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You are on page 1of 37

MOHD KAMIL

ROOM: PROF MADYA 4, LEVEL 3, SOUTH TOWER

0137705583

1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid

This subject is focus on scientific study

related to fluid flow in closed conduit (e.g

pipe) and open channel (e.g river).

Ability of substance to resist an applied shear

(or tangential) stress that tends to change its

shape.

Solid: molecules can be fictitiously linked to

each other with springs.

F

Liquid

Solid

F

Required supporting walls to eliminate

shear stress

If walls are remove, shear develops in the

liquid and resulted in a big splash.

Liquid Gas

Definition: mass per unit volume,

= mass/volume = m/

Units: kg/m

Typical values:

Water = 1000 kg/m; Air = 1.23 kg/m

slightly affected by changes in

temperature and pressure.

E.g., Water: Increase 1% if the pressure increase by

factor of 220.

In liquid, density is nearly constant.

Temperature (C) Density (kg/m)

0 999.8

10 999.2

20 998.2

30 995.7

40 992.3

50 988.0

100 958.4

Density of water

changes at

4.14% - can be

neglected in

engineering

analyses

A ratio of the density of a liquid to the density

of water at standard temperature and pressure

(20C, 1 atm)

Unit: dimensionless

v = V = 1

m

Unit: m/kg

s

= g

= density 9.81

Example 1 :

A reservoir of glycerin as a mass of

1200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m

3

.

Find the glycerins weight (W), density

(), specific weight ( ) and specific

gravity (s.g)

Answer 1 :

Weight, W = mg = (1200)(9.81) = 11770N or

11.77kN

Density, = m/V = 1200/0.952 = 1261 kg/m

3

Specific weight, = g = (1261)(9.81) = 12.37 kN/m

3

(atau W/V)

Specific gravity, SG

substance

/

water at 4

o

C

=

12.37k/9.81k = 1.26

Change in volume of liquid that subjected

to change in pressure

to characterize compressibility of fluid)

E = - dp

dV/V

Pressure changes

Initial volume

volume changes

A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a

volume of 1000 cm

3

at 1 MN/m

2

and a

volume of 995 cm

3

at 2 MN/m

2

. What is its

bulk modulus (E)?

16

Example 2 :

MPa 200

1000 / ) 1000 995 (

1 2

=

=

V V

p

K

o

o

Answer 2:

Represents the internal resistance of fluid

flow.

The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in

the flow direction is called drag force.

Fluid with a high viscosity

such as syrup deforms

more slowly than fluid

with a low viscosity such

as water

Drag force increase with

density

Example:

Air

Water

Oil

Gasoline

Alcohol

Kerosene

Benzene

Glycerine

Fluid

Newtons law

of viscosity

Newtonian fluids

obey refer

Newtons law of viscosity is given by;

dy

du

= t

t = shear stress

= viscosity of fluid

du/dy = shear rate, rate of strain or velocity gradient

Fluid Newtons law

of viscosity

Non- Newtonian

fluids

Do not obey

Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid

The viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid is

dependent on the velocity gradient as well as the

condition of the fluid.

Newtonian Fluids

a linear relationship between shear stress and the velocity gradient (rate

of shear),

the slope is constant

non-Newtonian fluids

slope of the curves for non-Newtonian fluids varies

Units: N.s/m, kg ms, Poise (P)

Temperature

Liquid

Gases

viscosity of liquids with temperature,

viscosity of gases with in temperature

dy

du

t =

Example 3 :

A plate separated by 0.5 mm from a fixed

plate moves at 0.5 m/s under a force per

unit area of 4.0 N/m

2

. Determine the

viscosity of fluid between the plates.

dy

du

t =

4.0 N/m

2

0.0005 m

2

/ 004 . 0

0005 . 0

5 . 0

) 0 . 4 ( m Ns

du

dy

= = =t

0.5 m/s

Definition: is the ratio of the viscosity to the

density;

Units: m

2

/s

Typical values:

Water = 1.14x10-6 m2/s;

Air = 1.46x10-5 m2/s;

= v /

Water droplets from leaves.

Behave like small spherical

balloon filled with water.

Surface of water acts like a stretched elastic

membrane under tension.

Pulling force that cause this tension acts

parallel to the surface and is due to the

attractive forces between molecules in the

water.

Magnitude force/length

= surface tension

Unit: N/m

os = F

2b

How surface tension arises?

Interior molecule balance each other due to symmetry

Surface molecule not symmetry, force from gas molecule

smaller than liquid molecule.

Therefore, tend to pull molecule on surface toward the

interior of the liquid.

Force is balance by repulsive force from

bottom molecules

Resulting compression effect causes the liquid to

minimize its surface area tendency liquid droplets

to spherical shape .

For interior of liquid cylinder,

A spherical droplet,

The pressure difference between 2 surfaces

of soap bubbles,

26

R

P

o

= A

R

P

o 2

= A

R

P

o 4

= A

R=radius

An atomizer forms water droplets 45m in

diameter. Find the excess pressure within

these droplets for water at 30

o

C.

Answer 4:

o = 0.0712 N/m for air-water interface

o = 0.480 N/m for air -mercury interface

27

Example 4 :

Pa

x R

P 6329

2 / ) 10 45 (

) 0712 . 0 ( 2 2

6

= = = A

o

Rise or fall of liquid in small diameter tube

inserted into the liquid

Cohesive forces: forces between molecules (water

& water)

Adhesive forces: forces between water & glass.

cohesion forces > adhesion forces - water

Wet the

surface <

90

Not wet the

surface >

90

Increasing of liquids level in tube can be

estimated if angle, which is between wall

and liquid are known.

W = mg = Vg = (Rh)g

W = Fsurface

= 2Ros cos

h = 2os cos

gR

Find the capillary rise in the tube for a

mercury-air-glass interface with 130

o

C if

the tube radius is 1mm and the

temperature is 20

o

C.

30

Example 5 :

Answer 5 :

m

r

h

o

005 . 0

) 1000 / 1 )( 81 . 9 )( 13570 (

) 130 )(cos 514 . 0 ( 2 cos 2

= = =

| o

31

Next slides (pg 32- pg 36) are show the

properties of air, water and common gases at

standard sea-level atmosphere pressure.

32

Temperature

o

C

Density,

kg/m

3

Specific

weight,

N/m

3

Dynamic

viscosity,

Ns/m

2

Kinematic

Viscosity, v

m

2

/s

0 1.29 12.7 1.72 10

-5

13.3 10

-6

10 1.25 12.2 1.77 10

-5

14.2 10

-6

20 1.20 11.8 1.81 10

-5

15.1 10

-6

30 1.16 11.4 1.86 10

-5

16.0 10

-6

40 1.13 11.0 1.91 10

-5

16.9 10

-6

50 1.09 10.7 1.95 10

-5

17.9 10

-6

60 1.06 10.4 1.99 10

-5

18.9 10

-6

70 1.03 10.1 2.04 10

-5

19.9 10

-6

80 1.00 9.80 2.09 10

-5

20.9 10

-6

90 0.972 9.53 2.19 10

-5

21.9 10

-6

100 0.946 9.28 2.30 10

-5

23.0 10

-6

Temperature

o

C

Density,

kg/m

3

Specific weight,

N/m

3

Dynamic viscosity,

Ns/m

2

Surface tension*,

N/m

0 1000 9810 1.75 10

-3

0.0756

10 1000 9810 1.30 10

-3

0.0742

20 998 9790 1.02 10

-3

0.0728

30 996 9770 8.00 10

-4

0.0712

40 992 9730 6.51 10

-4

0.0696

50 988 9690 5.41 10

-4

0.0679

60 984 9650 4.60 10

-4

0.0662

70 978 9590 4.02 10

-4

0.0644

80 971 9530 3.50 10

-4

0.0626

90 965 9470 3.11 10

-4

0.0608

100 958 9400 2.82 10

-4

0.0589

33

* Contact

with air

Fluid

Temp

Density,

Specific

gravity, sg

Viscosity

,

Surface

tension, o

Bulk

Modulus

,

K

o

C kg/m

3

10

3

Ns/m

2

N/m

10

6

N/m

2

Benzene 20

o

C 876 0.88 0.65 0.029 1030

Tetrachlorid

e Carbon

20

o

C 1588 1.594 0.97 0.026 1100

Raw oil 20

o

C 856 0.86 7.2 0.03

Gasoline 20

o

C 680 0.68 0.29

Glycerine 20

o

C 1258 1.26 1494 0.063 4344

Hydrogen

257

o

C

73.7 0.074 0.021 0.0029

34

Fluid

Temp

Density

,

Specific

weight,

sg

viscosity

,

Surface

tension,

o

Bulk

Modulus,

K

o

C kg/m

3

10

3

Ns/m

2

N/m 10

6

N/m

2

Kerosene 20

o

C 808 0.81 1.92 0.028

Mercury 20

o

C 13550 13.56 1.56 0.51 26200

Oxygen 195

o

C 1206 1.21 0.278 0.015

SAE 10 oil 20

o

C 918 0.92 82 0.037

SAE 30 oil 20

o

C 918 0.92 440 0.036

Water 20

o

C 998 0.999 1.00 0.073 2171

Sea water 20

o

C 1023 1.024 1.07 0.073 2300

35

36

Gas

Chemical

formula

Molar Mass,

M

Density,

Viscosity,

Gas Constant, R

kg/ kg-mol kg/m

3

10

6

Ns/m

2

m

2

/(s

2

K)

Air 28.96 1.205 18.0 287

Carbon

dioxide

CO

2

44.01 1.84 14.8 188

Carbon

monoxide

CO 28.01 1.16 18.2 297

Helium He 4.003 0.166 19.7 2077

Hydrogen H

2

2.016 0.0839 9.0 4120

Methane CH

4

16.04 0.668 13.4 520

Nitrogen N

2

28.02 1.16 17.6 297

Oxygen O

2

32.00 1.33 20.0 260

Water

Vapour

H

2

O 18.02 0.747 10.1 462

37

Properties

of Fluid

Relative Density

Compressibility

Capillarity

Specific Gravity

Density

Bulk Modulus

Viscosity

Surface Tension

Value of fluid

properties

are vary in

different

temperatures

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