SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION
INGENIERIA DE PETROLEOS
ESCUELA POLITECNICA NACIONAL
Well Performance
Two basic factors:
Inflow Performance  the capacity of a reservoir to pass
fluids against downhole conditions
Vertical or Outflow Performance  the ability of the produced
fluids to flow through the well conduit to surface
2
The two factors are closely linked, because the
final condition of the inflow performance, is the
starting point of the vertical flow performance.
Well Inflow Performance
Types of flow models
Radial flow
Productivity Index (PI)
Straightline IPR
Vogels IPR
Fetkovich
Jones
Horizontal wells (Joshi, Babu)
The Skin Effect concept
Determination of Skin
3
Flow Models for Stabilized Well Inflow
4
LINEAR
RADIAL
Pressure drawdown in the Wellbore
5
r
w
r
e
P
e
P
P
P
wf
AP
DD
P
wf
Well
Darcys Law
6
L
q
p
2
p
1
Ap
Area A
q
= fluid viscosity
v
k dp
dx
=
q vA
kAdp
dx
= =
The Radial Diffusivity Equation
Homogeneous reservoir
Isotropic Permeability
Radial Flow
7
t
p
c r
r r
r
p k
c
c
=
c
c
c
c

) (
1
pressure : radius : time
Radial Flow
8
h
dr
r
e
r
h
p
wf
p
e
p
e
r
w
r
e
There are three flow regimes:
Steadystate flow
Unsteadystate flow
Pseudosteadystate flow
SteadyState Flow
The flow regime is identified as a steadystate flow if the
pressure at every location in the reservoir remains
constant, i.e., does not change with time.
Mathematically, this condition is expressed as:
Flow Regimes
Flow Regimes
The above equation states that the rate of change of pressure p with
respect to time t at any location i is zero. In reservoirs, the steady
state flow condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely
recharged and supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance
operations.
UnsteadyState Flow
The unsteadystate flow (frequently called transient flow) is defined as
the fluid flowing condition at which the rate of change of pressure with
respect to time at any position in the reservoir is not zero or constant.
This definition suggests that the pressure derivative with respect to time
is essentially a function of both position i and time t, thus
PseudosteadyState Flow
When the pressure at different locations in the reservoir is declining
linearly as a function of time, i.e., at a constant declining rate, the flowing
condition is characterized as the pseudosteadystate flow.
Mathematically, this definition states that the rate of change of pressure
with respect to time at every position is constant, or
It should be pointed out that the pseudosteadystate flow is commonly
referred to as semisteadystate flow and quasisteadystate flow.
Figure shows a schematic comparison of the pressure declines as a
function of time of the three flow regimes.
Different Flow Regimes
Different Flow Regimes
13
Transient flow
Pseudo steady flow
time
P
t
pss
Steady flow
Reservoir Well Flow Regimes
3 common conditions of flow
Transient state ( or the infinite acting radial flow period)
No outer boundary
Reservoir appear infinite acting
Pressure decline with time, changes
Solution in field units (w/zero Skin)
14
} 23 . 3 log {log
6 . 162
2
0
+ =
w t o
r c
k
o
o o o
wf i
t
h k
B q
p p

Reservoir Well Flow Regimes
3 common conditions of flow
Semisteady State flow
No flow across outer boundary
Reservoir is finite
Pressure decline with time is constant
Solution in field units (w/zero skin)
15
]
2
1
) [ln(
2 . 141
=
w
e
o
o o o
wf e
r
r
h k
B q
p p
e w
r r r for const
t
p
< < = ,
c
c
Reservoir Well Flow Regimes
3 common conditions of flow
Steady State flow
flow in = flow out (at outer boundary)
reservoir is finite
constant pressure at all points in the drainage volume
solution in field units (w/zero skin)
16
) ln(
2 . 141
w
e
o
o o o
wf e
r
r
h k
B q
p p
=
e w
r r r for
t
p
< < = , 0
c
c
Summary of Stabilized Inflow Equations
17
General
relationship
between
p and r
Expressed in
terms of:
p = p
e
at r = r
e
Expressed in
terms of
Average reservoir
pressure
} {ln
2 . 141
2
2
2
e
w
r
r
r
r
wf
kh
qB
p p =
} {ln
2 . 141
2
1
=
w
e
r
r
wf e
kh
qB
p p
} {ln
2 . 141
4
3
=
w
e
r
r
wf R
kh
qB
p p
SemiSteady State Steady State
} {ln
2 . 141
w
r
r
wf
kh
qB
p p
=
} {ln
2 . 141
w
e
r
r
wf e
kh
qB
p p
=
} {ln
2 . 141
2
1
=
w
e
r
r
wf R
kh
qB
p p
X is obtained from next slide for different shapes
and well positions in a drainage area.
(1) After Odeh,A.S.
(PSEUDO STEADY STATE FLOW)
Darcys law for noncircular drainage area
(1
)
( )
(
) s
ln 0,472X B 2 . 141
p p
h o k
q
o o
wf r
o
+
=
( )
Factor (X) for different shapes and positions in a
drainage area
r
e
/r
w
X
SYSTEM
0.884A
1/2
r
w
0.966A
1/2
r
w
1.485A
1/2
r
w
0.571A
1/2
r
w
0.565A
1/2
r
w
2.066A
1/2
r
w
1.368A
1/2
r
w
0.668A
1/2
r
w
0.678A
1/2
r
w
0.604A
1/2
r
w
X
SYSTEM
1
1/3
1
2
1
1
4
5
1
2
1
2
1.440A
1/2
r
w
1
2
2.206A
1/2
r
w
1
4
1
4
1
4
1.925A
1/2
r
w
6.590A
1/2
r
w
9.360A
1/2
r
w
60
o
0.610A
1/2
r
w
X
SYSTEM
1
2
1.724A
1/2
r
w
1.794A
1/2
r
w
4.072A
1/2
r
w
9.523A
1/2
r
w
10.135A
1/2
r
w
1
2
1
2
Factor (X) for different shapes and positions in a
drainage area (cont.)
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT
FLOW RATE, Q
B
O
T
T
O
M
H
O
L
E
F
L
O
W
I
N
G
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
,
P
w
f
P
r
0
0
Qmax
Q
J =
P
r
 P
wf
Slope =  1/J
Intercepts: Pr y Qmax
Pr Pwf: DRAWDOWN
Pwf = Pr  Q/J
StraightLine IPR Relationship
22
p
wf1
q
1
p
R
Ap
o
1 2
2 1 max
1
1 1
tan
wf wf
o o o
wf
o o
p p
q q
p
q
p p
q
p
q
J PI
= = =
=
A
= = o
q
omax
q
p
wf
Valid for single phase liquid flow
(k, , Bo = constant)
P
wf
> P
b
The Productivity Index (PI)
23
p p
q
J
wf R
o
A well that is producing from a reservoir having an average pressure of 2085 psig
produced at a rate of 282 STB/D when bottomhole flowing pressure was 1765 psig.
Calculate:
1. The productivity index J.
2. The producing rate if Pwf is decreased to 1485 psig.
3. The bottomhole flowing pressure necessary to increase the producing rate
up to 400 STB/D.
4. The inflow rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (AOF: Absolute Open Flow Potential
or qomax).
Q
P
w
f
0
0
Qmax
1765
282
Pr=2085
EXERCISE
APPLICATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CALCULATIONS
(3) Pwf = Pr Q/J
(2) Q=Jx(PrPwf)
(1) J=Q/(PrPwf)
Inflow Performance Relationship (Pwf < Pb)
1. Gas saturation increase (decrease in Kro)
2. Oil viscosity increase
3. Oil formation volume factor
4. Formation damage or stimulation around
the wellbore. (changes in the skin factor, S)
5. Turbulence increase
Inflow Performance Relationship (Pwf < Pb)
26
Straight Line IPR
Flow Rate
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
p
b
p
R
Curved IPR
Twophase flow
Different Methods when Pb > Pwf
the Vogel method;
the Wiggins method;
the Standing method;
the Fetkovich method;
the Klins and Clark method.
Vogels Method for Twophase flow
28
q
q
p
p
p
p
o
o
wf
R
wf
R (max)
. ( ) . ( ) = 1 0 2 0 8
2
Vogels dimensionless IPR
29
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0
0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
R
wf
p
p
( )
R
L
max
L
L
p
J
q 8 . 1
q
q
=
A well is producing from a reservoir having an average reservoir pressure
of 2085 psig. A stabilized production test gave 282 STB/D when the flowing
bottomhole pressure is 1765 psig. The bubble point pressure is 2100 psig.
Using Vogels method calculate:
1. The producing rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (qomax or AOF)
2. The producing rate if Pwf is reduced to 1485 psi.
3. The flowing bottomhole pressure to increase the producing rate to 400 BN/D.
4. Construct the IPR.
EXERCISE
APPLICATION OF VOGEL METHOD
SATURATED RESERVOIR, ZERO SKIN
(Pr<Pb)
qo Pwf Pwf
2
= 1 0.2 ( )  0.8 ( )
qomax Pr Pr
1) From the test calculate qomax using
the VOGEL eq.
2) Calculate qo for several pwfs using
the VOGELeq.
3) Solving eq. for Pwf/Pr, one can calculate Pwf
for any rate
Pwf
= (1.266 1.25qo/qomax)
0.5
0.125
Pr
solution
FLOW RATE
P
b
P
r
q
b
q
max
P
w
f
0
0
q=J (P
r
P
wf
)
= 1 0.2( ) 0.8( )
2
qq
b
q
max
q
b
Pwf
Pb
Pwf
Pb
1.8( q
max
 q
b
)
J=
P
b
Constant J Vogel
dq
J =
dp
wf
q
b
=J(Pr Pb)
PREDICTING PRESENT TIME IPRS FOR OIL WELLS
VOGEL METHOD
Undersaturated Reservoirs (Pr > Pb)
FETKOVICH METHOD FOR IPR DETERMINATION
q
o
= C(Pr
2
Pwf
2
)
n
qo = producing rate,
Pr = average reservoir pressure,
Pwf = bottom hole flowing pressure,
C = flow coefficient ,and
n = exponent depending on well characteristics.
At least two tests are required to evaluate C and n.
A plot of Pr
2
Pwf
2
versus qo on log log scales will result in straight line
having a slope of 1/n and an intercept of qo=C for Pr
2
Pwf
2
= 1.
1. Plot values of P
r
2
P
wf
2
/10
3
versus q on loglog
scales, using the data from the multirate test.
2. Draw the best straight line through the points.
3. Calculate the slope of the straight line, by
calculating the change in flow rate for one cycle
in the vertical log scale.
4. Calculate n=1/slope.
5. Calculate C by substituting a known value of q
and Pwf in the Fetkovich equation.
6. Generate the IPR curve by assuming values
of Pwf and calculating the flow rate from the
Fetkovich equation.
PROCEDURE FOR APPLICATION OF FETKOVICH METHOD
FLOW RATE, STB/D
150
4000
slope =
log10
4
 log10
3
log4000
log150
EXAMPLE
FETKOVICH METHOD Rigorous Case
FETKOVICH METHOD Rigorous Case
FETKOVICH METHOD Rigorous Case
Fetkovich Method  EXAMPLE
A well is producing from an undersaturated oil reservoir that exists at
an average reservoir pressure of 3000 psi. The bubble point pressure
is recorded as 1500 psi at 150F. The following additional data is
available:
stabilized flow rate = 280 STB/day,
stabilized wellbore pressure = 2200 psi
h = 20 ft, rw = 0. 3 ft,
re = 660 ft, s = 0. 5
k = 65 md, o at 2600 psi = 2.4 cp,
Bo at 2600 psi = 1.4 bbl/STB
Calculate the productivity index by using both the reservoir
properties and flow test data.
J (reservoir) = 0.42 STB/day/psi ; J (Flow) = 0.35 STB/day/psi
38
FETKOVICH METHOD Rigorous Case
39
FETKOVICH METHOD Rigorous Case
40
Fetkovich Method  EXAMPLE 2
41
Fetkovich Method  EXAMPLE 2
42
Fetkovich Method  EXAMPLE 2
43
Fetkovich Method  EXAMPLE 2
Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS
44
45
Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS
46
Vogels Practical Application by BEGGS
Example for Pwf < Pb
47
Data from previous example
48
Computergenerated Inflow Performance Relationships
at various recovery percentage values for a solution
gasdrive reservoir
Oil Well Performance
49
Future IPR Prediction
For planning future requirement of Artificial Lift, Surface
and Downhole equipment.
50
Future IPR Prediction
Third Approximation Method  Fetkovich
Fetkovich assumes no changes for n.
51
Future IPR Prediction
(1)
(2)
(3)
52 52
Future IPR Prediction
Future IPR  EXAMPLE
53
Draw IPR, Present and Future
Using Vogel and Standing
Analyzes effects of turbulence or Non Darcy Flow on well performance
Coefficients:
( )
o
o
r
q B A
q
p p
wf
+ =
= 
k
Consolidated Sand
Unconsolidated Sand
o
r
q
p
p
w
f
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
2.5
Qo, STB/day
100 200 600 500 400 300 0 700 800 900
B
A
( )
o
o
r
q
B A
q
p p
wf
+ =
(intercept)
(slope)
Minimum two tests are required
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination
EFFECT OF TURBULENCE
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination
EFFECT OF TURBULENCE
A = A + BxAOF
AOF = Qo (Pwf = 0)
Jones, Blount and Glaze Method for IPR determination
INTERPRETATION OF VARIOUS WELL TESTS
Conclusions based on the plot
(1) if A is low less than 0.05 no formation damage occurs in the well.
The degree of damage will increase with increasing values of A
(2) If the value of A/A is low less than 2 little or not turbulence is
occurring in the well formation system
(3) If the values of A and A/A are low, the well has a good completion
(4)If the value of A is low and A/A is high (23), stimulation is not
recommended. The low productivity is caused by insufficient open
perforated area. Additional perforations would be recommended
(5) if the value of A is high and A/A is low, stimulation is recommended
Exercise
60
1. Using the data from the four tests, find A, B and qo(max).
2. Find the relationship A/A and made recommendations
Solution
61
A = A + BxAOF
A = 2.45
A / A = 2.33
Inflow Equations incorporating Skin
62
) (ln
2 . 141
S
r
r
h k
B q
p p
w o
o o
wf
+ =
)
4
3
(ln
2 . 141
S
r
r
h k
B q
p p
w
e
o
o o
wf R
+ =
General (p, r ) relationship
Semisteady state flow
in terms of Average
reservoir pressure
)
2
1
(ln
2 . 141
S
r
r
h k
B q
p p
w
e
o
o o
wf R
+ =
Steady state flow in
terms of Average
reservoir pressure
The Skin effect (Hawkins thick Skin)
63
) ln( ] 1 [
e
a
a
r
r
k
k
S =
re
ra
rw
64
INFLOW PERFORMANCE IN HORIZONTAL WELLS
65
APLICATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS
EXPLOITATION OF THIN GAS AND OIL SANDS
REDUCE WATER OR GAS CONING
INTERCEPT NATURAL FRACTURES
IMPROVE HEAVY OIL RECOVERY (EG. SAGD)
Kv>>>Kh
INCREASE SWEEP EFFICIENCY IN SECONDARY OIL
RECOVERY PROJECTS
CONECT DISCONTINUOUS ZONES
DRILL GEOLOGICALLY OPTIMIZED WELLS
66
METHODS TO DETETRMINE IPR IN HORIZONTAL WELLS
Mathematical Models
Borisov
GigerReissJourdan
Joshi
RenardDupuy
Babu
Un,erical Simulations
Empirical Correlations
Bendakhlia y Aziz
Fetkovich
Cheng
67
Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well
METHOD 1 (JOSHI)
A) Longitudinal View
L
h
a
k
v
k
h
b
2b
L
a
B) Plant View
Assumption: The drainage
area is represented by two
half circles in each end of
the horizontal section
which radius is b
(equivalent to the radius of
a vertical well, r
ev
) plus a
rectangle with dimensions
Lx2b.
68
b
2b
L
a
Plant View
A: Drainage area, Acres
L: Length of Horizontal section, feet
b: half minor axe of an ellipse, feet
A
1
= b
2
/2
A
3
= b
2
/2
A
2
= L (2b)
Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well
METHOD 1 (JOSHI)
69
A: Drainage Area, Acres
L: Length of Horizontal section, feet
b: Half minor axe of an ellipse, feet
A: Half major axe of an ellipse, feet
b = r
ev
= drainage radius of a vertical well, feet
Plant View
L
b
a
b
Drainage Area of a Horizontal Well
METHOD 2 (JOSHI)
70
Drainage Area Comparison between both Methods
Both methods give different results for
the drainage area, therefore, Joshi
suggests to take an average of both
values.
b
2b
L
a
L
b
a
(1) (2)
71
EQUVALENT DRAINAGE RADIUS FOR A HORIZONTAL WELL
A: Drainage Area, Acres
r
eh
: Horizontal drainage radius, feet
72
IPR in Horizontal wells
JOSHI
DRAINAGE PATTERN OF A
HORIZONTAL WELL AFTER JOSHI
73
Assumptions: Steady Flow and Isotropic Reservoir ( ( )
Where
and
IPR in Horizontal wells
JOSHI
74
To take into account the reservoir Anisotropy
where
and
IPR in Horizontal wells
JOSHI
75
BABUODEH METHOD
Problem was analyzed in the same way as a vertical well with partial penetration,
assuming pseudosteady state flow.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R H w y
o o z y x
h
S C r h L
B k k L
PI
+ +
=
75 . 0 ln ln
00708 . 0
J
h
C
H
Shape factor which depends on the
position of the well in the reservoir
S
R
Skin factor due to partial penetration
IPR in Horizontal wells
76
Correlation for C
H
calculation
( )
088 . 1 ln 5 . 0 180 sin ln
3
1
28 . 6 ln
2
(
(

.

\

(
(


.

\

+ =
y
z
y
w
o
y
w
y
w
y
z
y
H
k
k
h
L
h
z
L
y
L
y
k
k
h
L
C
BABUODEH METHOD
IPR in Horizontal wells
77
Exercise
A horizontal well with 2000 feet of horizontal
section drains an estimated area of 120 Acres
The resevoir has the following data:
Calculate the oil production using Joshis
method
sol
78
Formation damage in horizontal wells
(Economides)
I
ani
( )
s
k
k I
a
r
a
r
eq
s ani
H
vw
H
vw
=

\

.

+
+ +

\

.

(
(
ln
, max , max
1
1
4
3
1
2
2
 1
79
Empirical Correlations
Bendakhlia y Aziz
Fetkovich
Cheng
IPR in Horizontal wells
80
q Pwf Pwf
= 1 V ( )  (1V) ( )
2
qomax Pr Pr
n
Three production tests are needed to calculate qomax, V and exponent n.
BENDAKHLIA Y AZIZ
IPR in Horizontal wells
81
q
o
= C(Pr
2
Pwf
2
)
n
FETKOVICH
IPR in Horizontal wells
82
CHENG
(Pr<Pb)
IPR in Horizontal wells
Performance Improvement Factor (PIF)
83
h
v
vert
hor
vert
hor
k
k
L
L
PI
PI
PIF ~ =
where:
PI Productivity Index
L
hor
Net pay zone of horizontal section
L
vert
Net pay zone of vertical section
K
v
Vertical Permeability
K
h
Horizontal Permeability