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Sound system

Phonetics
The Study of the way Humans make, Transmit, and Receive Sounds

Phonology the study of sound systems of languages

Phoneme –
A phonological segment that can e phonetically predicted y a rule – ! ! in bit and !p! in pit.

The "rgans of Speech and Articulation

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sounds '.consonants+ ..#anguages are made up of vowels and consonants sounds $antonese consists of %& sounds '() initials and *( finals+ .nglish consists of -.& vowels and .

/owels Most vowel sounds are modified by the shape of the lips. (rounded / spread / neutral) Sounds are made by vibrating the vocal cords (voicing). .

Vowels can be single sounds – monophthongs or pure vowels Double sounds Diphthongs !riple sounds !riphthongs .

Pure vowels usually come in pairs consisting of long and short sounds : !his is found in the word tea. "n the longer sound the tongue is raised higher. !he lips are slightly spread and the sound is short !he tongue tip is raised slightly at the front towards the alveolar. . !he lips are spread and the sound is long !his is found in the word hip.

.nglish – the Schwa !his sound is made by rela#ing the mouth and $eeping your lips in a neutral position and ma$ing a short sound.The most common sound in . over. "t is found in words li$e paper. about% and common in wea$ verbs in spo$en &nglish.

!his sound is the long form of the schwa sound. "t is found in words li$e thirteen and bird. !he mouth is rela#ed and lips are neutral0 .

!his is the short sound – up% cut ' butter & !his is the long a: sound – car. fast ' dar$ !he centre of the tongue is raised towards the soft plate% the lips are neutral0 .

too ' blue !he short sound – (ood. )or the longer sound the tongue is raised higher and the lips are more rounded0 .u: !he long sound – you. would ' wool !he lips are rounded and the centre and bac$ of the tongue is raised towards the soft plate.

Made with rounded lips and tongue slightly raised at the bac$ !he long sound– door. . four ' more !he short sound – hot% cloc$ and what.

"t is found in – cat% man% apple ' ran .!wo of the vowels do not have long sounds !his sound is made with the mouth spread wide open.

!he sound of *e+ is found in – wet% left% when ' tell. !he vowel sounds we have -ust reviewed ma$e up the rest of the diphthongs etc. that come ne#t.i$e the sound for *a+ it is a short sound that has no long version. . .

Diphthongs% !riphthongs ' (lides .

nglish has ( triphthong 'a diphthong 3 a schwa sound+ 4lides are sounds made when the tongue moves from one position to another. .nglish has 2 diphthongs Triphthongs are combinations of three sounds .1iphthongs are combinations of two sounds .

1 3 .ere we have three sounds/ 2 !he sounds from 0) for 1) tour 2) go !wo of these sounds are diphthongs% combinations of vowels. .

!his diphthong is found in – hay. date% scrape ' vein.Diphthongs are made by sliding the tongue for one position to another this is $now as a glide. .

. "t begins with a er (schwa) and moves towards the *oo+ sound found in good.ere two more pure vowels are combined to ma$e a sound. !his sound is li$e saying the letter *3+. .

ground and town all contain this sound.4ords li$e cow. (!he a: is also used to ma$e this diphthong) . down.

a56 I 7 *aI’ . hear ' beer 8eview all 9 sounds and try the e#ercises on the wor$sheets e e e e . height ' night e 6 I 7 *eI’ .way.Diphthongs are combinations of pure vowels. coin ' coy e6 7e where. paid ' gate o5 6 I 7 *oI’ – boy. hair ' care I6 7 I here.tie% buy.

$onsonants The Articulation of sound ased on received pronunciation 'R0 P0+ 'These sounds for reference only) .

:ressure builds up behind the closure which is released to create sound. t ' d0 .(+ Plosives :losives are made by ma$ing a complete closure between some point and the vocal tract. p. k. !his group includes the sounds of . d.

b Closed mouth (+ P is aspirated ' voiceless– air leaving the mouth. "t is a gentle &p sound.oth sounds are $nown as !hese two sounds are plosives% they differ in the way the voice is used during the sound. 5ila ial Plosives .+ 5 is a voiced sound and the air is restricted through the glottis . .

(+ k is a voiceless sound .+ g is a voiced sound !hese are $nown as /elar Plosives .!he sounds k ' g are made by raising the tongue at the bac$ of the mouth to ma$e a complete closure.

0) *t+ is voiceless =lveolar ridge 1) *d+ is voiced <otice how you can feel air when pronouncing the *t+% the *d+ sound has no air as it is voiced through the vocal cords. !hese are $now as Alveolar Plosives .!he sounds of *t ' d+ are made by raising the tongue to touch the front of the alveolar ridge -ust behind the teeth.

s. !his group includes the sounds of f. and both sh ' th sounds . v. z.1) )ricatives )ricatives are made by moving two vocal organs together to restrict the release of sound.

F&V 0) !he *f+ is voiceless – first% phone ' flat 1) !he *v+ is voiced – video% love ' have !he top front teeth are placed on the top of the bottom lip. !he sound is s>uee?ed through the small gaps !hese sounds are $nown as #a io-dental 6ricatives .

!hese are $nown as a 1ental fricatives . =bove is shown the way it can be practised by putting the tongue between the front teeth and touching the inde# finger.!he voiced sound% found in the% there ' feather !he voiceless sound found in thin$% thin & thought !he tongue touches the teeth% usually -ust behind the front teeth.

!he voiceless sound can be found in she% wash. sure ' champagne !he voiced sound is found in television ' revision !hese sounds are $now as Palato-alveolar 6ricatives . !he sound is s>uee?ed through the gap ma$ing a *sh+ sound.!he sound *sh+ is made by raising the blade of the tongue to ma$e light contact with the soft palate.

freeze% cars and owns. *s+ – see% voice ' most words that begin with *s+ *z+ – zoo% has. !hese sounds are $nown as Alveolar 6ricatives . !he sound is made by s>uee?ing the sound through the gap.z s !he tip of the tongue is moved towards the edge of the soft plate and the alveolar ridge.

!his sound is created by raising the bac$ of the tongue to lightly touch the soft plate% air from the lungs is pushed up past the glottis and through the small gap. !he sound is found in – hotel% his% behind ' hive "t is $nown as a 4lottal 6ricative .

affricatives differ as the air is released slower than a plosive0 The sounds 7ch8 and its voiced version make up this group0 .=ffricatives Affricatives are made y making a complete closure at some point in the mouth. similar to plosives0 However.

1) church.!hese sound are made by combining the two sounds shown here. 1) 2) d !he plosive sound made by the t/d is changed by the fricative that follows the release of pressure. crunch ' lunch d !hese sounds are $nown as 2) Jeans% generator ' bridge Palato-alveolar Affricatives .

<asals <asal sounds are made by ma$ing a complete closure in the mouth and allowing the air to escape through the nose. !his group includes the sounds n/ ng/ m .

&nglish ' than$. nine ' know.1) 2) !hese sounds are made by bloc$ing off part of the mouth by using the tongue. !he air moving through the nasal passages creates the sound.) . "t is $nown as a Alveolar 9asal 1) Song. 1) no% been. "t is $nown as a /elar 9asal (!his sound is common in words that have *ng ' *n$+ spellings.

!he *m+ sound is made by closing both lips and allowing the sound to travel through the nasal passages My/ dream/ smile/ remember !his sound is $nown as a 5ila ial 9asal .

3ral @ontinuants Some consonants are in some ways li$e vowels as they are frictionless. !hese with *l+ and *r+ ma$e up the group called continuants or sonorants . (!he previous group *<asals+ are also frictionless) Some are also midway between a consonant and a vowel% the *w+ and *y+ in *yes+ are sometimes called semi vowels or glides.

(red% describe% bread% free% drain% trouble) !his is $nown as a :ost alveolar =ppro#imant . !he sound is usually >uite difficult for =sian students and can be confused with *l+.!he sound *r+ is made when the tip of the tongue is held close to the alveolar ridge (but not touching). !he side of the tongue should touch the lower bac$ teeth.

"f the sound occurs at the beginning or middle of the word then *clear l+ is made/ if the sound occurs at the end of the word then the sound is a *dar$ l+. @lear the tip touches the centre or the alveolar ridge allowing the air to escape around the sides Dar$ the same as the clear *l+ but the centre of the tongue is raised to the soft plate.!he sound of *l+ is divided into two distinct sounds% which occur according to the following rules. Anow as #aterals .

(wedding% window% where% was% what% wear% rewind ' wish) Anown as a #a io-velar semi-vowel .= *w+ sound is similar to the you sound but the lips are rounded to give more tension. !he tongue too is similarly positioned only it is raised slightly more.

!he sound is made by raising the centre of the tongue towards the soft plate and lips are neutral 'yesterday% year% your% yeah% and to devoice a strong (fortis) consonant as in p(y)ure% a glide) Anown as a Palatal semi-vowel .

1 '())*+ The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of The English Language5 @ambridge% @ambridge Bniversity :ress $rystal. 1 '())%+ A ictionary of Linguistics and !honetics5 . /: Rodman. R '()2-+!honology An "ntroduction to #asic Concepts5 @ambridge% @ambridge Bniversity :ress.lac$well 6romkin. #ass. . R '()%-+ An "ntroduction to Language5 3rlando% .References $rystal.race.arcourt .ondon% .

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