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SACS

Wave Load
For the design of offshore structures, the waves are characterized as
regular waves with reasonable accuracy.

Several wave theories are available for the purpose of determining


the wave loads:

Airys inear !heory "noidal !heory Solitary #ave !heory Sto$es %th &rder !heory Stream Function !heory

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Wave Load

!he wave theory to be used is selected based on the water depth and wave height. #ave loading on a member is categorized into 'rag , (nertia, 'iffraction, Slamming and )orte* Shedding (nduced load (f the member size is small + ,-.%/ * #avelength, 0orisons e1uation can be used to calculate the wave loading.

0orisons 21uation:

F = 0.5C D D U U + C M A U
Drag force Inertia force

#here : "d is the coefficient of drag, "m is coefficient of mass ' is the diameter, 3 is the velocity , is the fluid density and A is the area. EDI

Wave Load

)arious options available for defining coefficient of drag "d and coefficient of mass "m (1) API Defaults smooth rough "d45.6% "m4-.6 "d4-.5% "m4-.5

7ote: "d 8 "m are constant for all diameters

(2) Wake Encounter Effects As a wave moves past a vertical cylinder a wa$e is produced. !he turbulence produced by the wa$e impinges on the cylinder again due to the circular motion of the water particles in a wave motion. !he amount of turbulence affects "d and "m.

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Wave Load

(2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued) 0embers within -% degrees of vertical sub9ect to wa$e encounter effects. 3se :eulegan;"arpenter number : to calculate "d and "m. : 4 3mo. !app.' 3mo 4 0a* horizontal velocity ,containing inline current effects/ at 0# under crest. !app 4 Apparent wave period ' 4 0ember diameter

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Wave Load

(2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued) 3se relative surface roughness <e to find the drag coefficient for steady flow "ds from Figure ".=.>.-;?. e4$.'eff where: $ 4 average pea$ to valley height along the surface of the marine growth 'eff 4 'c @ =t 'c 4 'iameter of clean tube t 4 average thic$ness of marine growth

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Wave Load

(2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued) 3se the :eulegan;"arpenter together with the steady flow drag coefficient "ds and figures ".=.>.-;% and ".=.>.-;6 to find the drag coefficient.

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Wave Load

(2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued) Similarly use figures ".=.>.-;A and ".=.>.-;B to find the mass coefficient "m.

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Wave Load

(2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued) Shielding Factor "losely spaced members such as conductors may have a reduced wave loading due to shielding. !he amount of shielding depends upon the centerline spacing and the wave velocity and period. !he shielding factor may be different for each wave direction. Coth "d "m are multiplied by the shielding factor. 3se shielding factor as follows: A.S D =.% 5.% + A.S + =.% A.S + 5.% 3se figure "=.>.-;E inear (nterpolation 7o shielding

A43mo !app.= ,amplitude of oscillation/ S4center to center spacing


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Wave Load


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(2) Wake Encounter Effects (Continued)


Surface roughness input with the marine growth data ,0FG&) input line/.

Wave Load

(3 ) User defined coefficients of ass and dra! (nput diameter verses coefficients of drag and mass. !he program will linearly interpolate for intermediate sizes ,"'0 input line/.

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Wave Load

(") Default ta#le for clean and fouled e #ers

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Wave Load
Wave $ine atics %actor 'irectional spreading of waves produces pea$ forces that are smaller than those of unidirectional seas. !he wave $inematics factor is given by :

where n is the e*ponent of the "osn spreading function at spectral pea$ fre1uency. AH( Gecommendations:
Kinematics Factor = 0.88 (hurricanes) Kinematics Factor = 0.95 to 1.0 (extra-tropical storms)

Note the Kinematics Factor multiplies the horizontal velocity and acceleration value of the wave.

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Current Load

Current Profile 3ser defined current profile defined from mudline upwards. "urrent Stretching options include: ; constant ; linear ;nonlinear 3ser defined current bloc$age. Cloc$age calculated automatically using a reference elevation.

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Wind Load

#ind loads are calculated on all members above the mean water level as per AH(;GH=A guidelines. !ypically a wind load for a %;sec gust, is considered for global loading on the dec$s. For shallow water fi*ed platforms ,i.e. 9ac$et type structures/ wind loads contribute less than -5I of the total load.

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Wind Load
Wind load criteria o&tions availa#le
AH( ACS Australian criteria "yclonic or 7on;"yclonic criteria

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Wind Load
API '(P2A 21st Edition Criterion Fust effects (ncluded API)(P2A 2*t+ Edition Criterion Fust effects not included

#here: z 4 height t 4 gust duration 3o 4 one hour wind speed at reference height of -5 meters ,>=.B ft/ EDI

Wind Load
API '(P2A 21st Edition Criterion verses API)(P2A 2*t+ Edition Criterion

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Wind Load
A,S Criterion

Shape Coefficient Cs Ceams "ylinders Sides of buildings &verall Hro9ected Areas

-.% 5.% -.% -.5

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Wind Load
A,S 2*** Criterion

4 5.E K 5.-6 for - min average wind 4 5.-=% for - hour average wind

#here: H 4 pressure z 4 height "s 4 shape factor "h 4 height coefficient )z 4 wind velocity at height z )ref 4 wind velocity at reference height of -5m Jref 4 reference height of -5m
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Wind Load
Wind Load on -e #ers

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Wind Load
#ind oad on (nclined Areas.0embers

#here : p is pressure A is the total area e*posed to wind load in the direction of wind is the angle between the direction of the wind and the a*is of the member ,or plane of surface/
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Wind Load
Wind Areas #ind areas or are defined to account for the wind loading on un;modeled items such as derric$s, buildings, mechanical e1uipment, flare booms, etc.

A wind area is designated by a two character area identifier and consists of one or more surfaces defined using AG2A input lines.

!he orientation of the surface is specified either by entering the pro9ections of it on planes normal to the global a*is or by specifying the area along with the azimuth and elevation angles.

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Wind Load
Wind Areas (f more then one pro9ected plane is specified for the same area identifier then the resultant area is used.

(t is recommended that if an ob9ect has pro9ected areas in two or three planes that two separate wind areas be defined rather than specifying two pro9ections together.
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Wind Load
Wind Areas !he surface shape may be designated as flat or round together with a corresponding shape factor. !he wind force components are calculated by multiplying the calculated wind pressure by the shape factor and the pro9ected areas. !he wind force is assumed to act at the specified centroid of the surface.

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Wind Load
Wind Areas !he wind load is distributed over the specified number of 9oints. (f more than one 9oint distribution is specified, the program assumes that these 9oints are connected to a rigid body to which the wind force is applied. !he load is distributed to each 9oint by assuming the rigid body is supported at each 9oint by three translational and three rotational springs. !he stiffness of the translational springs is unity while that of the rotational springs is 5.5- in the unit system the problem is defined.

Wind S+ield .ones Cy default, members located above the water surface receive wind loading. !he program allows the specification of wind shield zones where members do not receive wind loading. #ind shield zones are defined by specifying the bottom and top elevation of the zone. 2levations are defined using global z elevation.
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S&ecial Ele ents


SACS S&ecial Ele ents :
#ishbone 2lements Fap 2lements : "ompression &nly 2lement !ension &nly 2lement 7o oad 2lement 3ser defined oad 'eflection 2lement Friction 2lement

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S&ecial Ele ents


Wis+#one Ele ent: #ishbone 2lement is a factious element connecting two coincident 9oints used to model special boundary conditions between connecting structures. For e*ample : Hile inside leg, conductor guide.
direction of offset

6 inch member end release at one 9oint - 5 5 - - * y z r* ry yz two coincident 9oints

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S&ecial Ele ents


Co &ression onl/ ele ents0 "ompression only element can be used to model supports during load out where loss of contact may occur between the structure and the support due to uneven fabrication yard surface or motion of barge. (nitial gap spacing can also be defined on the 020C= input line.

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S&ecial Ele ents


1ension onl/ ele ents0 !ension only elements. "able elements can be used to model slings for a lift analysis in con9unction with moment member end releases. Hre tension can be defined on the 020C= input line.

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S&ecial Ele ents


2o Load ele ents0 7o load elements can be used to model tie downs for the pre transportation analysis phase. !he no load switch can then be turned off for the transportation analysis and the results from the two can then be combined directly. Same model can be used for both analysis. 7o load elements can also be used for loadout analysis to model loss of support.

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S&ecial Ele ents


User defined load)deflection ele ents0 3ser defined load deflection elements can be used to define non; linear load deflection characteristics. 0any uses: "ontact problems, suction pile behaviorLetc

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S&ecial Ele ents


S&rin! Ele ents Any or all degrees of freedom of a 9oint may be designated as a translation or rotation elastic spring provided that the degree of freedom is designated as fi*ed ,i.e. <-/ on the respective 9oint description line. #hen all three translational and.or rotational degrees of freedom are fi*ed, the support 9oint coordinate system may be redefined using two reference 9oints on the <Moint 2lastic Support line. !he support 9oint local N;a*is is defined by the support 9oint and the first reference 9oint. !he local NJ plane is defined by the support 9oint and the reference 9oints with the local J;a*is perpendicular to the local N a*is.

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S&ecial Ele ents


Dented -e #ers Accounts for local indentation and overall deformation. !he local dent and the overall deformation are in the direction of member local z direction. !he length of the dent is the length of the member or length of segment. !he local z can be orientated in any direction using a chord angle or a reference 9oint. "ode chec$ in accordance to modified AH( e1uations to account for reduction in cross section and overall deformation as per M.!. oh paper O3ltimate Strength of 'ented !ubular Steel 0embersP

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S&ecial Ele ents


Su&er ele ents0 A super element can be defined to be a portion of the structure which has been modeled and reduced down to a set of boundary 9oints in terms of a reduced stiffness matri* and reduced loads K also $nown as sub;structuring. Super elements can be useful where: !he model is too large for analysis, where portions of the structure are repeated or for linearization of the foundation. -et+od0 !he structure is bro$en down into two portions. !he boundary elements on the substructure are defined by boundary conditions of ======. !he same 9oints e*ist on the master model with no special boundary conditions. !he substructure is reduced using the Superelement module. !he super element is imported into the master model during analysis via the super element tab under the analysis options.

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Post ) Processin!
0ember 'esign
K AP !"S# K AP !$%F# K Norso& K 'urocode K #anish K (ritish K Canadian K $inear )lo*al (Section +,-

Moint 'esign
K AP !"S# K AP !$%F# K Norso& K #anish K Canadian K .S$ K $inear )lo*al (Section +,-

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Post ) Processin!

Ele ent Code C+eck $)%actors 3 Effective ,ucklin! Len!t+s :;factors or effective buc$ling length, but not both, may be specified for buc$ling about the local Q and J a*es. :;factors are specified on the pertinent FG3H line in columns but may be overridden on the 020C2G line in columns. #hen :;factors are used, the effective buc$ling length is calculated as the :; factor multiplied by the actual member length. #hen effective lengths are specified on the 020C2G line, then the effective buc$ling length is determined by multiplying the : factor from the FG3H line with the effective length value on the 020C2G line.

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Post ) Processin!

Ele ent Code C+eck 4 ,race $)%actors For N bracing the : factor for compression elements is 5.E when one pair of members framing into the 9oint must be in tension if the 9oint is not braced out of plane.

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Post ) Processin!

Ele ent Code C+eck $ ,race $)%actors For : bracing the : factor for compression elements is 5.B when one pair of members framing into the 9oint must be in tension if the 9oint is not braced out of plane.

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Post ) Processin!

Ele ent Code C+eck (eduction %actor C "m can be based upon a constant value of 5.B%, based upon end moments or a*ial load calculations or set to -.5. !he various options are defined on the FG3H line on column ?A. Alternatively enter <0 in column >? of the &H!(&7S line to e*clude the value of the reduction factor "m for combined a*ial compression and bending unity chec$, or enter <" to globally set the value of "b to -.5

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Post ) Processin!

Ele ent Code C+eck C# !he value for "b for members with "ompact or 7on;compact Sections with 3nbraced length greater than b can be ta$en as -.5 ,default/ or based upon end moment calculations as shown below by entering C in column >> of the &H!(&7S line.

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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can AH( GH=A =-st 2dition Supplement = guidelines implemented. Moints chec$ed against AH( specified validity ranges. #here validity ranges have been infringed, Moint "an will report the lesser capacity based upon actual geometry or the limiting dimension.

Moint capacities dependant of 9oint classification ,i.e. :, N and Q/


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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can Casic "apacity of 9oints without overlap is given by:

Strength Factor Ru varies with the 9oint and load type ,!able ?.>;- AH( GH=A =-st 2dition Supplement =/

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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can "hord oad Factor Rf


FS 4 factor of safety Hc and 0c are a*ial and bending moment resultants in chord

)alues for "-, "= and "> vary by 9oint type ,!able ?.>;=/

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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can Moints with !hic$ened "ans !n is nominal chord member thic$ness !c is the chord can thic$ness ,Ha/c is a*ial allowable based upon chord geometric and material properties where : is the thic$ened can reduction factor

c is the chord length. Ha dependent upon chord length ,CG"&)G/


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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can Strength "hec$ (nteraction Gatio

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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can

Frouted Moints AH( assumes compression capacity is limited by brace. Moint "an assumes Ru for compression is the same as for tension.

&valization failure capacity estimated by using effective formulation. !4chord thic$ness, !p 4 (nner tube thic$ness

!he Rf calculation for double s$inned 9oints is based upon the chord thic$ness ! #ith load sharing between the chord and inner tube accounted for. Implementation to Overlappe !oints "urrentl# un er consi eration
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Post ) Processin!

5oint Can

0i*ed "lass Moints For mi*ed class 9oints the a*ial term in the interaction e1uation can be based upon either interpolation or ratio calculations.

(nterpolation

Gatio

(n which $, * and y are proportions of the classification

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PSI ) Ca&a#ilities
Foundations can *e modeled usin/ two approaches: ,-/ Adhesion ,AH( @ 3ser defined/ ,=/ H;Q, !;J data ,AH( @ 3ser defined/

Adhesion K inear ,surface friction/ H;Q, !;J K 7onlinear load deflection curves. .

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PSI ) Ca&a#ilities
Hiles can be modeled as tubular or S sections. H; 2ffects accounted for. Finite 'ifference approach used 0udslide condition simulation capabilities. "reates e1uivalent linearzied foundation super;elements to be used by dynamic analyses in lieu of pile stubs. "reates foundation solution file containing pile stresses to be used for fatigue analysis.
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PSI ) Ca&a#ilities

!he Hile and Hile>' programs, which are sub;programs of HS(, may be e*ecuted alone to calculate the behavior of a single pile. (n addition to the features outlined above, the Hile program has the following features: 'etermines an e1uivalent pile stub that yields the same deflections and rotations as the soil.pile system.

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PSI ) -odelin!
Pile head 0oint !he interface 9oints between the linear structure and the nonlinear foundation must be designated in the SA"S model by specifying the support condition <H( 2S' on the appropriate M&(7! input line. 7&!2: !he <H( 2S' support condition represents fully fi*ed condition in lieu of a HS( analysis. Pile $ocal Coordinate System !he pile default local coordinate system is defined with the local N a*is pointing upward from the pile head 9oint along the pile a*is defined by the pile batter 9oint or batter coordinates. Cy default, the local Q and J a*is orientations are load case dependent. For each load case, the local Q a*is is automatically oriented such that it coincides with the direction of ma*imum pilehead deflection. !he orientation of the local Q and J a*es may be overridden by the user by specifying the rotation angle about the local N a*is in columns %-;%6 on the H( 2 line

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PSI ) -odelin!
Specifyin/ 'levations for Soil %esistance Curves #ithin a soil stratum, the HS( program connects the input H;Q or !;J points with straight lines to fully define the pile.soil interaction curve for arbitrary displacements in that stratum. At depths between specified soil strata, HS( has the ability to linearly interpolate between curves or to use a constant !;J curve. (nterpolation between different strata may be achieved by omitting the bottom of strata location.

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PSI Solution Procedure (P)67 1).)


!he 9ac$et structure is initially reduced to a super element at each pile head.

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PSI Solution Process


(terative Solution Hrocedures Stiffness !able Appro*imation ,%I/

Fine !une Solution

S& 3!(&7
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Solution 8#9ectives
Hile Sead A*ial Force vs. A*ial 'eflection

Fa*,d/

Actual Solution Stiffness !able Appro*imation

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Stiffness 1a#le A&&ro:i ation


Appro*imate model of the pile head behavior Hile head forces are sampled for a range of points inear interpolation between the points Geduction of computation time (mproved chance of solution for highly non;linear problems Automatically generated ,internal/ L &G L 3ser;specified with the !ACG line

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1A,( lines
2*cerpt from HS( isting File
*********************** TABR CARD IMAGES *******************
cm.in cm.in rad $ips;ft.$7; m

TABR TABR TABR TABR TABR TABR TABR TABR

AXIAL DF DEFLECTN ROTATION TORSION AXIAL DF DEFLECTN ROTATION TORSION

.0250 .10 0. 2.0 5.0 -.01500. .0150 0. 100.0 -.0557.44430 0. 2.0 5.0 -.01500. .0150 0. 100.0

PL1 PL1 PL1 PL1 PL2 PL2 PL2 PL2

SOL1 SOL1 SOL1 SOL1 SOL2 SOL2 SOL2 SOL2

$7.$ips

TABR AXIAL LD

-7500. 0.

7500.
A*ial Adhesion 0odel

PL3 SOL3

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User)s&ecified 1A,( lines


2on ) Conver!ence

Starting Hoints
HS( isting File "ut and paste into HS( (nput File 0anually refine using 'atagen Alternative -et+od to refine 1A,( data Single Hile Analyses ,Hile, Hile>'/ Fenerate SHA 'ata Additional refinement as needed

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PSI Conver!ence 1olerances


(terative Solution Hrocedures Stiffness !able Appro*imation
'eflection !ol. ,%I/

Gotation !ol ,5.555-/

'eflection !ol ,5.55-/

Fine !une Solution

Force !ol. ,5.%I/

S& 3!(&7
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Conver!ence (e&ort
2*cerpt from HS( listing file
** ITERATION DATA FOR LOAD CASE XXXX ** ITERATION 1 2 3 4 5 RMS DEFLECTION 0.039673 0.001083 0.000070 0.022679 0.000626 RMS ROTATION 0.000027 0.000003 0.000000 7.53085 # 7.67680 # 0.35047 # 0.000026 0.000001

MAXIM M PILE!EAD FORCE DIFFERENCE" MAXIM M PILE!EAD FORCE DIFFERENCE" MAXIM M PILE!EAD FORCE DIFFERENCE"

Stiffness !able Appro*imation Fine !une Solution


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1rou#le S+ootin! ' A c+ecklist


Geview convergence report (f necessary, use !ACG lines "hec$ tolerances and controls Geview soil data (nvestigate each pile using Single Hile Analysis Fully constrain the pile heads and run SA"S

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%uture Develo& ents


Shallow Foundations Spud;can Foundations Soil Hlasticity 0odels ,"ollapse only/

AH( GH =A;#S' .=- Supplement > "H! 0ethods ,loose soils, dense silt/ Scour 'epth Fuidelines

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Solution 8#9ectives (lateral)


ateral Hile Sead Force vs. ateral 'eflection and Gotation
Fz,dz,T/

Actual Solution Stiffness !able Appro*imation

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PSI3Pile -odule
PSI Utilities
Hlot Soil 'ata Hlot Hile "apacity Hlot Hile oad

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;routed 5oints ' 5oint Can


!he following techni1ue is used to determine the internal loads of a leg. -.!he internal moment in the leg is determined by ratio the moment of inertia of the combined section to that of the leg only.

=. Similarly, the a*ial load in the leg is based upon the ratio of the combined section area to that of the leg only.

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;routed 5oints ' 5oint Can3%ati!ue


!he following methods are available for determining the effective thic$ness of a leg for 9oint can and fatigue analysis. -. 2ffective thic$ness based upon moment of inertia of composite section

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;routed 5oints ' 5oint Can3%ati!ue


!he following methods are available for determining the effective thic$ness of a leg for 9oint can and fatigue analysis. =. 2ffective thic$ness based upon moment of inertia of the walls instead of composite section.

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;routed 5oints ' 5oint Can3%ati!ue


!he following methods are available for determining the effective thic$ness of a leg for 9oint can analysis. >. S1uare root of the sum of the s1uares of the leg and pile thic$ness.

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;routed 5oints ' %ati!ue


!he following methods are available for determining the effective thic$ness of a leg for fatigue analysis. ?. AH( GH=A =-st 2dition Supplement = recommendations.

%.2ffective thic$ness based upon 7&GS&: standards

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(in! Stiffened 5oints ' %ati!ue


S"Fs factored using Smedley and Fisher ring stiffened formulation. !he G(7F input line may be used to define the ring dimensions and the ring group. !he ring stiffened connection input line "&7GS! may be used to apply the rings to a particular brace and the location of the ring.

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-odal E:traction 0 D62PAC


Some of the main features and capabilities of the 'Q7HA" 0&'3 2 are: 'etermines 7atural Fre1uencies and modes of vibration. Accounts for structural mass and fluid added mass automatically Supports lumped or consistent mass generation 'etermines modal mass participation to allow determination of number of modes re1uired for subse1uent forced dynamic analysis.

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-odal E:traction 0 D62PAC


Anal/sis Procedure0 Lineari<e %oundation (Pile Su&erele ent) ; identify load cases for pile linearization, load cases dependent upon type of analysis. ; include dead load ; run HS( to generate Hile superelement. -odal Anal/sis ; specify retained degrees of freedom. ; (dentify load cases to be converted to mass. ; chec$ cumulative mass participation factors. ; chec$ natural fre1uency and period ,dynamic response low if period less that = seconds/

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Load Pat+ De&endent SC%=s

For any tubular connection, all braces that lie in a plane with the "hord or within -% degrees of that plane are considered in the calculation of load path S"Fs !he chord member is selected on the following hierarchy: -. argest diameter =. argest wall thic$ness >. Sighest Qield stress ?. 0embers that are in;line with a % degree tolerance

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Load Pat+ De&endent SC%=s


5oint Classification :!;connection: A*ial load in middle brace opposes a*ial load from outside brace. For a :! connection the load to be transferred is ta$en as the smallest value of: -/ "enter brace a*ial load =/ !wice the a*ial load component normal to the chord. !he :! percentage for each brace is ratio of the transferred :! normal a*ial load component and the original a*ial load value. !he remaining a*ial loads are then considered for : 9oint load transfer.
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Load Pat+ De&endent SC%=s


5oint Classification For a : 9oint the a*ial load component normal to the chord is balanced by the a*ial load component normal to the chord in other braces ,on the same side of the chord/. !he brace with the smallest normal a*ial load component is considered first with the brace containing the largest opposing normal a*ial load component. !he balanced load is subtracted from the opposing brace and the process is repeated until all : 9oints are identified. Any N 9oint load paths are considered ne*t for braces on opposite sides of the chord. !he largest opposing normal a*ial force is considered first. !he balanced load is subtracted from opposing brace and the process is repeated until all N 9oints are identified. Craces with remaining unbalanced a*ial loads are treated !.Q 9oints.

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Load Pat+ De&endent SC%=s

SC% Deter ination !he load path dependent S"F is calculated as a weighted average of the applicable :!, :, N and !Q 9oints as: S"F 4 G:!US"F:!@ G:US"F: @ GNUS"FN @ G!QUS"F!Q where G:!, G: , GN , and G!Q are the ratios of each type of 9oint action.

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I &ortin! %E 5oint -es+


5oint -es+in! !wo approaches are available for importing meshed 9oints into a SA"S <stic$ model. -. F20F) Hrecede can generate a F20F) batch file once a 9oint has been isolated by inserting a 9oint on the braces and chord members to define the portion of the 9oint that needs to be meshed. Hrecede will re1uire the 9oint name, the number of elements around the circumference of a brace with the smallest diameter and also the element type. !he batch file can then be subse1uently read into F20F) and the mesh is generated automatically. F20F) can generate a F20F) neutral file which can be read bac$ into Hrecede and the mesh can be incorperated into the rest of the model by tools provided in Hrecede.

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I &ortin! %E 5oint -es+


5oint -es+in! (Continued) =. SA"S 0esh Moint 3tility )ery simple to use. Hrovide 9oint name to mesh, the mesh intensity , limits 5.% K =, mesh intensity - 4 appro* =B nodes around the circumference of the smallest brace/ and the model file name. !he mesh utility will automatically mesh the 9oint and output a &"( file containing the <stic$ model with the 9oint mesh incorporated. %E-;> ) -es+ 5oint Utilit/ F20F) allows the user to control the length of brace.chord to be meshed. Also gives choice of element types. "annot mesh 9oints with overlapped braces. 0esh Moint 3tility allows the meshing of overlapped 9oints. 7o user control over the length of brace.chord member to be meshed. 0eshing restricted to triangular palte elements ,this is not a disadvantage/.

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%ati!ue Anal/sis
Fatigue analysis is re1uired due to the cyclic loading imposed on the Mac$et tubular 9oints by wave
loads.

Fatigue analysis could be of two types:


'eterministic Fatigue Spectral 'ynamic Fatigue

S"F for tubular 9oints are based on


parametric e1uations available for the class of 9oint under consideration.

7umber of cycles to failure 7i is


obtained from the S;7 curve.

S;7 curve used is selected based on


the particular weld detail.
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%ati!ue Anal/sis

(n 'eterministic Fatigue, Fatigue discrete number of waves are used to characterize the total fatigue environment Hartial 'amage from the sea state 4

ni Ni

'amage is accumulated over all sea states ,0iners aw/: aw

n i n1 n 2 n 3 D = N = N + N + N + .......... i i 1 2 3
'eterministic analysis has been done for many years and has proven to be a reliable approach for dynamically insensitive structures, and for situations where all fatigue waves are of sufficiently long wave periods to avoid pea$s and valleys of the structures transfer function. )ery sensitive to the waves chosen for the analysis

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%ati!ue Anal/sis
!he spectral fatigue approach utilizes wave spectra and transfer functions, thus allowing the relationship of the ratio of structural response to wave height as a function of wave fre1uency to be developed for the wave fre1uency range. !herefore spectral fatigue accounts for the actual distribution of energy over the entire wave fre1uency range. (n 'ynamic Spectral Fatigue , Spectrum used to define the fatigue environment are: M&7S#AH &chi;Subble Hierson;0os$owitz !hese Spectra are in;built in SA"S

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%ati!ue Anal/sis
Fatigue program features are as below (ncludes a wide range Stress "oncentration Factor ,S"F/ theories and allows user defined input. th Automatic redesign of chords or braces may be done to determine re1uired 9oint can or brace stub thic$ness AH(, A#S and 7H' fatigue failure ,S;7/ curves are built into the program. Also allows user defined input.

Fenerates output for the (nteractive Fatigue 0odule for (nteractive redesign.

Ori-inal (imensions !oint +em,er *#pe I( M-B= M-B6;M-B= M-B= MF=;M-B= !3C !3C O( (cm) ?%.A %%.E )* (cm) -.5 =.% !oint *#pe : : +em,er "hor *#pe CG" "S' >.A? >.A?

'tress "oncentration Factors .xial %.5> =.>.xial le) ?.A6 -.BB $en.(m) ("ro/n) ('a Inplane ?.A? -.BB Out o% &lane ?.B? -.EE (ama-e $ocation 5.=6>>? >.A52;5> C ! 'ervice $i%e E?.E> 6,A6>.%-

-E-,E( %A1I;UE (EP8(1 (DA-A;E 8(DE()

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D/na ic S&ectral %ati!ue


Anal/sis Procedure0 Lineari<e %oundation ;choose load cases for developing foundation superelement -odal Anal/sis to !enerate ass and ode files

; chec$ cumulative mass participation factors (un Wave (es&onse to !enerate 1ransfer %unction for eac+ direction. ; use waves of constant steepness to generate transfer function. ; avoid waves under - foot , >5cm / ; chec$ transfer function for overturning moment and base shear. ; solve for e1uivalent static loads. (un %ati!ue ; choose appropriate spectrum ; choose S;7 and S"F options
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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
1wo approaches availa*le: -/Gesponse Spectrum: A response spectrum depicts the ma*imum response to a ground motion of a series of single degree of freedom oscillators having different natural periods but the same amount of internal damping.

=/ !ime Sistory !ime Sistory is a continuous record of ground motion or response.

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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Anal/sis -et+od0 -. All support points are assumed to be moving with the ground. =. 2ach mode of vibration is assumed to act as a single degree of freedom. >. Solve e1uations of motion for each mode. ?. !he response from each mode for each direction ,N, Q and J/ is combined using the SGSS ,S1uare Goot of the Sum of S1uares/ method to obtain the multi directional response. !he SGSS approach is used on the assumption that the responses from different directions are uncoupled %. !he response for each mode in each direction is also combined using the "R" ,"ompleter Ruadratic "ombination/ method. For the cases where there is sufficient modal separation in different directions the "R" method devolves into the SGSS approach.
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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Anal/sis -et+od0 6. !he dynamic response program creates a common solution file containing end forces, stresses, reactions and displacements. Cecause these results are obtained by combining modal results using G0S techni1ues, end forces, stressesLetc. have no sign associated with them and are ta$en as all positive values. A. !he dynamic response generates two sets of load cases for both the member chec$ and the 9oint chec$.

B. !he seismic results are then combined with the results from a static analysis. !his is followed by element code chec$ and 9oint can chec$.
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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Da &in!0 'amping effects are important and for structure immersed in fluid the damping is a nonlinear effect since damping is a function of the amplitude of response. !hree options for damping available. -. inear modal damping. ,AH( recommends overall modal damping of %I ,S'A0H line/ =. 3ser defined amplitude to be used in fluid damping calculation ,F'A0H line/. >. Hrogram will calculate through iterative techni1ue as follows ,F'A0H line/: ,a/"alculate the response based upon an assumed amplitude. ,b/ "alculate e1uivalent fluid damping based upon this response. ,c/ Gepeat this process until the response until the response amplitude agrees with the amplitude used for e1uivalent fluid damping.
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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Stren!t+ (e?uire ents0

F is the ratio of the effective horizontal ground acceleration to gravitational acceleration.

3sing the response spectrum, the ordinates of the spectrum should be multiplied by the factor F for the zone in which the platform is located. !he resulting spectrum should be applied e1ually along both principal horizontal a*is and one half in the )ertical direction. All three spectra should be applied simultaneously and responses combined using "R" method.
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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Stren!t+ (e?uire ents0 !he strength re1uirements are intended ensure that no significant structural damage can occur due to a strength level earth1ua$e. For strength level earth 1ua$e both the member chec$ and 9oint chec$ allowables may be increased by A5 percent.

1u*ular 0oints Moints for the primary structural members should be sized for either the tensile yield load or the compressive buc$ling load of the brace.

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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Stren!t+ (e?uire ents0 1u*ular 0oints 2 calculation of allowa*les. !he punching shear stress allowable, vpa is :

!he factor Rf is given by : (n which the factor A is computed as :

#here fAN, f(HC and f&HC are stress in the chord due to twice the strength level seismic loads in combination with gravity, buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure or or the full capacity of the chord away from the 9oint can K whichever is the less.
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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Stren!t+ (e?uire ents0 1u*ular 0oints 2 calculation of unity chec& For combined a*ial and bending stresses in the brace the following interaction e1uation should be satisfied:

For earth1ua$e analysis the terms corresponding to bending are ignored since we are chec$ing against the tensile yield loads or the compressive buc$ling load of the brace. Moint can re1uirements for a earth1ua$e analysis can be activated by specifying the 2R: option on the M"7&H! line and also by specifying =.5 for the 9oint load case factor on the S!"0C line.

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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Ductilit/ (e?uire ents %are ntense 'arth3ua&e: (n seismically active areas, rare intensive earth1ua$e motion may involve inelastic action and structural damage may occur. !he ductility re1uirements are intended to ensure that the structure and the foundation have enough reserve capacity to prevent collapse in the event of a rare intense earth1ua$e. '3uivalent Static $oads: !he 'ynamic response module can output e1uivalent static loads corresponding to !he modal responses being combined to generate the highest amount of base shear or overturning moment in =5 directions ,every -B degrees/

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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Desi!n Criteria0 '3uivalent Static $oads: !he 'ynamic response module can output e1uivalent static loads corresponding to the modal responses being combined to generate the highest amount of base shear or overturning moment in =5 directions ,every -B degrees/. For rare intense earth1ua$es the e1uivalent static loads can be used to design the foundations and also conduct an elasto;plastic analysis of the structure to design against failure.

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Eart+?uake Anal/sis
Desi!n Criteria0 $ow!level 'arth3ua&e: For areas where the ground acceleration is less than 5.5%g no earth1ua$e analysis is re1uired. For areas where the ground acceleration is between 5.5%g K 5.-g a low level earth1ua$e analysis is re1uired. !he 9oint chec$ re1uirements for a low level earth1ua$e are the same as those for an in;place analysis. !he 9oint can re1uirements for a low;level earth1ua$e analysis can be activated by specifying 2# option for AH( wor$ing stress design , 2 for AH( GF' design on the M"7&H! line and also by using the ' &A' load line in the Moint can input file to identify the dead load case used in static analysis.

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S&ectral Wind %ati!ue


-et+od0 -."onduct modal e*traction analysis K determine mode shapes and natural fre1uencies. =. =. 2ach mode of vibration is assumed to act as a single degree of freedom. >.'etermine 0echanical !ransfer function S,f/ for each mode.

where :i is the generalized stiffness matri*, fn is the natural fre1uency and c is percent damping.

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S&ectral Wind %ati!ue


-et+od (continued)0 ?. 'etermine G0S response for each mode.

where Si,f/ is the Sarris spectrum given by: where S is the reference length ,-B55m/, $ is the surface roughness coefficient ,5.55=%/ and v-5 is the wind speed at -5m reference height.

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S&ectral Wind %ati!ue


-et+od (continued)0 %. !he response for each mode is combined to obtain the total response using the "R" ,"ompleter Ruadratic "ombination/ method. where ( and $ refer to the ith and the $th mode and Hi$ is the modal correlation coefficient.

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S&ectral Wind %ati!ue


-et+od (continued)0 6. #ind velocities are assumed to conform to the #eibull distribution. #ind velocities are selected to define the #eibull distribution time slices and velocity ranges for integration limits to calculate fraction of occurrence.

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2on)Linear Anal/sis 0 Colla&se


Salient Features of "ollapse 0odule are inear and non;linear material behavior (ncludes member Flobal . ocal buc$ling including B or more hinge points per member (ncludes tubular 9oint fle*ibility, 9oint plasticity and 9oint failure due to e*cessive strain (ncludes strain hardening and residual stress "reates analysis results file which is read by "ollapse )iew Hrogram which shows failure progression and the gradual plastification and collapse mechanism graphically

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Pus+over Anal/sis
Hushover Analysis conducted to determine the reserve strength ratio of a 9ac$et structure. oading applied to the structure in se1uence. Apply all gravity loads first. Apply environmental storm loading. (ncrease magnitude of environmental loading until the structure fails. GSG 4 Case Shear at -55I storm oad Case Shear at Failure &ther approaches define failure with -55, %55, -555, %555,Lyear storms First Failure

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S+i& I &act Anal/sis (Static)

Ship (mpact Analysis is carried out to determine the Geserve Strength in the structure after the collision.

)essel mass, added mass coefficient and velocity at the time of collision is specified on 272GFQ line.

(mpact load case and impact 9oint defined on (0HA"! input line.

Gun "ollapse K impact load will be applied until all $inetic energy is absorbed. !he structure will then automatically unload and the post impact loading can be applied.

SA"S can optionally account for vessel deformation. ocal indentation energy can be accounted for by either meshing the impacted member or using AH( methodology.

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D/na ic (es&onse

%orce Driven Anal/sis


Force time history, Heriodic and 2ngine vibration analyses are supported. !he main capabilities and features for force driven analysis are detailed below: %orce 1i e @istor/ -. inear, 1uadratic, or cubic interpolation available for the time history input. =. Automatic load case selection based on overturning moment, base shear, 9oint displacement, etc. >. )ariable time step integration procedure. ?. !ime history plots including modal responses, overturning moments, base shear, etc. %.Feneration of e1uivalent static loads for force.time history collapse analysis.

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D/na ic (es&onse
,last Anal/sis

arge 'eflection, 2lasto;Hlastic 7on; inear Finite 2lement Analysis is performed in SA"S for Clast loads. Clast Gesistant 'esign to minimize the ris$ to people and facilities from the hazards of accidental e*plosions.

'ynamic Gesponse 0odule can be used to apply blast load profile to the structure at discrete time steps.

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D/na ic (es&onse
,last Anal/sis (continued)

'ynamic Gesponse will generate a structural output file containing incremental loading ,including dynamic and static components/.

'ynamic Gesponse will also output a load se1uence file for "ollapse.

Gun "ollapse for non;linear elasto;plastic analysis using incremental loading.

"ollapse shows plasticity over time with each load step representing a time increment.

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D/na ic (es&onse
D/na ic S+i& I &act

3se 'ynamic Gesponse module to determine dynamic structural response due to impact. Set analysis option to SS(H on the 'G&H! line. 'efine vessel mass, velocity, direction of motion and the impact 9oint on the SS(H input line. 'efine the time history source as SS(H on the time history load line !S &'. Hrepare "ollapse input with control parameters and load se1uence for dead loads. Gun dynamic response. 'ynamic will output "ollapse load se1uence and incremental loading containing dynamic and static components of the structural response

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D/na ic (es&onse

Eart+?uake3,ase Driven Anal/sis


Coth spectral earth1ua$e and time history earth1ua$e analyses are supported. Some of the seismic analysis capabilities follow:

S&ectral Eart+?uake
-. AH( response spectra are built into the program. =. Supports user defined response spectra. >. Spectral motion can be described as acceleration, velocity, or displacement. ?. 0odal combinations using linear, SGSS, pea$ plus SGSS, or "R" methods. %. Ability to use a different response spectrum for each direction. 6. "ombines seismic results with static results automatically.

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D/na ic (es&onse

Eart+?uake3,ase Driven Anal/sis


1i e @istor/ Eart+?uake -. (ncludes earth1ua$e time history libraries. =. 3ser defined input time histories. >. inear, 1uadratic, or cubic interpolation available for the time history input. ?. )ariable time step integration procedure. %. Automatic load case selection based on overturning moment, base shear, etc. 6. Fraphical representation of output variables.

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D/na ic (es&onse
En!ine3Co &ressor >i#ration
-.Supports mechanical unbalanced forces and gas tor1ues in addition to reciprocating loads. =. inear and.or nonlinear interpolation of forces between running speeds. >. 3ser can select specific 9oints to monitor or monitor all 9oints. ?. Allows user defined phasing of forces and moments within a load case. %. "an automatically combine ma*imum response of various load cases. 6. Fenerates plots of input data versus time for any load case. A. "alculates periodic forces amplitudes and periods from force versus time input.

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D/na ic (es&onse
S&ectral Wind Anal/sis
!he wind spectral fatigue and e*treme wind analyses are supported. Some of the spectral wind analysis capabilities are as follows:

E:tre e Wind
-. 'etermines dynamic amplification factors automatically. =. Fenerates common solution file containing internal loads, stresses, reactions and displacements multiplied by its own dynamic amplification factor. >. (ncludes cross correlation of modal responses using the "omplete Ruadratic "ombination ,"R"/ modal combination techni1ue. ?. Hlots generalized force spectrum and response spectrum for each wind speed. %. 3ses Sarris #ind spectrum.

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D/na ic (es&onse
S&ectral Wind Anal/sis
!he wind spectral fatigue and e*treme wind analyses are supported. Some of the spectral wind analysis capabilities are as follows:

Wind %ati!ue
-. 3ses Sarris #ind spectrum. =. &ptionally creates Fatigue input file automatically. >. 'istributes wind speed utilizing a #eibull distribution. ?. Assumes Gayleigh distribution of G0S stresses. %. Sandles multiple wind directions in same analysis e*ecution.

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D/na ic (es&onse
Ice %orce Anal/sis Ice >i#ration
!he ice vibration analysis capability includes the following features: -. Automatically includes ice stiffness. =. 0a*imum and minimum pea$ selection. >. Automatic cycle count for fatigue analyses. ?. "reates fatigue input data automatically. %. Full plot capabilities including ice forces, modal responses, overturning moments, base shear, etc. 6. )ariable time step integration procedure.

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