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NUTRITION

By Dale M Forsyth Purdue University

Nutrition deals with providing the right nutrients in the right amounts in the diet.

Definition
Deals with the nutrients needed, their

metabolism, feeds that supply them, and feeding systems to provide them

NUTRIENT

DEFINED
A chemical or chemical compound that

aids in the support of life, and is essential for the normal function, growth and reproduction of the animal.

CLASSES of NUTRIENTS

There are 6 Classes of Nutrients


Water Carbohydrates

Fats
Proteins Vitamins Minerals

ANALYSIS
Water Carbohydrates Fats Water Crude Fiber NFE Ether Extract Crude Protein

Protein
Minerals Vitamins

Ash
Too small to weigh

WATER
The most crucial nutrient. What % water loss is fatal to animals?

~12%

Unique properties of Water:


What happens to most substances as they are cooled? What happens when water freezes? What is the consequence of this?

3 important properties of water to animals are:

High Dielectric Constant


High polarity of the molecule Water dissolves many things

High Specific Heat


Takes a lot of heat to change temperature

much Helps maintain proper body temp

High Latent Heat of Vaporization


Takes a lot of energy to change water from

liquid into vapor Result is:

lots of heat is removed when sweat evaporates or moisture-laden air is exhaled

3 sources of water to animals


Drinking Water Water in Feed Metabolic Water

C6H12O6

6CO2 + 6H2O

Impt to: Hibernating animals Water conserving animals

% Yield as Water
Glucose Protein = Fat =

= 60 % 42 % 100 %

Functions of Water in Animals

Many many functions, which include:

Movement of nutrients and metabolites Constant body temperature Media for chemical reactions Takes part in chemical reactions Special roles

Special Roles
Synovial fluid lubricant Cerebrospinal fluid cushion

Sound transmission in ear


Light transmission in eye

Approximate WATER CONSUMPTION


Species Beef Dairy Horses Swine Sheep & Goats Chickens Turkeys Liters/Day 26-66 38-110 30-45 11-19 4-15 .2-.4 .4-.6

Factors Affecting H2O Reqmt

Species Environmental temperature Protein, salt and dry matter intake Lactation Age Activity Rate & composition of gain Health

Effects of Water Restriction


Food Intake and production Hemoconcentration Heart Rate Temperature Respiration Rate DEATH

Practical Aspect

Make good, clean water liberally available at all times


(EXCEPT certain conditions: Before or After HEAVY exercise)

CARBOHYDRATES

The trouble with our food is that its filled with all kinds of chemicals, like for example polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their anhydrides.

But THATS just a description of CARBOHYDRATE

ALL foods are CHEMICALS

CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates are made of the elements:


Carbon

Hydrogen
Oxygen

H to O ration as in water (2:1)

Carbohydrates are made of molecules called:


SUGARS

(saccharides)

Function of carbohydrates:

ENERGY

Forms of Carbohydrates

soluble
sugars monosaccharides

disaccharides

insoluble
polysaccharides

There are many monosaccharides. You are to know just a few

PENTOSES
Arabinose

Xylose
Ribose

HEXOSES
Glucose

Fructose
Galactose Mannose

2 simple sugars bond to form:

DISACCHARIDES
Sucrose

Maltose
Lactose Cellobiose

DISACCHARIDES

Sucrose
table sugar

Lactose
milk sugar

Maltose repeating unit of starch Cellobiose repeating unit of cellulose

Disaccharides

Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose with bond Cellobiose = Glucose + Glucose bond

CHO STRUCTURES

Glucose

CHO STRUCTURES

Glucose

Maltose = glucose + glucose

Connected by alpha bond

Cellobiose = glucose + glucose

Connected by beta bond

POLYSACCHARIDES

STARCH
Starch is made of repeating units of the

disaccharide MALTOSE so it is really all:

GLUCOSE

KINDS OF STARCH

AMYLOSE
Straight chain polymer

AMYLOPECTIN
Branched chain polymer

More Polysaccharides

Glycogen
Like amylopectin. Stored in animals (small

amount)

Cellulose

Glycogen
Storage CHO found in animals, but only in small amounts Readily available supply of energy

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STARCH AND CELLULOSE IS:

Starch is glucose connected with alpha bonds Cellulose is glucose connected with beta bonds

Animals do NOT make the enzyme that digests beta bonds.


Only bacteria make cellulase

More about cellulose


Part of cell wall Analyzed in Crude Fiber, or better, NDF and ADF Only of value to ruminant animals because it takes bacteria to make cellulase to digest it.

(or bacteria in the cecum of nonruminant

herbivores)

LIGNIN

LIGNIN IS NOT REALLY CARBOHYDRATE, but it is discussed here because it is in the fibrous part of the feed associated with cellulose, which is carbohydrate, and is analyized along with carbohydrate.

Bad things about lignin


Completely indigestible Binds to cellulose and decreases the digestibility (dramatically) of other feed components

Good things about lignin


Nutritionally NONE For the plant

Helps insect resistance Provides structural rigidity

Analysis of CHO
Crude Fiber NFE

Better Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)


(more about those later in the course)

LIPIDS

DEFINITION
Lipids are substances that are soluble in ether (and other organic solvents).

LIPID CLASSIFICATION

Simple lipids - esters of fatty acids with alcohols


Fats, Oils, Waxes

Compound lipids - esters of fatty acids containing groups in addition to an alcohol and fatty acid.
Phospholipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins

Derived lipids Sterols Terpenes (includes Vitamin A)

Largest, most impt category is Fats and Oils

Fats contain 2.25 X as much energy as CHO


Fats

Proteins
CHO 9 / 4 = 2.25

= = =

9 Kcal / g 4 Kcal / g 4 Kcal / g

Fat composition
Lipids are composed of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen (just like CHO)
Difference is Fats contain LITTLE Oxygen compared to H and C.
C & H are the real fuel, O can come from

air.

Most fat is composed of GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS

Triglycerides have 1 glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids Diglycerides have 1 glycerol & 2 Fatty Acids Monoglycerides have 1 glycerol & 1 Fatty Acid

Glycerol
OH-C-H2 | OH-C-H | OH-C-H2 A 3 carbon alcohol

Fatty Acid

Example 16 carbons = palmitic acid


CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH

Saturated vs Unsaturated

SATURATED (has all the H it can have)


CH3(CH2)16COOH

UNSATURATED (contains double bonds)


CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=(CH2)7COOH

Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)


2 carbon atoms = acetic acid CH3COOH 3 carbon atoms = propionic acid CH3CH2COOH 4 carbon atoms = butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COOH

VFAs Importance

In Rumen Fermentation
VFAs are the end product of the bacteria

breaking down carbohydrate (because there is no oxygen in the rumen).

Medium Chain Fatty Acids

C-6 to C-14 acids are not real abundant

Long Chain Fatty Acids


C DB 16 0 18 0 18 1 18 2 18 3 20 4

FA palmitic stearic oleic linoleic linolenic arachidonic

"essential" "essential" "essential"

Essential Fatty Acids

Essential because they cant be formed by the animal and must be in the diet.
(actually many animals can convert linoleic

to arachidonic acid, but well call all 3 the EFAs)

Linoleic Acid Linolenic Acid Arachidonic Acid

Essential Fatty Acids Symptoms


Skin problems, scaly skin, necrosis Necrosis of the tail Growth failure Reproductive failure Edema Subcutaneous hemorrhage Poor feathering in chicks

EFAs Practical Aspects


You will NOT see deficiency on animals fed practical diets. You will NOT see deficiency in ruminant animals

(there is enough microbial synthesis in the

rumen, even though microbes hydrogenate unsaturated fats).

Functions for Fat in Diets


1.
2.

Energy Provide EFAs Also:


Dust control to 1% does a good job Absorption of fat soluble vitamins Improves palatability of some diets

Lipid Categories
Glycerides - most common Most important dietary fat

~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~

Lipid Categories

Phospholipids Usually glycerol + 2 Fatty Acids + P and something ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~P~~~~~~~~~ Lecithins -P-choline Cephalins -P-cholamine (amino ethyl alcohol) Part of membranes Surface active (both hydrophilic & hydrophobic)

Lipid Categories

Glycolipids

~ ~ ~~sugar

Important in grasses & clovers Much of the dietary fat of ruminants (60%) is galactolipid.

Especially rich (95%) in linoleic acid

Lipid Categories

Cerebrosides Nerve Tissue FA - NH2-sphingosine-hexose

Waxes FA + monohydric alcohol

Steroids - hormones, includes cholesterol


Terpenes - includes Vitamin A

PROTEINS

And Amino Acids

Definitions
Composed of elements C, H, O, N + S, P Composed of molecules: Amino Acids

Example

Peptides and Polypeptides

Amino acids are connected in chains

Proteins

Proteins are very complex


Order of every amino acid is important, just

like letters in words, words in sentences, sentences in paragraphs, and paragraphs in chapters. Proteins have primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure

Differences in proteins are what make individuals unique

Analysis

For feeds just determine N

x 6.25 = Crude Protein

10 essential amino acids

Phenylalanine Valine Threonine Tryptophan Isoleucine

Methionine Histidine Arginine Lysine Leucine

Most important to know: Lysine, Tryptophan, Methionine

Some non-essentail amino acids

Glycine Serine Glutamic Acid Taurine Cystine Cysteine

Aspartic acid

Protein Quality
Refers to the amount and balance of the essential amino acids in the protein. Important for nonruminant animals but not ruminants

For ruminants, quantity of CP is whats

impt.

IDEAL PROTEIN

An ideal protein would just exactly meet the essential amino acid needs of the animal, with none in excess, and with the right level of non-essential amino acids.

Amino Acid Availability/Digestibility


Not all the amino acids in feeds are available Digestibility is confused by microbial synthesis in the Large Intestine Therefore, availability has to be determined at the end of the small intestine

More about this later

NPN
Non-Protein Nitrogen Ruminants can use NPN because the bacteria in the rumen can use it to build their own amino acids.

Functions of Dietary Proteins

Supply the needed amino acids for the body to make its own proteins. If present in excess, supplies energy

VITAMINS

Vitamin Classification
Fat soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C B-complex vitamins Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, B6, B12, Folic Acid, Choline, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin

A, D, E, K

Vitamin A

3 forms Retinol
Precursor: Functions: +++

Retinal

Retinoic acid

Carotene Protects epithelial tissues

Vitamin A Structure

Vitamin A

A.Introduction
1.Chemically known

as retinol 2.It is an unsaturated monohydric alcohol with the shown structural formula:

3. It is a pale yellow crystalline solid,

insoluble in water, but soluble in fats and various fat solvents. 4. It is readily destroyed by oxidation on exposure to air and light. 5. Vitamin A does not occur in plants but rather as its precursor, carotene, or carotenoid pigments.

Sources of Vitamin A
1.
2.

4.
5. 6.

Liver is a rich source of vitamin A. Egg yolk and milk fat are generally rich sources. Green forages, well-made hays and legume-grass silages are good sources. Grains, except corn, are low or devoid of vitamin A activity. Animal products are poor sources.

1.

Provitamins
Includes -, - and - carotene and cryptoxanthin b. Most important is -carotene
a.
a.
b.

red in color green feeds are excellent sources


Occurs in intestinal wall and liver and possibly in the kidney and lung In theory one molecule of carotene should yield two molecules of A Efficiency is below the expected.

c.

Conversion to vitamin A
a.

b.

c.

Vitamin A value is defined as One I.U. of vitamin A = vitamin A activity of 0.300 ug of crystalline vitamin A alcohol

Efficiency of conversion
Species Rat Poultry Beef cattle Sheep Swine Dairy cattle Horses Dogs -carotene 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Vit A, I.U. 1667 1667 400 480 533 400 555 to 333 833

Metabolism

Vitamin A and vision


Rhodopson (visual purple), the pigment of

the rod cells of the retina of the eye, is made of the vitamin plus a protein moiety. When exposed to light, the pigment breaks down into its constituents and these chemical changes are accompanied by stimulation of the optic nerves. Rhodopsin is regenerated in the dark.

Ability to see in dim light depends on the

rate of resynthesis of rhodopsin.

Rhodopsin formation is impaired where vitamin A is deficient

Other tissues

Maintains mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, intestinal tract, urethra, kidney and eyes in a healthy condition
In absence of vitamin A, they become

keratinized and susceptible to infection

Role in bone formation

Vitamin A Deficiencies
Night Blindness Xeropthalmia Infertility, abortion, fetal abnormalities Metaplasia (change of cell type) Infections Dozens of other symptoms, as Vit A is involved all over the body

Deficiency symptoms

Adult cattle
A mild deficiency is associated with night

blindness, roughened hair, scaly skin. Prolonged deficiency excessive watering, softening and cloudiness of the cornea and development of xeropthalmia characterized by a drying of the conjunctiva. Constriction of the optic nerve canal in calves

Deficiency Symptoms (cont)


Infertility in breeding animals Abortion or production of dead, weak or blind calves Increased susceptibility to infectioncalves

Deficiency Symptoms (cont)

Ewes
Night blindness Weak or dead lambs

Pigs
Eye disorders (xerophthalmia & blindness) Blind, deformed litters Impaired appetite and growth

Deficiency Symptoms (cont)

Poultry
High mortality Retarded growth, weakness, ruffled

plumage and a staggering gait Reduced egg production and hatchability

Supplementation
Feed a carotene rich diet Supplement by:

Add to water Inject Add to supplement or grain mix Add to salt or mineral mix Add to complete diet

Problem

Ruminants
Deficiency may occur when pastures are

poor or high cereal rations are used

Swine
Some concentrate feeds are extremely

poor sourses

Vitamin D
Necessary to use Ca & P Deficiency causes RICKETS Can be gotten from SUN on Skin Active form: 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol Form in plants is D2, in animals D3.

poultry, cats need D3

Vitamin D Structure
Vitamin D2

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D as a Hormone

Vitamin D is activated by UV light from 7dehyro-cholesterol in the skin, goes to liver In LIVER, is hydroxylated in the 1 position Goes to KIDNEY where it is hydroxylated in the 25 position, forming: 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol, the active form

Metabolism
Facilitates deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bone Increases the absorption of Ca & P from the intestine

Deficiency Symptoms

Young animals
Rickets with weak, easily broken bones, bowed

legs

Young cattle
Swollen knees and hocks and arching of back

Pigs
Enlarged joints, broken bones, stiffness of joints,

occasional paralysis

Vit D Deficiency symptoms


In older animals oesteomalacia (uncommon) Poultry

Soft rubbery bones and beak, retarded

growth, bowed legs, reduced egg production

Units of vitamin D

One I.U. of vit D = 0.025 g of pure crystalline irradiated 7dehydrocfholesterol (D3)

Problems
Need is greater for pigs & poultry than cattle & sheep Animals housed indoors may need suppl. More Vit D may be helpful managing milk fever.

Sources
Most feeds for pigs & poultry are poor sources Cod and fish-liver oils are good sources Sun-cured hays are good sources Irradiated yeast is a good source of D2

Excessive Vitamin D
High doses mobilize Ca & P from the tissues causing vitamin D rickets It may cause deposition of calcium salts in arteries, various organs and tissues

Vitamin E
Tocopherols (d--tocopherol mainly) Protects membranes Interacts with SELENIUM Prevents muscle, liver and blood vessel degeneration.

Deficiency Symptoms
Liver (cells die) Stiff lamb disease White muscle disease (calves) Exudative diathesis (chickens)

Deficiency symptoms
Reproductive failure Calves and lambs - muscular degeneration

calves called white muscle disease lambs called stiff lamb disease

Chicks
nutritional encephalomalacia

E deficiencies

Pigs
Severe liver damage muscular weakness heart muscle affected with sudden death

Vitamin E & Selenium


1. Exact interrelationship is not known. 2. Most enzootic muscular dystrophies in sheep and cattle can be prevented by administering Se or vitamin E. 3. Necrotic liver degeneration in the rat and exudative diathesis in the chick can be prevented by either substance. 4. Nutritional encephalomalacia in chick or muscular dystrophy by E but not by selenium.

Units of vitamin E

1 I.U. of vitamin E = one milligram of synthetic a-tocopheryl acetate

Sources of Vitamin E

Good
a. Wheat germ b. Green forages c. Soybean, peanut and cottonseed oils

2. Poor
a. Corn b. Soybean, peanut and cottonseed meals

Vitamin K
Necessary for blood clotting Normally get enough by microbial synthesis Add menadione (Vit K source) to be safe

A number of compounds have vitamin K activity


phyloquinone, found in green plants Naturally occurring naphthoquinone is vitamin K2 Menadione (K3) is the most active synthetic compound

Functions

Necessary for the formation of prothrombin


so necessary for blood clotting

Deficiency symptoms
Prolonged clotting time hemorrhage

Problems
Seldom really a problem Synthesis occurs by microbes, even in non-ruminants Practically, add to non-ruminant diets anyway Beware moldy sweet clover poisoning

coumerol converted to dicoumarol by mold

VITAMIN C

L - ascorbic acid

Functions

Important role in various oxidationreduction mechanisms in living cells


ELECTRON TRANSPORT

Impt for normal collagen metabolism


hydroxyproline from proline &

hydroxylysine from lysine

Other roles

Co-substrate in certain mixed-function oxidations


dopamine to norepinephrine

reqd with ATP for plasma Fe into ferritin

Most Animals Make Their Own


Vitamin C

Required by:
Man other primates Guinea pigs A few other species, including:

Indian fruit bat, red-vented bulbul, flying

fox, rainbow trout, coho salmon, 2 species of locust, silkworm

Not required by farm animals

EXCEPT under some specific conditions:


debilitated animals

possibly newborns
possibly pigs following weaning briefly any time metabolism is so altered that

synthesis fails to occur

Deficiency symptoms

SCURVY
edema weight loss

hemorrhages in

emaciation
diarrhea structural defects in

teeth, bone, cartilage, connective tissue, muscle

muscles & gums capillary fragility fatty infiltration & necrosis of liver enlarged adrenal gland DELAYED WOUND HEALING

CONTROVERSY

Linus Pauling
Vitamin C and the Common Cold

B-Complex Vitamins

Thiamine (B1) Ribovlavin (B2) Niacin Pyridoxine (B6) Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid

Choline Biotin B12 Others?

Thiamine

Can form esters such as thiamin pyrophosphate, a cocarboxylase Coenzyme in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid

Deficiency: accumulation of pyruvic acid

and its reduction product lactic acid

B1 Deficiency Symptoms
BERI BERI in Humans Loss of appetite, emaciation, muscular weakness and progressive dysfunction of nervous system Pigs: appetite, growth, vomiting, respiratory problems Chicks: polyneuritis (nerve degeneration and paralysis)

Some feeds (bracken, raw fish) contain thiaminase which destroys thiamin.

B1

Widely distributed in foods


Particularly cereal grains Therefore little problem, usually, for

livestock

Riboflavin (B2)

B2
Part of FLAVOPROTEINS transport of H (transfer of electrons) Oxidation-Reduction reactions Limited storage DO NEED to ADD to non-ruminant diets

Cereals are a poor source

B2 Deficiency Symptoms

Pigs
Poor appetite, slow growth, vomiting, skin

and eye problems

Chick
Curled toe paralysis (from nerve

degeneration)

Hen
Poor hatchability, embryonic abnormalities

Deficiency symptoms (cont)

Ectodermal tissues
Skin, eye, nervous system Cataracts

Slow growth
REPRO increased stillbirth

Requirement proportional to Energy Intake

Niacin

Nicotinamide Nicotinic Acid

Can be formed from Tryptophan


(but not the reverse) (not best to rely upon cereals low in Try)

Active group of 2 important coenzymes


NAD & NADP (nicotinamide adenine

dinucleotide and its phosphate)

Niacin Deficiency
Pellegra in Humans Black tongue in dogs Pigs poor growth, enteritis, dermititis

High corn diets are a problem because corn contains little niacin OR tryptophan

Pellegra
Diarrhoea, Dermatitis, Dementia Gastrointestinal problems, affected tongue (swollen, beefy), Anorexia Symmetrical appearing dermititis

Especially parts exposed to light or heat

Mental symptoms

Mental symptoms
Lassitude, apprehension, depression, and loss of memory. Disorientation, confusion, hysteria, sometimes maniacal outbursts It gets worse Encephalopathy

Stupor, delirium, uncontrolled reflexes

B6 Pyridoxine

Three forms: Pyridoxine (OH), Pyridoxal (CHO), Pyridoxamine (NH2)

B6 Main Functions
Amino Acid Decarboxylation and Deamination C-COOH -- C COOH C-NH2 ----- C NH2

B6 Deficiency
Poor Growth, etc. ANEMIA Nervous symptoms convulsions

Demyelinization of peripheral nerves Other degenerative changes

Reduced antibody response Needed for normal reproduction

Rqmt for humans increased during pregnancy and oral contraceptive use

Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic Acid

Component of Coenzyme A
Fatty Acid breakdown CHO oxidation

Therefore to use energy!!!

PA Deficiency

Goose Stepping in pigs


Nervous incoordination

Diarrhea Loss of hair, skin problems Poor growth, etc.

More, of course, but widely distributed in plants and not a serious problem

Folic Acid

Folacins
3 associated compounds have activity Movement of 1 Carbon residues

COO- and CH3 Synthesis of purines and amino acids Related with B12

Folic Deficiencies
Anemia like B12 but not cured w B12 Poor growth Poor feathering

Biggest problem is PEOPLE Pregnancy neural tube defects Only Poultry, Pregnant Women and Kids normally need it added

Choline

Choline

Unlike the other vitamins


Actually used up Can be replaced by other substances, like

betaine and methionine

Methyl Donor

Choline deficiency
Slow Growth Fatty Liver PEROSIS (also Mn) Reduced litter size in pigs

Therefore add extra to sows diets

Add LARGE amounts when needed


Light and fluffy NOT part of regular vitamin mix

Add to Swine (sows) and Poultry diets


(adds pig/litter for sows)

B12

B12 Cyanocobalamine
Contains COBALT APF Original Animal Protein Factor Anti-pernicious anemia factor Discovered in 1949

B12 Function
Synthesis of RNA and DNA Chemistry of Methyl Groups

INTRINSIC FACTOR

In order to absorb B12, need Intrinsic Factor from the stomach.

B12 Deficiency

Pernicious Anemia
Pernicious means leading to death

All the symptoms of starvation

Biotin

Biotin
Role in Fat Synthesis Problems are skin problems

Dermatitis Loss of hair

Avidin (in raw egg white) inactivates it Widely Distributed

HYERVITAMINOSIS

Water Soluble Vitamins


Unusual, reach renal threshold High enough doses can be pharmocologic

Fat Soluble Vitamins A & D


TOXIC

End of Vitamins View Vitamin Deficiency Slides

MINERALS

Following is only an overview

Minerals

Macro Minerals
Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S

Trace Minerals
Fe, Cu, Zn, I, Mn, Cr, Mo, F

Ultra Trace Minerals maybe more

Macro Minerals
Calcium bones, teeth, muscle Phosphorus bones, soft tissue

Needs proper Ca:P ratio and Vitamin D

Magnesium prevents Grass Tetany Na (sodium), K (potassium), Cl (chloride)

Osmotic balance, Na pump, muscle, nerve

Sulfur in proteins & other moleules

Trace Minerals
Iron (Fe) prevents anemia Copper (Cu) need it to use Fe, connective tissue formation Zinc (Zn) prevents parakeratosis Iodine (I) prevents goiter Manganese (Mn) need for proper bone, activates enzymes

Trace Minerals continued


Need only tiny amounts of these, almost unmeasurable Chromium (Cr) CHO metabolism Molybdenum (Mo) toxic but essential Fluorine (F) toxic but benefits teeth

Ultra Trace Elements


Things in this category MAY be essential but that has not been proven (and accepted generally) Includes many elements, including: B, As, Ba, Ni, Sr, Va and others Text book (Church & Pond) accept some (Va) as essential that I do not