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Activitatea electrica a tesutului muscular cardiac

Jonctiunea (sinapsa electrica) neuromusculara Potentialul electric de actiune Semnalul electrocardiografic Fibra cardiaca-dipol electric Electrocardiograma MODELUL VECTORIAL

Jonctiunea (sinapsa electrica) neuromusculara

1. Terminatie nervoasa 2. Sarcolema=membrana celulei musculare 3. Vezicula cu neurotransmitator 4. Receptor membranar de acetilcolina (neurotransmitator) 5. Mitocondriile

Canale ionice implicate in stimularea electrica (excitatia) celulelor musculare de catre celulele neuronale

Muschiul cardiac cu fibre purkinje fibre cardiace modificate care isi au originea in nodul atrioventricular si se ramifica in ambele ventricule. Aceste fibre transmit impulsul electric de la nodul atrioventricular catre ventricules facand posibila contractia simultana.

Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
Is a recording of electrical activity of heart conducted throw ions in body to surface

Fig 13.22a

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Elements (parameters) of ECG signal

ECG
3 distinct waves are produced during cardiac cycle P wave caused by atrial depolarization QRS complex caused by ventricular depolarization T wave results from ventricular repolarization

Fig 13.24

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Elements of the ECG:

P wave: Depolarization of both atria; Relationship between P and QRS helps distinguish various cardiac arrhythmias Shape and duration of P may indicate atrial enlargement
PR interval: from onset of P wave to onset of QRS Normal duration = 0.12-2.0 sec (120-200 ms) (3-4 horizontal boxes) Represents atria to ventricular conduction time (through His bundle) Prolonged PR interval may indicate a 1st degree heart block QRS complex: Ventricular depolarization Larger than P wave because of greater muscle mass of ventricles Normal duration = 0.08-0.12 seconds Its duration, amplitude, and morphology are useful in diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular hypertrophy, MI, electrolyte derangement, etc. Q wave greater than 1/3 the height of the R wave, greater than 0.04

ST segment: Connects the QRS complex and T wave Duration of 0.08-0.12 sec (80-120 msec T wave: Represents repolarization or recovery of ventricles Interval from beginning of QRS to apex of T is referred to as the absolute refractory period
QT Interval Measured from beginning of QRS to the end of the T wave Normal QT is usually about 0.40 sec QT interval varies based on heart rate

Fig. 13.24b

Fig. 13.24c

Fig. 13.24d

Elements of the ECG: P wave Depolarization of both atria; Relationship between P and QRS helps distinguish various cardiac arrhythmias Shape and duration of P may indicate atrial enlargement

QRS complex:
Represents ventricular depolarization Larger than P wave because of greater muscle mass of ventricles Normal duration = 0.08-0.12 seconds Its duration, amplitude, and morphology are useful in diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular hypertrophy, MI, electrolyte derangement, etc. Q wave greater than 1/3 the height of the R wave, greater than 0.04 sec are abnormal and may represent MI

PR interval:
From onset of P wave to onset of QRS Normal duration = 0.12-2.0 sec (120-200 ms) (3-4 horizontal boxes) Represents atria to ventricular conduction time (through His bundle) Prolonged PR interval may indicate a 1st degree heart block

Fig. 13.24g

T wave:
Represents repolarization or recovery of ventricles Interval from beginning of QRS to apex of T is referred to as the absolute refractory period

ST segment:
Connects the QRS complex and T wave Duration of 0.08-0.12 sec (80-120 msec

QT Interval
Measured from beginning of QRS to the end of the T wave Normal QT is usually about 0.40 sec QT interval varies based on heart rate

Modelul vectorial