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THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE AND THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

BIZ 1054 : PROGRESSIVE ENGLISH

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


We use the present perfect tense, like the simple past tense to talk about completed actions. However, unlike the simple past tense which is used with definite time phrases, we do not state the exact time of an action with the present perfect tense.
Examples : SIMPLE PAST TENSE __________________
Patrick conducted a workshop for young working adults last week. (completed action at a definite time)

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ________________________


Patrick has conducted a workshop for young working adults. (completed action with no exact time)

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


We can use the present perfect tense with words like since and for to refer to an action that began in the past and is still going on at the point of speaking.

Examples : SIMPLE PAST TENSE ______________________

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ________________________

I studied at this college for five years. I have studied in this college for five years. (I am no longer there) (I am still there) I was in this college in 1998. I have been in this college since 1998. (I am no longer there) (I joined in 1998 and I am still there)

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


We use the present perfect tense and not the simple past tense with adverbs of indefinite time such as already and just to show completed actions and yet to show that an action is expected to happen but has not taken place at the point of speaking. We use never and ever with the present perfect tense to refer to a time frame that began in the indefinite past and continues up to the present. Examples : a. They have already signed the agreement with our firm (completed action) b. Have you ever enjoyed the beauty of nature around you?

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


We use the present perfect tense to refer to a time frame that began in the recent past and is not over yet at the point of speaking.

Examples : a. I havent seen Linda this week. She has been so busy (This week is not over) b. I havent had time for breakfast. I have only had a cup of coffee this morning. (This morning is not over yet)

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE


When we refer to completed actions in the past, we can use different past tense forms to indicate what we mean.

Example : SIMPLE PAST TENSE +SIMPLE PAST TENSE


______________________________________ As the U.S. stocks rose, the Asian market rebounded.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE


We use the past perfect tense for an action or situation that happened earlier, and the simple past tense for the action or situation that took place later.

Examples :PAST PERFECT TENSE + SIMPLE PAST TENSE


_________________________________________
The secretary had prepared all the reports. The situation had already deteriorated. before the directors arrived for the meeting. when the two leaders agreed to peace talks.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE


We use the past perfect tense with words like already and just to refer to actions which we completed before a specific time in the past.

Examples :
a.

b.

Ann had already walked a hundred metres down the road when she remembered that she hadnt locked her front door. (completed action before a specific time) We had just had our coffee break when we met some old friends outside the caf.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE


We use the past perfect tense with time words and phrases such as always and more than once to refer to repeated actions in the past, never to refer to an action that had not taken place up to the point of speaking and yet for an action that we expected to happen in the past but which had not taken place up to the point of speaking.
Examples : a. Mom had always coaxed us to eat more vegetables when we were young. b. The old janitor had told us more than once that the lifts were not functioning well but we had not heeded him c. We hadnt chosen the venue for our weekend camp yet when the principal suggested the Forest Reserve. d. The class had never heard of the famous scientists who Peter spoke about.

PRACTICE (TICK THE CORRECT SENTENCE)


A.

B. C.

D.

E.

Colin has met me at the bank this morning. We decided to have lunch together. Ann did not write to us yet. She is probably busy with her studies. This has been a hectic week for Joan. She has been swamped with meetings and reports. In the last decade there was/has been a significant breakthrough in the treatment. Joe and I had sworn/have sworn to keep this matter a secret from the rest of the group.