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The Chapter includes: • Pulse Amplitude Modulation • • Pulse Width Modulation Pulse Position Modulation • Pulse Code Modulation .PULSE MODULATION The process of transmitting signals in the form of pulses (discontinuous signals) by using special techniques.

the sampling rate should be more than twice the signal frequency. . * For minimum distortion.Pulse Modulation Analog Pulse Modulation Pulse Amplitude (PAM) Pulse Width (PWM) Digital Pulse Modulation Pulse Code (PCM) Delta (DM) Pulse Position (PPM) Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM): * The signal is sampled at regular intervals such that each sample is proportional to the amplitude of the signal at that sampling instant. This technique is called “sampling”.

FM Pulses at sampling frequency HF Carrier Oscillator Analog Signal Amplitude Modulated Pulses .Pulse Amplitude Modulator Analog Signal AND Gate PAM Pulse Shaping Network FM Modulator PAM .

c. Analog Signal Width Modulated Pulses .Pulse Width Modulation (PWM or PLM or PDM): * In this type. voltage. * The negative side of the signal is brought to the positive side by adding a fixed d. the amplitude is maintained constant but the duration or length or width of each pulse is varied in accordance with instantaneous value of the analog signal.

* PPM signal is further modification of a PWM signal. The remaining pulse is called clipped PPM. the sampled waveform has fixed amplitude and width whereas the position of each pulse is varied as per instantaneous value of the analog signal. PWM PPM . * This wave can be further amended by eliminating the whole positive narrow pulses. It has positive thin pulses (zero time or width) corresponding to the starting edge of a PWM pulse and negative thin pulses corresponding to the ending edge of a pulse.Pulse Position Modulation (PPM): * In this type.

PWM and PPM at a glance: Analog Signal Amplitude Modulated Pulses Width Modulated Pulses Position Modulated Pulses .PAM.

* Analog to digital converter employs two techniques: 1. of bits / sample . of pulses per second is called “sampling rate”. 2. The no. The levels obtained are called “quanization levels”. Sampling: The process of generating pulses of zero width and of amplitude equal to the instantaneous amplitude of the analog signal. * A digital signal is described by its „bit rate‟ whereas analog signal is described by its „frequency range‟.Pulse Code Modulation (PCM): * Analog signal is converted into digital signal by using a digital code. Quantization: The process of dividing the maximum value of the analog signal into a fixed no. * Bit rate = sampling rate x no. of levels in order to convert the PAM into a Binary Code.

Quantization and Coding Time L e v e l s 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 B i n a r y C o d e s Time V o l t a g e 010101110111110101010 Time .V o l t a g e Sampling.

who is intended for. AM and FM transmitters are „real time systems‟. The digital signals can be stored. The receiver has to just detect whether the pulse is low or high. But digital signals can be coded so that only the person. 2. 6. AM FM signals become corrupted over much short distances as compared to digital signals. In digital signals. the noise also get amplified.e. 5. 4.Merits of Digital Communication: 1. The noise may change the shape of the pulses but not the pattern of the pulses. I. or used to produce a display on a computer monitor or converted back into analog signal to drive a loud speaker. can receive them. . When AM and FM signals are amplified. But digital signals can be stored at the receiving end. 7. the original signal can be reproduced accurately. The signals lose power as they travel. they can be received only at the time of transmission. Digital signals are very easy to receive. AM and FM signals can be received by any one by suitable receiver. 3. which is called attenuation. But the digital signals can be cleaned up to restore the quality and amplified by the regenerators.

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