedure for determining the duty & skill requirement of a job and the kind of person who will be hired for it. Types of info collected via job analysis:
Work activities Human behaviors Machines, tools, equipments, and work aids Performance standards Job context Human requirements
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Job Description & Job Specification

Job Description
A list of jobs
Duties Responsibilities Reporting Relationships Working conditions Supervisory responsibilities

Job Specification
A list of jobs

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Human requirements Education Skills Personality


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Job Description

Job title Location Job Summary Duties & Responsibilities Working Conditions Hazards

Job Specification
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Education Experience Training Judgment Communication Skills Emotional Characteristics


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Writing Job Description

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Writing Job Description

Contents of JD
Job Identification Responsibilities & Duties Authority of Incumbent Standards of Performance Working Conditions Job Specifications Job Summary

Job Analyst & Writing Skills


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Thoughtful!

Why do people like jobs but hate work?

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Job Analysis : Chef

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Skill Analysis : Cook


Knows basic flavor of Vegetables, Fruits and Other Eating Products Knows basic flavor of Spices, Sauces, Dressings, Flours etc..etc.. Knows the usage of different types of Kitchen Utensils Knows different types of Cooking Methods : Ex: Frying, Deep Frying, Microwave, Salamander, Baking, BarbecueEtc..Etc.. Knows the Importance of Temperature in Cooking Methods Should be able to identify when eating products get deteriorated Should be able to operate sophisticated machines used for cutting, Chopping and Cooking Purposes Prevents Wastage Should be good Carver
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Skill Analysis : Cook


Should maintain personal hygiene Should be able to use different combinations of spices and vegetables to make basic dishes Should be able to use different spices and vegetables to make innovative dishes Should be a good presenter Should be able to identify through taste about the contents of dishes Should know how to maintain balance between tasty food and healthy food Possessing knowledge about : Indian European Mexican American And other exotic cuisines

Etc..
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Uses of Job Analysis Information

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Uses of Job Analysis Information

Recruitment & Selection Compensation Training Performance Appraisal Discovering unassigned duties Legal Compliance Developing Pay Structures Career paths Etcetc
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Methods of Job Analysis

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Methods of Job Analysis


Methods adopted:
Observation
Manual, Standardized and Short Cycle Jobs Ex : Assembly-line worker, Insurance clerk

Critical Incidence method


Fire Fighter, Encounter Specialist

Daily log
Writer, Poet, Scientist

Interview Questionnaire Etcetc..

Quantitative Methods
Position Analysis Questionnaire(PAQ)
Most Popular Quantitative Job Analysis Tool Detailed Questionnaire 194 items 5 Basic PAQ Activities

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Decision Making/ Communication / Social Responsibilities Performing Skilled Activities Being Physically Active Operating Vehicles / Equipment Processing Information
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Methods of Job Analysis

Internet Based Job Analysis


Job Analysis Survey Intranet 3rd Party Job Analysts

Success of Job Analysis


Information Collector Information Giver Top Management & Unions

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Steps in Job Analysis

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Steps in Job Analysis

Step 1:
Decide usage of information, this will determine the data to be collected

Step 2:
Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts and job descriptions

Step 3:
Select representative positions

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Steps in Job Analysis

Step 4:
Analyze the job

Step 5:
Verify job analysis information with worker and supervisor too

Step 6:
Develop Job Description & Job Specification

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Job Analysis & New Realities

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Job Analysis & New Realities


Job Enlargement
Assigning the worker additional same level activities

Job Rotation
Systematically moving workers from one job to another

Job Enrichment
Redesigning the job so that feeling of responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition are experienced by employees

Dejobbing
Loosening the boundaries of the job

Re-engineering
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Competency Based Job Analysis


Competency Based Job Analysis
Describes the job in terms of observable behavioral competencies that workers exhibit while performing the job Traditional job analysis job focused Competency based job analysis worker focused

Competency Based Job Analysis For whom?


Knowledge Workers
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Judging Job Analysis


Reliability Validity Acceptability Usefulness

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10 High Paying Dirty Jobs

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10 High Paying Dirty Jobs

10 Garbage Collector (60000 $) 9 Gastroenterologist (2,50,000 4,00,000 $) 8 Oil Rig Worker (40000 $) 7 Portable Toilet Cleaner (50000 $) 6 Crab Fisherman (60000 $) 5 Sewer Inspector (60000 $) 4 Coal Miner (64000 $) 3 Embalmer (41000 $) 2 Plumber (47000 $) 1 Crime Scene Cleaner (75000 $)
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Know Your Law

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The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

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Maternity Benefit Act, 1961


Object of Act
To protect the dignity of motherhood by providing for the full and healthy maintenance of woman and her child when she is not working

Applicability of Act
It applies to every establishment, being factory, mine or plantation in which 10 or more people were employed in previous 12 months

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Conditions for Eligibility of Benefits


Conditions for eligibility of benefits
Women, whether married or unmarried, are eligible for maternity benefits when she is expecting a child She should have worked for her employer for at least 80 days in last 12 months

Display of Act
Employer must display Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 in local languages for employees Failure to display will lead to imprisonment extending upto 1 year or fine
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Conditions for Claiming Benefits

Conditions for claiming benefits:


10 weeks before the date of her expected delivery, she may ask for lighter workload. At this stage certificate of pregnancy must be produced Written notice to employer 7 weeks before expected date of delivery that she will be absent from work (6 weeks before & 6 weeks after) She should mention name of person to whom payment will be made on her behalf Payment for 6 weeks before delivery should be given before hand Payment of 6 weeks after delivery should be given within 48 hours. Proof of child birth need to given at this stage She will be given 2 nursing breaks (15 mts each) to nurse the child, till the child is 15 months old Her employer cannot discharge her or change her conditions of service while she is on maternity leave
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Cash Benefits

Cash Benefits
Leave with average pay for 6 weeks before the delivery Leave with average pay for 6 weeks after the delivery Medical bonus of 3500 Rs to be paid if employer does not provide free medical care to women Additional leave with pay up to 1 month in case of illness, miscarriage or premature birth due to pregnancy In case of Miscarriage, 6 weeks leave with average pay from the date of miscarriage
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Non Cash Benefits/Privileges

Light work for 10 weeks before the date of delivery, if she asks for it 2 nursing breaks until child is 15 months old No Dismissal or Discharge while she is on maternity leave No changes in conditions of work while on maternity leave Pregnant women discharged or dismissed may still claim maternity benefit from the employer Exception
Women dismissed for gross misconduct lose their right under the act for Maternity Benefit
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Forfeiture of Maternity Benefit


If women works in establishment during her leave period than she shall forfeit her claim to the maternity benefit for such period Penalty
If employer fails to pay any amount or Discharges and dismisses women employee
Jail 3 months to 1 year Fine 2000 Rs to 5000 Rs

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Summary
What is Job Analysis? Job Description & Job Specification Uses of Job Analysis Methods of Job Analysis Steps in Job Analysis Some Terms Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
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