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Sand relative density.

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Relative

Density principles apply to compaction of relatively clean, coarsegrained soils. Relatively clean usually taken to be less 12 % or less finer than the #200 sieve. Important for compaction study of filters

Objectives

Explain basic principles of compacting clean sands and gravels Understand basic tests to obtain reference densities. Use 1 point compaction test in design and quality control

Summarize minimum and maximum index density tests Detail the importance of water content in compacting clean sands and gravels

Compaction

Tests are not commonly performed on soils with 12 % or fewer fines Small percentage of fines means soils cannot easily hold water to examine range of water and effect on dry density

Compaction

w%

Clean

sands are compacted most easily at either very dry or very wet water contents At intermediate water contents, capillary stresses in voids resist compaction Bulking is term for this phenomenon

Vibration

Relative Density

Alternative

to traditional compaction test is relative density tests Minimum Index Density Maximum Index Density Relative Density

Minimum index density of clean sand is that resulting from very loosely filling a steel mold. ASTM Method D4254

After filling the mold, excess soil is carefully screed off. The volume of this mold is 0.1 ft3. Knowing the weight of soil in the mold, the dry density is easily computed

Example

Minimum dry density = 96 pcf Maximum index density of clean sand results from vibration at high amplitude on vibratory table for 10 minutes. ASTM D4253 Example Maximum dry density = 117.5 pcf

Weight on sample inside sleeve

Vibratory table

Weight on sample inside sleeve

Vibratory table

Sample densified by vibration

Plate on which weight sits during vibration

The void Ratio is calculated for each state of denseness of sample. Maximum void ratio occurs at minimum index density - For Example Min.gd = 96.0 pcf Minimum void ratio occurs at maximum index density For Example Maximum gd = 110.0 pcf

Gs g water e 1 g dry

First

emax

Next

em ax emeasured Rd (%) x100 em ax em in

Diagram below illustrates a relative density of about 40 %

emin gdmax

emeasured

emax

gd min

gd measured

increasing density

Now,

assume that the density of this sand was measured in a compacted fill and it was 102.5 pcf. Calculate a value for relative density of the fill. First, calculate the void ratio of the fill:

Gs g water 2.65 62.4 e 1 1 0.6133 g dry 102.5

Now,

emax emeasured Rd (%) x100 emax emin

Relative

g d max g d g d min Rd (%) 100 g d g d max g d min

110 .0102 .5 96 .0 Rd (%) 100 49 .8% 102 .5110 .0 96 .0

NRCS

lab in Fort Worth studied 28 filter sands and used some published data Minimum and Maximum Index Densities were performed on each sample A 1 point dry Standard Proctor energy mold was also prepared for each sample. Values of 50% and 70% relative density were plotted against the 1 point Proctor value

130 125 120

70 % Relative Density

115 110 105 100 95 90 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 Field 1 Point Proctor Test Dry Density, pcf 70 %RD = 1 Point line Best fit correlation

Conclusion

is that the field 1 point Proctor dry test is about equal to 70 % relative density

125 120 best fit line 115

50 % Rd

110 105 100 95 90 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 Field 1 pointdry density

95 % of 1 point

Conclusion

is that the 95 % of the field 1 point Proctor dry test is about equal to 50 % relative density

gD

gD

70=

50

Example

Given: 1 Point Proctor Test gd = 105.5 pcf Estimate 70 % and 50% Relative Density Given that measured gd is 98.7, evaluate state of compaction of sand.

Class

A soils minimum index density is 96.5 pcf and its maximum index density is 111.5 pcf. The Gs value is 2.65 Calculate the emin and emax Compute the void ratio and dry density corresponding to a relative density value of 70 %

Given:

Minimum index density is 96.5 pcf Maximum index density is 111.5 pcf.

emax Gs g water 2.65 62.4 1 1 0.7136 g min_dry 96.5

Now,

emax emeasured Rd (%) x100 emax emin

0.7136 emeasured 70 x100 0.7136 0.4831

Solving

emeasured 0.7136 0.16135 0.5225

Now,

2.65 62.4 0.55225 1 g dry

ratio:

Gs g water e 1 g dry

2.65 62.4 1.55225 g dry

Summary

g dry

- The dry density corresponding to 70(%) relative density for this sample is 106.5 pcf

140

Gravelly sand

130

120

110

100

90

Reference - Donovan, N.C. and Sukhmander Singh, "Liquefaction Criteria for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline." Liquefaction Problems in Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE Specialty Session, Philadelphia, PA, 1976.

45 40

35 30

Average

Reference Donovan, N.C. and Sukhmander Singh, "Liquefaction Criteria for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline." Liquefaction Problems in Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE Specialty Session, Philadelphia, PA, 1976.

Class Problem

Given

that the water content of a silty sand that was obtained from a saturated zone of a channel bank measured 24.5 percent What is the estimated relative density of the sand?

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