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Chemistry & Biochemistry Chapters 2 & 3

Honors Biology Mrs. Gutierrez

Why study chemistry in a biology class?


Even the most basic units of life, cells, are made of smaller and smaller subunits The structure and function of all living things are governed by the laws of chemistry

What is Chemistry?
The study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of a substance. All life processes involve chemical changes.
Digestion Reproduction Growth Respiration

Once chemical changes are understood, life processes can be better understood.

92

109

matter atoms mass heat kinetic

energy

battery

ATP

potential

elements

structure proton neutron nucleus

stored chemical bonds

molecule

position movementActivation electron energy ion hydrogen reactions

isotope

compound acid

ionic

hydrogen covalent

base pH

What is pH?
pH stands for the potential/power of the hydrogen ion (H+) pOH is the potential/power of the hydroxide ion (OH-) pH and pOH add up to 14
Ex: if the pOH of a solution is 7, what is the pH? A pH of 7 is considered neutral

http://www.johnkyrk.com/pH.ht ml
pH scale quantified

pH Concentrations
What type of a solution has a pH of 5?
Acid

Which is a stronger acid, pH 5 or pH 2?


pH 2

How much stronger?


103 or 1,000 times stronger The pH scale is logarithmic, each increment being a multiple of 10 The increments are then multiplied

Indicators
indicate the concentration of a substance by color. Universal indicator is only one example.

http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/ resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/scien ce/acids/index.htm


Read the Help section to review Chose Litmus Reactions Type your FULL name Follow directions

Reaction of Various Materials to pH & Litmus Papers


Material Tested HCl NaOH H2O Reaction to Red Litmus Reaction to Blue Litmus pH according to pH paper

Other ways of measuring pH


pH meter
Hand-held device

pH probe
Uses a computer interface

pH Lab
You will be using a technique called titration An acid or base will be placed in a buret and slowly added to the test solution
Water Buffer Cell homogenate

Acid or base

The computer will assist in recording any changes in pH

Test soln.

Hypotheses
An assumption subject to verification or proof. Written in the Ifthen format. Example:
If acid is added to water, then the pH will_____ If base is added to water, then the pH will_____

Chemical Buffers
Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts or either acid or base added to a solution BUFFERS DO NOT NECESSARILY NEUTRALIZE THE SOLUTION TO A PH 7! Ex: stomach acid remains at a pH of 2 regardless of whether you ingest acidic or basic substances

Application of Buffers
Chemical reactions will only occur normally in a system that resists a change in pH This is part of a process known as homeostasis
The pH of many living things tends to be around neutral.

Biochemistry

The chemistry of biological substances and processes. Involves carbon compounds


Organic
Carbon-based and originated from a living thing Ex: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids

Inorganic
not organic Ex: water

Monomer vs. Polymer


Mono = 1 A monomer is the basic building block poly = many A polymer is made up of many monomers

How do the 2 boxcars join together to form a long train?

More analogies?

Dehydration Synthesis or Condensation Reaction

Condensation/Hydrolysis Demonstration
http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi oac/biochem/condense.htm

Note: Glucose and fructose are isomers

Hydrolysis
Molecules will not only need to be built, as in the case of making new muscle and bone, but they will also need to be broken down, as in the case of digestion of food. This time, water must be added (among enzymes) to break the bonds.

Example:
Making new muscle for growth in your body

Example: Digesting muscle after eating meat in order to get the monomers to make new muscle

Review
Monosaccharide #1

Monosaccharide #2

Disaccharide

Review of chemical reactions


http://www.wisconline.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP 13004

Carbohydrates
Type of Compound Examples Elements Subunit (monomer) Functions Source of energy (4Cal/g) Monosaccharide Glucose, fructose, galactose C6H12O6 Disaccharide Sucrose, maltose, Lactose C12H22O11 Glycogen, Carbon, hydrogen, itself oxygen Exactly a 1C:2H:1O C, H, O Approx. a 1C:2H:1O Monosaccharide

Source of energy (4Cal/g)

Polysaccharide

C, H, O Approx. a 1C:2H:1O

Monosaccharide

starch, cellulose

Stored energy in animals Stored energy in plants Structural component of plant cell walls

Recall
Monomer + monomer = polymer + H2O This is called
Dehydration synthesis or condensation

Example:
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11 + H2O

You try: 3(C6H12O6) =

C18H32O16 + 2H2O

Formation of a polysaccharide
http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/dehydrat/deh ydrat.html http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi oac/biochem/condense.htm

Lipids
Type of Compound Triglycerides Examples Fats, Elements Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Subunit (monomer) 3 fatty acids and a glycerol Functions Stored energy (9Cal/g), insulation, nerve impulses, protection Secondary solvent of cell

Oils

Waxes
Steroids Phospholipids

Ear wax
Hormones, cholesterol Cell membranes

Same
Same same

1 fatty acid and alcohol chain


Fused carbon rings 2 fatty acids and a glycerol

Protection, waterproofing
Regulate chemical reactions Regulates what enters and leaves a cell

Formation of a Triglyceride
http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi oac/biochem/triglyc.htm

Why cholesterol is good (and bad)


http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer /0470003790/animations/animations.htm

Proteins
Type of Compound Examples Elements Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen Subunit (monomer) Amino acid Functions General function of a protein is building and repair. (May be used as an energy source as a last resort (4Cal/g)? Binds gases in red blood cells

Hemoglobin

Insulin
Albumin Keratin Enzymes

Same
Same Same Same

Same
Same Same Same

Regulates blood sugar levels


Nourishing component of egg whites Structural component of hair, skin, and nails Act as a catalyst by regulating chemical reaction rates

Formation of a polypeptide
http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi oac/biochem/amino.htm

Enzymes
Most enzyme are proteins Three characteristics
Reusable Specific Catalyst (lower the activation energy (Ea)of a reaction) http://www3.fhs.usyd.edu.au/bio/homeostasis/C ontrol_Systems.htm (read from the introduction to the definition of homeostasis)

http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/ch emistry/essentialchemistry/flash/ activa2.swf


Short video clip of exothermic reactions.

2H2O2 2H2O + O2

catalase

Catalase
An enzyme found in any living tissue, plant or animal Catalase works best under constant conditions (homeostasis) of temperature and pH Predict what the graph would look like if the liver, containing catalase, is
Boiled Acidified

What happened?
The enzyme catalase was denatured (NOT killed). Since enzymes are specific, catalase no longer fit the substrate.

Type of compound

Examples

Elements

Subunits (monomers)

Functions

Nucleic Acids

DNA

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus

Nucleotide

Stores genetic information for making proteins

RNA

Directly involved in protein synthesis


Hydrogen, oxygen H2O Primary solvent of the cell

Water

-polar
-cohesive -adhesive

Ice, liquid water, vapor

http://programs.northlandcollege. edu/biology/Biology1111/animati ons/hydrogenbonds.html


Short video clip about waters polarity and hydrogen bonding properties.

Nice quiz reviewing the Big 4 Molecules


http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/macmole.ht ml