Lecture 33: Quantum Computing 2

Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Richard Spillman PLU Fall 2003


Class Topics

Future Future NLP Expert Systems Learning Genetic Algorithms Expert Genetic Learning NLP Intro to AI Prolog Lisp Search Systems Algorithms

Search Intro to AI

Prolog Lisp


Last Class • Why Quantum Computing? • What is Quantum Computing? • History • Quantum Weirdness • Quantum Properties • Quantum Devices

Review – The Need • The size of components will drop down to the one atom per device level by 2020


Review - Superposition

• The Principal of Superposition states if a quantum system can be measured to be in one of a number of states then it can also exist in a blend of all its states simultaneously • RESULT: An n-bit qubit register can be in all 2n states at once
– Massively parallel operations



• Quantum Logic Gates II • Quantum Dots • Quantum Error Correction


Quantum Logic Gates II

Controlled NOT

• One of the first quantum logic gates proposed was the Controlled-NOT gate which implements an XOR
– It has two inputs and two outputs (required for reversibility)
c t The target, t, is inverted when the control, c, is “1”

c’ t’

c 0 0 1 1

t 0 1 0 1

c’ 0 0 1 1

t’ 0 1 1 0

Toffoli Gate

• Example of a reversible AND sometimes called controlled-controlled-NOT gate
– It has three inputs and three outputs – The target input is XORed with the AND of the two control inputs
C1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 c2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 t 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 c1’ 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 c2’ 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 t’ 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

c1 c2 t

c1’ c2’ t’

Quantum Gate Operation

• Suppose the control input is in a superposition state, what happens to the target, does it get flipped or not?
– The answer is that it does both – In fact, c and t become entangled
0 +1 c t 0 c’ t’

00 + 11
Entangled states – that is a superposition of states in which c and t are either both spin up or spin down

Quantum Dots


Quantum Dots • Quantum dots are small metal or semi-conductor boxes that hold well defined number of electrons • The number of electrons in a box may be adjusted by changing the dots electrostatic environment
– Dots have been made which vary from 30 nm to 1 micron – They hold from 0 to 100 electrons

Quantum dot w/electron Quantum dot wo/electron

Quantum Dot Wireless Logic

• Lent and Porod of Notre Dame proposed a wireless two-sate quantum dot device called a “cell”
– Each cell consists of 5 quantum dots and two electrons e
e State “1” e State “0”


Quantum Dot Wire

• By placing two “cells” adjacent to each other and forcing the first cell into a certain state, the second cell will assume the same state in order to lower its energy


e e

The net effect is that a “1” has moved on to the next cell By stringing cells together in this way, a “pseudo-wire” can be made to transport a signal In contrast to a real wire, however, no current flows

Quantum Dot Majority Gate

• Logic gates can be constructed with quantum dot cells
– The basic logic gate for a quantum dot cell is the majority gate
in in in out in in

in out

Quantum Dot Inverter

• Two cells that are off center will invert a signal
out in out in out in

Quantum Dot Logic Gates

• AND, OR, NAND, etc can be formed from the NOT and the MAJ gates
0 1 A 0 B A 0 B

0 0 A and B 1 1 1 A 1 B 1

0 A nand B

A or B

Quantum Error Correction

Quantum Errors • PROBLEM: When computing with a quantum PROBLEM computer, you can’t look at what it is doing
– You are only allowed to look at the end

• RESULT: What happens if an error is RESULT introduced during calculation? • SOLUTION: We need some sort of quantum SOLUTION error detection/correction procedure


Classical Error Codes
• In standard digital systems bits are added to a data word in order to detect/correct errors • A code is e-error detecting if any fault which causes at most e bits to be erroneous can be detected • A code is e-error correcting if for any fault which causes at most e erroneous bits, the set of all correct bits can be automatically determined • The Hamming Distance, d, of a code is the minimum Distance number of bits in which any two code words differ
– the error detecting/correcting capability of a code depends on the value of d


Parity Checking
• PROCESS: Add an extra bit to a word before transmitting to make the total number of bits even or odd (even or odd parity)
– at the receiving end, check the number of bits for even or odd parity – It will detect a single bit error – Cost: extra bit

• Example: Transmit the 8-bit data word 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
– Even parity version: 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 – Odd parity version: 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1


Quantum Schemes

• In 1994 the first paper on Quantum error correction was presented at a conference in England
– It required the quantum computer to run simultaneous copies of a calculation – If no errors occurred all the separate copies would produce the same answer – Using a inefficient procedure a wrong answer could be restored



• In 1995, Peter Shor developed a better procedure using 9 qubits to encode a single qubit of information • His algorithm was a majority vote type of system that allowed all single qubit errors to be detected and corrected



• A 3-bit quantum error correction scheme uses an encoder and a decoder circuit as shown below:

Input qubit
Encoder Operations & Errors Decoder

Output qubit

0 0



• The encoder will entangle the two redundant qubits with the input qubit:
a|0> + b|1> |0> |0>

If the input state is |0> then the encoder does nothing so the output state is |000> If the input state is |1> then the encoder flips the lower states so the output state is |111>

If the input is an superposition state, then the output is the entangled state a|000> + b|111>

• Problem: Any correction must be done without looking at the output
– The decoder looks just like the encoder:

Corrected output

}Measure: if 11 flip the top qubit
If the input to the decoder is |000> or |111> there was no error so the output of the decoder is:
Input |000> |111> Output |000> |100> (the top 1 causes the bottom bits to flip) Error free flag


No Errors: a|000> + b|111> decoded to a|000> + b|100> = (a|0> + b|1>)|00> Top qubit flipped: a|100> + b|011> decoded to a|111> + b|011> = (a|1> + b|0>)|11> So, flip the top qubit = (a|0> + b|1>)|11> Middle qubit flipped: a|010> + b|101> decoded to a|010> + b|110> = (a|0> + b|1>)|10> Bottom qubit flipped: a|001> + b|110> decoded to a|001> + b|101> = (a|0> + b|1>)|01>

Decoder w/o Measurement

• The prior decoder circuit requires the measurement of the two extra bits and a possible flip of the top bit
– Both these operations can be implemented automatically using a Toffoli gate


If these are both 1 then flip the top bit


Possible Capstone

• For a senior project, work out examples of quantum error correction schemes and compare them to digital error correction • Implement a Quantum Dot simulator and construct Quantum Dot circuits


Possible Quiz • Remember that even though each quiz is worth only 5 to 10 points, the points do add up to a significant contribution to your overall grade • If there is a quiz it might cover these issues:
– What is a quantum dot? – Why are errors a problem with quantum systems? – What does a controlled NOT gate do?



• Quantum Logic Gates II • Quantum Dots • Quantum Error Correction


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