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Common administrative tasks

• Some people excel in special areas of free software technology but haven't needed to learn system administration.• Linux system administration has a place of its own in the hierarchy of information technology specializations. . • Professional Linux system administration requires you to know a broad number of tasks associated with networking and providing services to users. It takes a special breed of person to work in this capacity.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Backing up and restoring data Changing group memberships Checking event logs Creating administrative scripts Creating logon scripts Creating user and group accounts Deploying and upgrading software Installing a DHCP server Installing a domain controller Managing applications on a local computer Managing applications remotely Managing directory replication Management tasks for disks and volumes File and folder management Managing network printers • • • • • • • • • • • Managing servers remotely Managing services Monitoring network traffic Monitoring security-related events Monitoring server performance Resetting user passwords Safeguarding your system Scheduling tasks Setting up DNS Setting up TCP/IP Setting user and group security .

• Essential duties of the system administrator – Account provisioning – Adding and removing hardware – Performing backups – Installing and upgrading software – Monitoring the system – Troubleshooting – Maintaining local documentation – Vigilantly monitoring security – Fire fighting .

type • date 061516452007 . to change the date and time to 4:45pm on June 15. The format of the command is – date MMDDhhmmYYYY • where the letters have the following meanings: – – – – – MM is the month (01 to 12) DD is the day (01 to 31) hh is the hour in 24 hour format (00 to 23) mm is the minute (00 to 59) YYYY is the year (0000 to 9999) • For example. 2007.Changing the Date and Time • The date can be used to change the date and time on your computer.

to give the owner of the file myscript.• To change file permissions. and "o" for world (other) permissions. Values can be "u" for user. There is also "a". use the chmod Changing file permissions and ownership . • operation is "+" to add permissions. type • chmod u+x myscript. and "x" for execute permissions • For example. Values can be "r" for read. The form of the command is: • chmod (who)(operation)(what) filename • who indicates whose permissions get changed. "w" for write. which will change permissions for all users. "g" for group. and "-" to remove permissions. • what indicates what permissions get execute permissions.

• The adduser command allows you to add user accounts.Adding users • to create additional user accounts on your computer. but it can be useful. work phone. • adduser --disabled-password username .. If you are having problems creating a good password. This is optional. • A room number. and "other" entry. It is acceptable to leave these blank. home phone. • A full name. you can run the apg command to generate some possibilities. Format is : – adduser accountname • where accountname is the username of the account to create • After running the command you will be prompted for the following information: • A password for the user. such as "Charles McColm".

and optional group password information .Adds a new group • groupdel .Deletes an existing group • groupmod . membership.Group Management • groupadd .Modifies an existing group • /etc/group contains group name. number.

. • If you wish to turn off autologins. /etc/wclp/autologin_user contains the name of the user account to log in automatically and /etc/wclp/autologin_enable controls whether autologin is activated. you can delete this file.Managing autologins • configured to automatically log in a user when it boots. • Two files are used to configure this behaviour. If for some reasons autologins have been disabled and you wish to re-enable autologins. type • touch /etc/wclp/autologin_enable to reactivate autologins.

.Managing software • One of the strengths of the open source movement is that a lot of software is available that you can try out for little or no cost.

Mounting and Unmounting Filesystems • You need to mount a filesystem to make the files it contains available—you use the mount command to do that. Those that are on physically different partitions. simply type the command mount on its own. everything that can be seen is part of one big tree of files and directories. • To find out what is currently mounted. which is usually an empty directory. or remote machines are "grafted" onto the system at a particular place—a mount point. . disks. • In Linux.

While CD. systems would be backing up constantly. – RAID does NOT eliminate the need for backups. tape is generally the backup media of choice. . and portable hard drives are all viable options.Filesytstem Backups • Need for system backups • – Backups are needed in the event of • Hardware failure • Filesystem or file corruption • Accidental file deletion. once per day is reasonable. – Realistically. DVD. – Ideally.

Network Configuration .

Scheduling tasks .

numbers. – logwatch .Good System Admin Practices • • • • • • • • • Choose good for passwords for administrative accounts. or forward root's mail to yourself at another account. – Mix letters. – Six characters minimum length. – No dictionary words. and special characters. Check root's mailbox regularly. Monitor system logs frequently. no common names.

– # find / -name grub. – #halt reboot • This command shuts down and restarts the operating system. – #reboot – #reboot –f [will perform simple reboot] [will perform fast reboot ] find • The find command searches through directories and subdirectories for a desired file. but can only be run by the root user.Linux system administration commands halt • This command shuts down the operating system. It also can only be run by root.conf .