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Chemistry & Biochemistry Chapters 2 & 3

Honors Biology Mrs. Gutierrez

Why study chemistry in a biology class?

Even the most basic units of life, cells, are made of smaller and smaller subunits The structure and function of all living things are governed by the laws of chemistry

What is Chemistry?
The study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of a substance. All life processes involve chemical changes.
Digestion Reproduction Growth Respiration

Once chemical changes are understood, life processes can be better understood.



matter atoms mass heat kinetic






structure proton neutron nucleus

stored chemical bonds


position movementActivation electron energy ion hydrogen reactions


compound acid


hydrogen covalent

base pH

What is pH?
pH stands for the potential/power of the hydrogen ion (H+) pOH is the potential/power of the hydroxide ion (OH-) pH and pOH add up to 14
Ex: if the pOH of a solution is 7, what is the pH? A pH of 7 is considered neutral ml
pH scale quantified

pH Concentrations
What type of a solution has a pH of 5?

Which is a stronger acid, pH 5 or pH 2?

pH 2

How much stronger?

103 or 1,000 times stronger The pH scale is logarithmic, each increment being a multiple of 10 The increments are then multiplied

indicate the concentration of a substance by color. Universal indicator is only one example. resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/scien ce/acids/index.htm

Read the Help section to review Chose Litmus Reactions Type your FULL name Follow directions

Reaction of Various Materials to pH & Litmus Papers

Material Tested HCl NaOH H2O Reaction to Red Litmus Reaction to Blue Litmus pH according to pH paper

Other ways of measuring pH

pH meter
Hand-held device

pH probe
Uses a computer interface

pH Lab
You will be using a technique called titration An acid or base will be placed in a buret and slowly added to the test solution
Water Buffer Cell homogenate

Acid or base

The computer will assist in recording any changes in pH

Test soln.

An assumption subject to verification or proof. Written in the Ifthen format. Example:
If acid is added to water, then the pH will_____ If base is added to water, then the pH will_____

Chemical Buffers
Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts or either acid or base added to a solution BUFFERS DO NOT NECESSARILY NEUTRALIZE THE SOLUTION TO A PH 7! Ex: stomach acid remains at a pH of 2 regardless of whether you ingest acidic or basic substances

Application of Buffers
Chemical reactions will only occur normally in a system that resists a change in pH This is part of a process known as homeostasis
The pH of many living things tends to be around neutral.


The chemistry of biological substances and processes. Involves carbon compounds

Carbon-based and originated from a living thing Ex: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids

not organic Ex: water

Monomer vs. Polymer

Mono = 1 A monomer is the basic building block poly = many A polymer is made up of many monomers

How do the 2 boxcars join together to form a long train?

More analogies?

Dehydration Synthesis or Condensation Reaction

Condensation/Hydrolysis Demonstration oac/biochem/condense.htm

Note: Glucose and fructose are isomers

Molecules will not only need to be built, as in the case of making new muscle and bone, but they will also need to be broken down, as in the case of digestion of food. This time, water must be added (among enzymes) to break the bonds.

Making new muscle for growth in your body

Example: Digesting muscle after eating meat in order to get the monomers to make new muscle

Monosaccharide #1

Monosaccharide #2


Review of chemical reactions 13004

Type of Compound Examples Elements Subunit (monomer) Functions Source of energy (4Cal/g) Monosaccharide Glucose, fructose, galactose C6H12O6 Disaccharide Sucrose, maltose, Lactose C12H22O11 Glycogen, Carbon, hydrogen, itself oxygen Exactly a 1C:2H:1O C, H, O Approx. a 1C:2H:1O Monosaccharide

Source of energy (4Cal/g)


C, H, O Approx. a 1C:2H:1O


starch, cellulose

Stored energy in animals Stored energy in plants Structural component of plant cell walls

Monomer + monomer = polymer + H2O This is called
Dehydration synthesis or condensation

C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11 + H2O

You try: 3(C6H12O6) =

C18H32O16 + 2H2O

Formation of a polysaccharide ydrat.html oac/biochem/condense.htm

Type of Compound Triglycerides Examples Fats, Elements Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Subunit (monomer) 3 fatty acids and a glycerol Functions Stored energy (9Cal/g), insulation, nerve impulses, protection Secondary solvent of cell


Steroids Phospholipids

Ear wax
Hormones, cholesterol Cell membranes

Same same

1 fatty acid and alcohol chain

Fused carbon rings 2 fatty acids and a glycerol

Protection, waterproofing
Regulate chemical reactions Regulates what enters and leaves a cell

Formation of a Triglyceride oac/biochem/triglyc.htm

Why cholesterol is good (and bad) /0470003790/animations/animations.htm

Type of Compound Examples Elements Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen Subunit (monomer) Amino acid Functions General function of a protein is building and repair. (May be used as an energy source as a last resort (4Cal/g)? Binds gases in red blood cells


Albumin Keratin Enzymes

Same Same Same

Same Same Same

Regulates blood sugar levels

Nourishing component of egg whites Structural component of hair, skin, and nails Act as a catalyst by regulating chemical reaction rates

Formation of a polypeptide oac/biochem/amino.htm

Most enzyme are proteins Three characteristics
Reusable Specific Catalyst (lower the activation energy (Ea)of a reaction) ontrol_Systems.htm (read from the introduction to the definition of homeostasis) emistry/essentialchemistry/flash/ activa2.swf

Short video clip of exothermic reactions.

2H2O2 2H2O + O2


An enzyme found in any living tissue, plant or animal Catalase works best under constant conditions (homeostasis) of temperature and pH Predict what the graph would look like if the liver, containing catalase, is
Boiled Acidified

What happened?
The enzyme catalase was denatured (NOT killed). Since enzymes are specific, catalase no longer fit the substrate.

Type of compound



Subunits (monomers)


Nucleic Acids


Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus


Stores genetic information for making proteins


Directly involved in protein synthesis

Hydrogen, oxygen H2O Primary solvent of the cell


-cohesive -adhesive

Ice, liquid water, vapor

http://programs.northlandcollege. edu/biology/Biology1111/animati ons/hydrogenbonds.html

Short video clip about waters polarity and hydrogen bonding properties.

Nice quiz reviewing the Big 4 Molecules ml