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Review of Relative Density Principles

Relative

Density principles apply to compaction of relatively clean, coarsegrained soils. Relatively clean usually taken to be less 12 % or less finer than the #200 sieve. Important for compaction study of filters

Objectives
Explain basic principles of compacting clean sands and gravels Understand basic tests to obtain reference densities. Use 1 point compaction test in design and quality control

Summarize minimum and maximum index density tests Detail the importance of water content in compacting clean sands and gravels

Review of Compaction Principles


Compaction

Tests are not commonly performed on soils with 12 % or fewer fines Small percentage of fines means soils cannot easily hold water to examine range of water and effect on dry density

Review of Compaction Principles


Compaction

tests performed on clean sands may have this appearance

w%

Compacting Clean Sands


Clean

sands are compacted most easily at either very dry or very wet water contents At intermediate water contents, capillary stresses in voids resist compaction Bulking is term for this phenomenon

Compacting Clean Sands


Vibration

most effective energy for sands Use smooth-wheeled vibratory roller

Relative Density
Alternative

to traditional compaction test is relative density tests Minimum Index Density Maximum Index Density Relative Density

Minimum Index Density

Minimum index density of clean sand is that resulting from very loosely filling a steel mold. ASTM Method D4254

Sand dropped no more than 1

Minimum Index Density

After filling the mold, excess soil is carefully screed off. The volume of this mold is 0.1 ft3. Knowing the weight of soil in the mold, the dry density is easily computed

Maximum Index Density


Example

Minimum dry density = 96 pcf Maximum index density of clean sand results from vibration at high amplitude on vibratory table for 10 minutes. ASTM D4253 Example Maximum dry density = 117.5 pcf

Maximum Index Density


Weight on sample inside sleeve

Vibratory table

Maximum Index Density


Weight on sample inside sleeve

Vibratory table

Maximum Index Density


Sample densified by vibration

Measure D height to determine new gd


Plate on which weight sits during vibration

Void Ratio and Dry Density


The void Ratio is calculated for each state of denseness of sample. Maximum void ratio occurs at minimum index density - For Example Min.gd = 96.0 pcf Minimum void ratio occurs at maximum index density For Example Maximum gd = 110.0 pcf

Gs g water e 1 g dry

Minimum and Maximum Void Ratios


First

Calculate void ratio at Minimum gd

emax

Gs g water 2.65 62.4 1 1 0.7225 g dry 96.0

Next

Calculate void ratio at Maximum gd

Gs g water 2.65 62.4 emin 1 1 0.5033 g dry 110.0

Relative Density Equation


em ax emeasured Rd (%) x100 em ax em in
Diagram below illustrates a relative density of about 40 %

emin gdmax

emeasured

emax
gd min

gd measured
increasing density

Calculate Void Ratio of Compacted Sand


Now,

assume that the density of this sand was measured in a compacted fill and it was 102.5 pcf. Calculate a value for relative density of the fill. First, calculate the void ratio of the fill:
Gs g water 2.65 62.4 e 1 1 0.6133 g dry 102.5

Compute Relative Density


Now,

use the values of void ratio in the relative density equation:


emax emeasured Rd (%) x100 emax emin

0.7225 0.6133 Rd (%) x100 49.9% 0.7223 0.5033

Compute Relative Density


Relative

Density Equation (rewritten in dry density terms) Solve for Example:


g d max g d g d min Rd (%) 100 g d g d max g d min
110 .0102 .5 96 .0 Rd (%) 100 49 .8% 102 .5110 .0 96 .0

Fort Worth Relative Density Study


NRCS

lab in Fort Worth studied 28 filter sands and used some published data Minimum and Maximum Index Densities were performed on each sample A 1 point dry Standard Proctor energy mold was also prepared for each sample. Values of 50% and 70% relative density were plotted against the 1 point Proctor value

70 % Relative Density vs. 1 Point Proctor


130 125 120

70 % Relative Density

115 110 105 100 95 90 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 Field 1 Point Proctor Test Dry Density, pcf 70 %RD = 1 Point line Best fit correlation

70 % Relative Density vs. 1 Point Proctor


Conclusion

is that the field 1 point Proctor dry test is about equal to 70 % relative density

50 % Relative Density vs. 1 Point Proctor


125 120 best fit line 115
50 % Rd

110 105 100 95 90 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 Field 1 pointdry density
95 % of 1 point

50 % Relative Density vs. 1 Point Proctor


Conclusion

is that the 95 % of the field 1 point Proctor dry test is about equal to 50 % relative density

Relative Density Estimates from FW SML Study

gD
gD

70=

1.075 x gd 1pt -9.61,

for RD70 and gd 1pt in lb/ft3 = 1.07 x gd 1pt - 12.5,

50

for RD50 and gd 1pt in lb/ft3

Relative Density Estimates from FW SML Study


Example

Relative Density Estimates

Given: 1 Point Proctor Test gd = 105.5 pcf Estimate 70 % and 50% Relative Density Given that measured gd is 98.7, evaluate state of compaction of sand.

Review of Relative Density


Class

Problem - Relative Density

A soils minimum index density is 96.5 pcf and its maximum index density is 111.5 pcf. The Gs value is 2.65 Calculate the emin and emax Compute the void ratio and dry density corresponding to a relative density value of 70 %

Class Problem Solution


Given:

Minimum index density is 96.5 pcf Maximum index density is 111.5 pcf.
emax Gs g water 2.65 62.4 1 1 0.7136 g min_dry 96.5

Gs g water 2.65 62.4 emin 1 1 0.4831 g max_dry 111.5

Class Problem Solution


Now,

substitue a value for RD of 70(%) in the relative density equation


emax emeasured Rd (%) x100 emax emin
0.7136 emeasured 70 x100 0.7136 0.4831

Class Problem Solution


Solving

and Rearranging the equation:

0.7136 emeasured 70 x100 0.7136 0.4831

0.7136 emeasured 70 100 .2305

0.16135 0.7136 emeasured


emeasured 0.7136 0.16135 0.5225

Class Problem Solution


Now,

calculate a value for dry density at this void


2.65 62.4 0.55225 1 g dry

ratio:
Gs g water e 1 g dry
2.65 62.4 1.55225 g dry
Summary

g dry

165.36 106.5 lb 3 ft 1.55225

- The dry density corresponding to 70(%) relative density for this sample is 106.5 pcf

140

Other information on Relative Density


Gravelly sand

130

Dry Density, pcf

120

110

sand and silty sand

100

90

Reference - Donovan, N.C. and Sukhmander Singh, "Liquefaction Criteria for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline." Liquefaction Problems in Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE Specialty Session, Philadelphia, PA, 1976.

80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Relative Density, %

Other information on Relative Density


45 40

Saturated Water Content, %

Chart is for silty sands (SM)

35 30
Average

25 20 15 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Relative Density, %

Reference Donovan, N.C. and Sukhmander Singh, "Liquefaction Criteria for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline." Liquefaction Problems in Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE Specialty Session, Philadelphia, PA, 1976.

Class Problem
Given

that the water content of a silty sand that was obtained from a saturated zone of a channel bank measured 24.5 percent What is the estimated relative density of the sand?

Class Problem Solution


Reading

from the chart, the estimated Rd value is about 42 percent.