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PART 1 BASICS

1. Intro to Mechanical Engineering Design
2. Materials
3. Load and Stress Analysis
4. Deflection and Stiffness


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1. Introduction to Mechanical
Engineering Design
Machine design, machine elements design,
machine component design, system design
and fluid power design, internal combustion
engine design etc are all focused to mechanical
engineering design.
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DESIGN
Formulate a plan for the satisfaction of a human
need

The need for the problem has to be identified

Design problem have no unique answer

An engineer should be able to calculate and predict
the mode and conditions of failure for each element
and then design it to prevent that failure

This requires stress and deflection analysis for each
part

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A design must be:
Functional- fill a need or customer expectation
Safe- not hazardous to users or bystanders
Reliable- conditional probability that product will
perform its intended function without failure to a
certain age.
Competitive- contender in the market
Usable- accommodates human size and strength
Manufacturable- minimal number of parts and suitable
for production
Marketable- product can be sold and serviced


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Steps to Design
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Design Considerations
1. Strength
2. Stiffness
3. Wear
4. Corrosion
5. Safety
6. Reliability
7. Friction
8. Usability
9. Utility
10. Cost
11. Processing
12. Weight
13. Life
14.Noise
15.Styling
16.Shape
17.Size
18.Control
19.Thermal Properties
20.Surface
21.Lubrication
22.Marketability
23.Maintenance
24.Volume
25.Liability
26.Recovery

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Codes and Standards
Code- a set of specifications for the
analysis, design, manufacture, and
construction of something

Standard- a set of specifications for parts,
materials, or processes intended to
achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a
specified quality
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Organizations
Aluminum Association (AA)
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA)
American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC)
American Iron and Steel
Institute (AISI)
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
American Society for Metals
(ASM)
American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
American Society of Testing
Materials (ASTM)
American Welding Society
(AWS)

American Bearing
Manufacturers Association
(ABMA)
British Standards Institute (BSI)
Industrial Fasteners Institute
(IFI)
Institution of Mechanical
Engineers (I. Mech. E.)
International Bureau of Weights
and Measures (BIPM)
International Standards
Organization (ISO)
National Institute for Standards
and Technology (NIST)
Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE)
American Society of
Agricultural and Biological
Engineers (ASABE)

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Economics
Cost plays an important role in design decision
process
No matter how great the idea may be, if its not
profitable it may never be seen

The use of standard sizes and large manufacturing
tolerances reduce costs

Evaluating design alternatives with regard to cost
Breakeven Points
Cost Estimates

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Fig- A breakeven point
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Fig-Cost vs tolerance/mch. process
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Safety and Product Liability
Manufacturer of an article is liable for any damage or harm that
results because of a defect.
Analysis and design, quality control and testing procedures are
important.
Warnings and instructions for use.

Stress and Strength:
Strength is a property of a material or of a mechanical element.
Various metal working and heat treating processes cause variations
in strength.
Stress is a state of property at a specific point within a body which
is a function of load, geometry, temperature and manufacturing
process.
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*Uncertainty:
Examples of uncertainties concerning stress and
strength include:

*Composition of material and the effect of variation on
properties.

*Variations in properties from place to place within a
bar of stock.

*Effect of processing locally, or nearby, on properties.
*Effect of nearby assemblies such as weldments and
shrink fits on stress conditions.
*Effect of thermomechanical treatment on properties.

*Intensity and distribution of loading.
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*Uncertainty:
*Validity of mathematical models used to represent reality.

*Intensity of stress concentrations.
*Influence of time on strength and geometry.

*Effect of corrosion.

*Effect of wear.
*Uncertainty as to the length of any list of uncertainties.
Engineers must accommodate uncertainty.
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Design Factor (n
d
) and Factor of Safety (n):
parameter allowable maximum
parameter function - of - loss
=
d
n
After the design is completed, the actual design factor
may change as a result of changes such as rounding up
to a standard size for a cross section or using off-the-
shelf components with higher ratings instead of using
what is calculated by using the design factor.

The factor is then referred to as the factor of safety, n.
d
n
load function - of - loss
load allowable max. =
(Eq.1.1)
(Eq.1.2)
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EXAMPLE 1-1:

Consider the maximum load on the structure is known
with an uncertainity of 20 %, the load causing failure is
known within 15 %. If the load causing failure is
nominally 9 kN, determine the design factor and the
maximum allowable load that will offset the absolute
uncertainties.
n
d
=
1 / 0. 85
1/1.2
=1.4
From Eq 1-2 the maximum allowable load is found to be
Maximum allowable load= 9/1.4 = 6.4 kN
Solution: To account for its uncertainty the loss of
function load must increase to 1/0.85, whereas the
maximum allowable load must decrease to1/1.2. thus
to offset the absolute uncertainties the design factor
should be:
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EXAMPLE 1-2:
A solid circular rod of diameter d undergoes a bending
moment M = 100 N-m inducing a stress = 16M/(d
3
).
Using a material strength of 170 MPa and a design factor of
2.5, determine the minimum diameter of the rod. Using
table A-17, select a preferred fractional diameter and
determine the resulting factor of safety.
) (or
S

stress allowable
strength function - of - loss
n
d
t o
= = (Eq.1.3)
Solution:
From Eq. (1.3), = S/n
d
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55 . 3
) 100 ( 16
) 022 . 0 ( ) 10 )( 170 (
16
n, safety of factor with n Replacing
mm. 22 is size preferred higher next the 17, - A table From
02111 . 0
) 5 . 2 ( ) 10 ( 170
5 . 2 ) 100 ( 16 16
16
3 6 3
d
3 / 1
6
3 / 1
3
= = =
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
t t
t
t
o
M
Sd
n
S
Mn
d
n
S
d
M
d
d
mm 21.11 m
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Reliability:

Is the statistical measure of probability that a
mechanical element will not fail in use.

The failure of 6 parts out of every 1000 manufactured
parts might be considered as an acceptable failure
rate for a certain class of products.

This represents a reliability of
R=1-(6/1000) = 0.994 or 99.4%
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*Dimension and Tolerances.
The following terms are used generally in dimensioning:

*Nominal size.
The size we use in speaking of an element.
For example, we may specify a 40 mm pipe or a in. bolt.
Either the theoretical size or the actual measured size may
be quite different. The theoretical size of a 40 mm pipe is
47.5 mm for the out-side diameter. And the diameter of the
in bolt, say, may actually measure 0.492 in.


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*Limits.
The stated maximum and minimum dimensions.

*Tolerance.
The difference between the two limits.

*Bilateral tolerance.

25 0.05 mm



*Unilateral tolerance.
mm
25
05 . 0
000 . 0
+

mm
25
05 . 0
05 . 0
+

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*Material Strength and Stiffness
Fig-Stress strain diagram obtained through a standard tensile test;
(a) ductile materials, (b) brittle materials
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ASTM A 582/A 582M-95b (2000), Grade 303Se -Free-
Machining Stainless Steel Bars:

A describes a ferrous metal, but does not sub classify it as
cast iron, carbon steel, alloy steel, tool steel, or stainless steel;

582 is a sequential number without any relationship to the
metals properties;

M indicates that the standard A582M is written in rationalized
SI units (the M comes from the word Metric), hence together
582/A582M includes both inch-pound and SI units;

95 indicates the year of adoption or last revision and a letter b
following the year indicates the third revision of the standard
in1995;

(2000), a number in parentheses, indicates the year of last re-
approval;

Grade 300Se indicates the grade of the steel, and in this case,
it has a Se (selenium) addition.
American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM)
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AISI/SAE No. 1020

The first digit indicates that this is plain carbon
steel.

The second digit indicates there are no alloying
elements.

The last two digits indicates that the steel contains
approximately 0.20 percent carbon.
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Measures of Strength
S Strength
S
s
Shear Strength
S
y
Yield Strength
S
u
Ultimate Strength

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Measures of Stress
t Shear Stress
o Normal Stress
o
1
Principal Stress
o
y
Stress in y-direction
o
r
Radial Stress
o
t
Tangential Stress

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Stress Allowable
(AISC)
Tension: 0.45 S
y
o
all
0.60 S
y

Shear: t
all
= 0.40 S
y

Bending: 0.60 S
y
o
all
0.75 S
y

Bearing: o
all
= 0.90 S
y
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)