BASICS IN GAS LIFT

OPERATIONS
FORTIES GAS LIFT SUPPORT TEAM
VIJAY POTHAPRAGADA
SURVEILLANCE ENGINEERS
OWEs

FORTIES GAS LIFT SUPPORT TEAM
©CAMCO 1999

OBJECTIVES
✔DESCRIBE MAIN RESERVOIR DRIVES
✔EXPLAIN WHY/WHEN DO WE NEED ARTIFICIAL/GAS LIFT
✔EXPLAIN BASICS IN GAS LIFT OPERATION
✔UNLOADING
✔OPERATIONS
✔OPTIMIZATION

✔FAMILIARIZE WITH GAS LIFT EQUIPMENT
✔DEVELOP SOME BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING SKILLS

©CAMCO 1999

CONTENTS
✔WELL AND RESERVOIR INFLOW PERFORMANCE
✔OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE AND MULTIPHASE FLOW
✔TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT
✔GAS LIFT
✔CONTINUOUS FLOW UNLOADING SEQUENCE
✔GAS LIFT VALVE MECHANICS
✔GAS LIFT WELL OPERATION
✔GAS LIFT WELL OPTIMIZATION
✔GAS LIFT WELL TROUBLESHOOTING
✔HEADING-INSTABILITY-SLUGGING
©CAMCO 1999

WELL AND RESERVOIR
INFLOW PERFORMANCE

©CAMCO 1999

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
TYPES OF RESERVOIR DRIVES
✔ DISSOLVED / SOLUTION GAS DRIVE
✔ GAS CAP DRIVE
✔ WATER DRIVE

©CAMCO 1999

DISSOLVED GAS DRIVE
©CAMCO 1999

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
✔ DISSOLVED / SOLUTION GAS DRIVE
✔ CONSTANT VOLUME
✔ NO WATER ENCROACHMENT
✔ TWO PHASE FLOWING RESERVOIR BELOW
BUBBLE POINT
✔ NO GAS CAP
✔ PI NOT LINEAR
✔ PI DECLINES WITH DEPLETION
✔ FORMATION GOR INCREASES WITH DEPLETION
✔ LEAST EFFICIENT WITH 15% TO 25% RECOVERY
©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

GAS CAP DRIVE

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
✔ GAS CAP DRIVE
✔ GAS FROM SOLUTION WILL FORM GAS CAP
✔ WITH PRODUCTION GAS CAP INCREASES
PROVIDING DRIVE
✔ EXCESSIVE DRAWDOWN CAN CAUSE CONING
✔ PI USUALLY NOT LINEAR
✔ GOR CONSTANT EXCEPT NEAR DEPLETION
✔ 25% TO 50% RECOVERY

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

WATER DRIVE

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
✔WATER DRIVE
✔ NOT CONSTANT VOLUME
✔ RESERVOIR PRESSURE MORE CONSTANT EXPANSION OF WATER 1 IN 2500 PER 100 PSI
✔ PI MORE CONSTANT
✔ GOR MORE CONSTANT
✔ COMBINATION OF WATER DRIVE & GAS CAP
EXPANSION
✔ OFTEN SUPPLEMENTED BY WATER INJECTION
✔ MOST EFFICIENT WITH UPTO 70% RECOVERY

©CAMCO 1999

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX
The relationship between well inflow rate and
pressure drawdown can be expressed in the form of
a Productivity Index, denoted ‘PI’ or ‘J’, where:
q = J(Pws - Pwf)

©CAMCO 1999

or

q
J = -----------------Pws - Pwf

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
INFLOW PERFORMANCE CURVE

Pressure [psi]

3000

2000

1000

0
0

10000

20000

Production Rate [stbo/d]

Vogel
©CAMCO 1999

Straight Line

30000

WELL & RESERVOIR INFLOW
PERFORMANCE
SUMMARY OF FACTORS AFFECTING PREDICTION
OF WELL PRODUCTION
✔ PRESENCE OF THREE PHASE FLOW
✔ NATURE OF DRIVE MECHANISMS
✔ PHYSICAL NATURE OF RESERVOIR (NON HOMOGENEOUS)
✔ AVAILABILITY OF STABILIZED FLOW
✔ CHANGES OVER TIME & DRAWDOWN
✔ INCREASED GAS SOLUTION NEAR WELLBORE
✔ STABILISED FLOW NEAR WELLBORE
✔ FLOW REGIME NEAR WELLBORE
✔ CRITICAL FLOW AT WELLBORE
©CAMCO 1999

OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE
AND MULTIPHASE FLOW

©CAMCO 1999

OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE AND
MULTIPHASE FLOW
MOVEMENT OF A MIXTURE OF FREE GASES AND LIQUIDS

VERTICAL FLOWING GRADIENTS
HORIZONTAL FLOWING GRADIENTS

©CAMCO 1999

SURFACE PRESSURE

PRODUCED FLUID

INJECTION GAS

WELL OUTFLOW
RELATIONSHIP
(VLP) or (TPC)

RESERVOIR
PRESSURE

©CAMCO 1999

SANDFACE
PRESSURE
BHFP

WELL
INFLOW (IPR)

OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE AND
MULTIPHASE FLOW
✔ VERTICAL FLOWING GRADIENTS
✔ HORIZONTAL FLOWING GRADIENTS
✔ SELECT CORRECT TUBING SIZE
✔ PREDICT WHEN ARTIFICIAL LIFT WILL BE REQUIRED
✔ DESIGN ARTIFICIAL LIFT SYSTEMS
✔ DETERMINE BHFP
✔ DETERMINE PI
✔ PREDICT MAXIMUM AND/OR OPTIMUM FLOW RATE
✔ DETERMINE MAXIMUM DEPTH OF INJECTION

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

ARTIFICIAL LIFT

©CAMCO 1999

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT
✔ ROD PUMPS
✔ HYDRAULIC PUMPS
✔ ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
✔ GAS LIFT

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT

©CAMCO 1999

TYPES OF GAS LIFT
✔ CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT
TUBING FLOW / ANNULAR FLOW
✔ INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT
✔ PLUNGER LIFT
✔ CONVENTIONAL & WIRELINE RETRIEVABLE
✔ GAS LIFT EQUIPMENT
©CAMCO 1999

APPLICATIONS OF CONTINUOUS FLOW
GAS LIFT
✔TO ENABLE WELLS THAT WILL NOT FLOW
NATURALLY TO PRODUCE
✔TO INCREASE PRODUCTION RATES IN FLOWING
WELLS
✔TO UNLOAD A WELL THAT WILL LATER FLOW
NATURALLY
✔TO REMOVE OR UNLOAD FLUID IN GAS WELLS
✔TO BACK FLOW SALT WATER DISPOSAL WELLS
✔TO LIFT AQUIFER WELLS

©CAMCO 1999

ADVANTAGES OF GAS LIFT

INITIAL DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT COSTS LOWER

✔ LOW OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE COST
✔ SIMPLIFIED WELL COMPLETIONS
✔ FLEXIBILITY - CAN HANDLE RATES FROM
10 TO 80000 BPD
✔ CAN BEST HANDLE SAND / GAS / WELL DEVIATION
©CAMCO 1999

DISADVANTAGES OF GAS LIFT
✔ MUST HAVE A SOURCE OF GAS
IMPORTED FROM OTHER FIELDS
✔PRODUCED GAS - MAY RESULT IN
START UP PROBLEMS
✔ POSSIBLE HIGH INSTALLATION COST
✔TOP SIDES MODIFICATIONS TO EXISTING PLATFORMS
✔COMPRESSOR INSTALLATION
✔ LIMITED BY AVAILABLE RESERVOIR PRESSURE
AND BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE
©CAMCO 1999

CONSTANT FLOWGAS LIFT WELL

PRODUCED FLUID

PRESSURE (PSI)
1000

0

INJ ECTION GAS

2000

0

DEPTH (FT TVD)

CASING PRESSURE WHEN
WELL IS BEING GAS LIFTED

T
IEN
AD
GR
RE
SU
ES
PR

3000

NG
BI
TU

2000

G
IN
OW
FL

1000

OPERATING GAS LIFT VALVE
4000

5000

SIBHP

6000

7000
FBHP

©CAMCO 1999

CONSTANT FLOWGAS LIFT WELL

PRODUCED FLUID

PRESSURE (PSI)
1000

0

INJ ECTION GAS

2000

0

DEPTH (FT TVD)

T
IEN
AD
GR
RE
SU
ES
PR

3000

NG
BI
TU

2000

G
IN
OW
FL

1000

CASING PRESSURE WHEN
WELL IS BEING GAS LIFTED

4000

5000

OPERATING GAS LIFT
VALVE

SIBHP

6000

7000

©CAMCO 1999

FBHP

ANNULAR FLOW

TUBING FLOW
PRODUCED FLUID

INJECTION GAS
INJECTION GAS

©CAMCO 1999

PRODUCED FLUID

GAS LIFT SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS









SAND PRODUCTION
PRODUCED WATER
WATER CONING
ANNULAR SAFETY
SYSTEM
CORROSION EFFECTS
HYDRATES
ASPHALTINES
BUBBLE POINT
CHEMICAL INJECTION
SCALE

©CAMCO 1999

✔ GAS CAPACITY AND AVAILABILITY








CASING INTEGRITY
RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE
SYSTEM OPTIMISATION
WELL STABILITY
WELL START UP
PLANT CONSIDERATIONS
GAS QUALITY
TRAINING

CONTINUOUS FLOW
UNLOADING SEQUENCE

©CAMCO 1999

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

PRESSURE PSI
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE CLOSED

2000

TOP VALVE OPEN

G
N
SI

RE
SU

8000

RE
SU
ES
PR

ES
PR

DEPTH FTTVD

CA

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

6000

G
N
BI
TU

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

4000

10000
FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

12000

14000

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-1

CASING PRESSURE

SIBHP

The fluid level in the casing and the tubing is at surface. No gas is being injected into the casing and no fluid is being produced. All the gas lift valves are open. The
pressure to open the valves is provided by the weight of the fluid in the casing and tubing.
Note that the fluid level in the tubing and casing will be determined by the shut in bottom hole pressure (SIBHP) and the hydrostatic head or weight of the column of
fluid which is in turn determined by the density. Water has a greater density than oil and thus the fluid level of a column of water will be lower than that of oil.

©CAMCO 1999

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

PRESSURE PSI
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

2000

4000

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

DEPTH FTTVD

TOP VALVE OPEN

6000

8000

10000
FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

12000

14000

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-2

CASING PRESSURE

SIBHP

Gas injection into the casing has begun. Fluid is U-tubed through all the open gas lift valves. No formation fluids are being produced because the pressure in the
wellbore at perforation depth is greater than the reservoir pressure i.e. no drawdown. All fluid produced is from the casing and the tubing. All fluid unloaded from
the casing passes through the open gas lift valves. Because of this, it is important that the well be unloaded at a reasonable rate to prevent damage to the gas lift
valves.

©CAMCO 1999

PRESSURE PSI

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

2000

4000

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

DEPTH FTTVD

TOP VALVE OPEN

6000

8000

10000
FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

12000

14000

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-3

CASING PRESSURE

SIBHP

The fluid level has been unloaded to the top gas lift valve. This aerates the fluid above the top gas lift valve, decreasing the fluid density. This reduces the pressure in
the tubing at the top gas lift valve, and also reduces pressure in the tubing at all valves below the top valve. This pressure reduction allows casing fluid below the top
gas lift valve to be U-tubed further down the well and unloaded through valves 2, 3 and 4.
If this reduction in pressure is sufficient to give some drawdown at the perforations then the well will start to produce formation fluid.

©CAMCO 1999

PRESSURE PSI

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

2000

4000

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

DEPTH FTTVD

TOP VALVE OPEN

6000

8000

10000
FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

12000

14000

DRAWDOWN

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-4

CASING PRESSURE

FBHP

SIBHP

The fluid level in the annulus has now been unloaded to just above valve number two. This has been posssible due to the increasing volume of gas passing through
number one reducing the pressure in the tubing at valve two thus enabling the U-tubing process to continue.

©CAMCO 1999

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

PRESSURE PSI
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

2000

4000

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

DEPTH FTTVD

TOP VALVE OPEN

6000

8000

10000
FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

12000

14000

DRAWDOWN

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-5

CASING PRESSURE

FBHP

SIBHP

The fluid level in the casing has been lowered to a point below the second gas lift valve. The top two gas lift valves are open and gas being injected through both
valves. All valves below also remain open and continue to pass casing fluid.
The tubing has now been unloaded sufficiently to reduce the flowing bottom hole pressure (FBHP) below that of the shut in bottom hole pressure (SIBHP). This gives
a differential pressure from the reservoir to the wellbore producing a flow of formation fluid. This pressure differential is called the drawdown

©CAMCO 1999

PRESSURE PSI

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

2000

4000

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

DEPTH FTTVD

TOP VALVE CLOSED

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

DRAWDOWN

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-6

CASING PRESSURE

FBHP

SIBHP

The top gas lift valve is now closed, and all the gas is being injected through the second valve. When casing pressure operated valves are used a slight reduction in the
casing pressure causes the top valve to close. With fluid operated and proportional response valves, a reduction in the tubing pressure at valve depth causes the top
valve to close. Unloading the well continues with valves 2, 3 and 4 open and casing fluid being removed through valves 3 and 4.

©CAMCO 1999

PRESSURE PSI

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

0
INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

4000

DEPTH FTTVD

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

2000

2000

TOP VALVE CLOSED

SECOND VALVE
OPEN

1000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

DRAWDOWN

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-7

CASING PRESSURE

FBHP

SIBHP

The No. 3 valve has now been uncovered. Valves 2 and 3 are both open and passing gas. The bottom valve below the fluid level is also open.
Note that the deeper the point of injection the lower the FBHP and thus the greater the drawdown on the well. As well productivity is directly related to the drawdown
then the deeper the injection the greater the production rate.

©CAMCO 1999

PRESSURE PSI

TO SEPARATOR/STOCK TANK

0

INJ ECTION GAS
CHOKE OPEN

FOURTH VALVE
OPEN

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

4000

DEPTH FTTVD

THIRD VALVE
OPEN

2000

2000

TOP VALVE CLOSED

SECOND VALVE
CLOSED

1000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

DRAWDOWN

TUBING PRESSURE

FIGURE 3-8

CASING PRESSURE

FBHP

SIBHP

The No. 2 valve is now closed. All gas is being injected through valve No 3. Valve No 2 is closed by a reduction in casing pressure for casing operated valves or a
reduction in tubing pressure for fluid operated and proportional response valves. Valve No 3 is the operating valve in this example. This is because the ability of the
reservoir to produce fluid matches the ability of the tubing to remove fluids (Inflow/Outflow Performance). The operating valve can either be an orifice valve or can be a
gas lift valve. The valve in mandrel No 4 will remain submerged unless operating conditions or reservoir conditions change.

©CAMCO 1999

FIGURE 3-8: Example of the Unloading Sequence
Casing Operated Valves and Choke Control of Injection Gas
2000
1800
1600

Pressure psi

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
12:00 AM

03:00 AM

06:00 AM

PRESSURE CASING

©CAMCO 1999

09:00 AM
Time
PRESSURE TUBING

12:00 PM

03:00 PM

06:00 PM

GAS LIFT VALVE
MECHANICS

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT VALVE MECHANICS

✔ INJECTION PRESSURE (CASING) OPERATED VALVES

✔ PRODUCTION PRESSURE (FLUID) OPERATED VALVES

✔ THROTTLING/PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE VALVES

✔ ORIFICE VALVES

✔ NOVA ORIFICE VALVE

©CAMCO 1999

Diaphragm/
Atmospheric Bellows
Spring

Stem

Upstream/
Casing

Stem Tip
Upstream

Downstream
Port
Downstream/Tubing

Pressure Regulator
©CAMCO 1999

Spring Operated Gas Lift Valve

GAS LIFT VALVE MECHANICS
CLOSING FORCE (IPO VALVE)

Fc = PbAb

OPENING FORCES (IPO VALVE)

Fo1 = Pc (Ab- Ap)
Fo2 = Pt Ap

TOTAL OPENING FORCE

Fo = Pc (Ab - Ap) + Pt Ap

JUST BEFORE THE VALVE OPENS THE FORCES ARE EQUAL
Pc (Ab - Ap) + Pt Ap = Pb Ab
SOLVING FOR Pc
WHERE:

©CAMCO 1999

Pb - Pt (Ap/Ab)
Pc = -------------------------1 - (Ap/Ab)
Pb
Pt
Pc
Ab
Ap

= Pressure in bellows
= Tubing pressure
= Casing pressure
= Area of bellows
= Area of port

D ome

Pb

Dome

C hevron
P ac king
S tac k

Chevron
Packing
Stack

B ellow s

Bellows

Pc

Pb

Stem Tip (Ball)
Square Edged
Seat

Pc

S tem T ip (B all)
S quare E dged
S eat
C hevron
P ac king
S tac k

C hec k Valve

Pt
Pt

Chevron
Packing
Stack

Check Valve

N itr o g e n C h a r g e d B e llo w s T yp e
Nitrogen Charged Bellows Type
In je c tio n P r e s s u r e (C a s in g ) O p e r a te d G a s L ift V aProduction
lve
Pressure (Fluid) Operated Gas Lift Valve

©CAMCO 1999

Dome

Pb

Atmospheric
Bellows

Spring

Chevron
Packing
Stack
Bellows

Chevron
Packing
Stack

Pc

Spring
Adjustment
Nut & Lock Nuts

Large T.C. Ball
Tapered
T.C. Seat
Chevron
Packing
Stack

Pt

Check Valve

Nitrogen Charged Bellows Type
P roportional Response Gas Lift Valve

©CAMCO 1999

Pc

Stem Tip (Ball)
Square Edged
Seat
Chevron
Packing
Stack

Pt

Check Valve

S pring O perated
Injec tion P ressure (C asing) O perated G as L ift Valve

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

GAS INJECTION RATE (MMSCF/D)

SUB-CRITICAL
FLOW

ORIFICE FLOW

G
IN
L
TT
O
R
TH

ON
I
G
RE

PTUBING

PRESSURE (PSI)
©CAMCO 1999

= 55%

PCASING

RDO-5 Orifice Valve, 32/64" Port, Cd = 0.76

8.00

7.00

Gas Flowrate (mmscf/d)

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

Calculated Flowrate

Measured Flowrate

Calculated Flowrate

Measured Flowrate

Calculated Flowrate

Measured Flowrate

Calculated Flowrate

Measured Flowrate

1.00

0.00
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Downstream Pressure (psig)

©CAMCO 1999

1400

1600

1800

2000

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

5 1/2” MMRG-4, 1 1/2” POCKET
ROUND MANDREL DESIGN
Orienting
Sleeve

Tool
Discriminator

ENGINEERING DATA
PART NUMBER
SIZE
MAX O.D.
MIN I.D.
DRIFT I.D.
THREAD
TEST PRESSURE INTERNAL
TEST PRESSURE EXTERNAL
LATCH TYPE
KICKOVER TOOL
RUNNING TOOL
PULLING TOOL
MATERIAL
TENSILE STRENGTH (EOEC)
CAMCO 1996

©CAMCO 1999

05712-000-00001
5 1/2”
7.982”
4.756”
4.653”
17 LB/FT MANN BDS B x P
7740 PSI
6280 PSI
RK, RK-1, RKP, RK-SP
OM-1, OM-1M, OM-1S
RK-1 15079
1 5/8” JDS 15155
410 S.S., 13 CR 22 HRC MAX
490,000 LBS

‘G’ Latch
Lug

Polished
Seal Bore

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL
OPERATION

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL OPERATION
✔ UNLOAD WELL CAREFULLY
50 PSI (3.5 BAR) PER 10 MINS / 1 BBL PER MIN
✔ OPEN PRODUCTION CHOKE
✔ GRADUALLY INCREASE GAS INJECTION RATE
✔ MONITOR WELL CLEAN UP
✔ PERFORM STEP RATE PRODUCTION TEST
✔ OPTIMISE GAS INJECTION RATE
©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL OPERATION
✔ MONITOR, RECORD AND REPORT (DAILY)
✔ PRODUCTION RATES
✔ WATER CUT
✔ LIFT GAS INJECTION RATE
✔ GAS LIFT INJECTION PRESSURE
✔ FLOWING TUBING HEAD PRESSURE
✔ VARIATIONS IN ABOVE PARAMETERS

✔ PERFORM PERIODIC PRODUCTION TESTS

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL
OPTIMIZATION

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL OPTIMISATION
✔ SURFACE FACILITIES
✔WELLHEAD/FLOWLINE CHOKES
✔SEPARATOR PRESSURES
✔COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE PRESSURE/THROUGHPUT

✔SINGLE WELL PERFORMANCE CURVES
✔THEORETICAL/COMPUTER MODELS
✔MULTIRATE TESTS

✔ FIELD PERFORMANCE CURVES
✔ FIELD MODELS

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL
TROUBLESHOOTING

©CAMCO 1999

THE GAS LIFT SYSTEM

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL TROUBLESHOOTING
✔INLET PROBLEMS
✔CHOKE SIZED TOO LARGE
✔CHOKE SIZED TOO SMALL
✔LOW CASING PRESSURE
✔HIGH CASING PRESSURE
✔VERIFY GAUGES
✔LOW GAS VOLUME
✔EXCESSIVE GAS VOLUME
✔COMPRESSOR FLUCTUATIONS

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL TROUBLESHOOTING

✔OUTLET PROBLEMS
✔VALVE RESTRICTIONS
✔HIGH BACK PRESSURE
✔SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURE

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL TROUBLESHOOTING
✔DOWNHOLE PROBLEMS
✔HOLE IN TUBING
✔OPERATING PRESSURE VALVE BY SURFACE CLOSING
METHOD
✔WELL BLOWING DRY GAS
✔WELL WILL NOT TAKE ANY INPUT GAS
✔WELL FLOWING IN HEADS
✔INSTALLATION STYMIED AND WILL NOT UNLOAD
✔VALVE HUNG OPEN
✔VALVE SPACING TOO WIDE

©CAMCO 1999

GAS LIFT WELL TROUBLESHOOTING
✔TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES
✔CALCULATIONS - ANALYSIS OF CASING PRESSURE
✔FLOWING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE SURVEYS
✔ECHOMETER SURVEYS
✔TAGGING FLUID LEVEL
✔TWO PEN PRESSURE RECORDER CHARTS
✔MULTI-RATE TEST ANALYSIS
✔HISTORICAL WELL TEST ANALYSIS
✔COMPUTER MODELLING
✔EXAMPLES

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

©CAMCO 1999

-HEADING-INSTABILTIES-SLUGGING-

©CAMCO 1999

HEADING - INSTABILITIES - SLUGGING
✔ TUBING HEADING PHENOMENON
✔ CASING HEADING PHENOMENON
✔ SLUGGING ON START UP - FORTIES/FOINAVEN
✔ VALVE PROBLEMS

©CAMCO 1999

TUBING HEADING
TUBING PRESSURE

©CAMCO 1999

CASING PRESSURE

CASING/ANNULUS HEADING
TUBING PRESSURE

©CAMCO 1999

CASING PRESSURE

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