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LECTURER: MADAM NOR AMANI FILZAH BT.

MOHD KAMIL
ROOM: PROF MADYA 4, LEVEL 3, SOUTH TOWER
0137705583

1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

1.2 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid
This subject is focus on scientific study
related to fluid flow in closed conduit (e.g
pipe) and open channel (e.g river).
Ability of substance to resist an applied shear
(or tangential) stress that tends to change its
shape.
Solid: molecules can be fictitiously linked to
each other with springs.
F
Liquid
Solid
F
Required supporting walls to eliminate
shear stress
If walls are remove, shear develops in the
liquid and resulted in a big splash.

Liquid Gas
Definition: mass per unit volume,

= mass/volume = m/

Units: kg/m

Typical values:
Water = 1000 kg/m; Air = 1.23 kg/m
slightly affected by changes in
temperature and pressure.
E.g., Water: Increase 1% if the pressure increase by
factor of 220.
In liquid, density is nearly constant.


Temperature (C) Density (kg/m)
0 999.8
10 999.2
20 998.2
30 995.7
40 992.3
50 988.0
100 958.4
Density of water
changes at
4.14% - can be
neglected in
engineering
analyses
A ratio of the density of a liquid to the density
of water at standard temperature and pressure
(20C, 1 atm)



Unit: dimensionless
v = V = 1
m
Unit: m/kg
s
= g
= density 9.81
Example 1 :
A reservoir of glycerin as a mass of
1200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m
3
.
Find the glycerins weight (W), density
(), specific weight ( ) and specific
gravity (s.g)

Answer 1 :

Weight, W = mg = (1200)(9.81) = 11770N or
11.77kN

Density, = m/V = 1200/0.952 = 1261 kg/m
3

Specific weight, = g = (1261)(9.81) = 12.37 kN/m
3

(atau W/V)

Specific gravity, SG
substance
/
water at 4
o
C
=
12.37k/9.81k = 1.26

Change in volume of liquid that subjected
to change in pressure
to characterize compressibility of fluid)

E = - dp
dV/V
Pressure changes
Initial volume
volume changes
A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a
volume of 1000 cm
3
at 1 MN/m
2
and a
volume of 995 cm
3
at 2 MN/m
2
. What is its
bulk modulus (E)?

16
Example 2 :
MPa 200
1000 / ) 1000 995 (
1 2
=

=
V V
p
K
o
o
Answer 2:
Represents the internal resistance of fluid
flow.
The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in
the flow direction is called drag force.
Fluid with a high viscosity
such as syrup deforms
more slowly than fluid
with a low viscosity such
as water
Drag force increase with
density
Example:
Air
Water
Oil
Gasoline
Alcohol
Kerosene
Benzene
Glycerine
Fluid
Newtons law
of viscosity
Newtonian fluids
obey refer
Newtons law of viscosity is given by;
dy
du
= t
t = shear stress
= viscosity of fluid
du/dy = shear rate, rate of strain or velocity gradient
Fluid Newtons law
of viscosity
Non- Newtonian
fluids
Do not obey
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid
The viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid is
dependent on the velocity gradient as well as the
condition of the fluid.

Newtonian Fluids
a linear relationship between shear stress and the velocity gradient (rate
of shear),
the slope is constant

non-Newtonian fluids
slope of the curves for non-Newtonian fluids varies





Units: N.s/m, kg ms, Poise (P)



Temperature
Liquid
Gases
viscosity of liquids with temperature,

viscosity of gases with in temperature
dy
du
t =
Example 3 :
A plate separated by 0.5 mm from a fixed
plate moves at 0.5 m/s under a force per
unit area of 4.0 N/m
2
. Determine the
viscosity of fluid between the plates.

dy
du
t =
4.0 N/m
2

0.0005 m
2
/ 004 . 0
0005 . 0
5 . 0
) 0 . 4 ( m Ns
du
dy
= = =t
0.5 m/s
Definition: is the ratio of the viscosity to the
density;


Units: m
2
/s
Typical values:
Water = 1.14x10-6 m2/s;
Air = 1.46x10-5 m2/s;
= v /
Water droplets from leaves.
Behave like small spherical
balloon filled with water.
Surface of water acts like a stretched elastic
membrane under tension.
Pulling force that cause this tension acts
parallel to the surface and is due to the
attractive forces between molecules in the
water.
Magnitude force/length
= surface tension
Unit: N/m
os = F
2b
How surface tension arises?
Interior molecule balance each other due to symmetry
Surface molecule not symmetry, force from gas molecule
smaller than liquid molecule.
Therefore, tend to pull molecule on surface toward the
interior of the liquid.
Force is balance by repulsive force from
bottom molecules
Resulting compression effect causes the liquid to
minimize its surface area tendency liquid droplets
to spherical shape .

For interior of liquid cylinder,

A spherical droplet,

The pressure difference between 2 surfaces
of soap bubbles,

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R
P
o
= A
R
P
o 2
= A
R
P
o 4
= A
R=radius
An atomizer forms water droplets 45m in
diameter. Find the excess pressure within
these droplets for water at 30
o
C.

Answer 4:



o = 0.0712 N/m for air-water interface
o = 0.480 N/m for air -mercury interface

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Example 4 :
Pa
x R
P 6329
2 / ) 10 45 (
) 0712 . 0 ( 2 2
6
= = = A

o
Rise or fall of liquid in small diameter tube
inserted into the liquid





Cohesive forces: forces between molecules (water
& water)
Adhesive forces: forces between water & glass.
cohesion forces > adhesion forces - water
Wet the
surface <
90
Not wet the
surface >
90
Increasing of liquids level in tube can be
estimated if angle, which is between wall
and liquid are known.
W = mg = Vg = (Rh)g
W = Fsurface
= 2Ros cos

h = 2os cos
gR


Find the capillary rise in the tube for a
mercury-air-glass interface with 130
o
C if
the tube radius is 1mm and the
temperature is 20
o
C.

30
Example 5 :
Answer 5 :
m
r
h
o
005 . 0
) 1000 / 1 )( 81 . 9 )( 13570 (
) 130 )(cos 514 . 0 ( 2 cos 2
= = =

| o
31
Next slides (pg 32- pg 36) are show the
properties of air, water and common gases at
standard sea-level atmosphere pressure.
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Temperature
o
C
Density,
kg/m
3

Specific
weight,
N/m
3

Dynamic
viscosity,
Ns/m
2

Kinematic
Viscosity, v
m
2
/s
0 1.29 12.7 1.72 10
-5
13.3 10
-6

10 1.25 12.2 1.77 10
-5
14.2 10
-6

20 1.20 11.8 1.81 10
-5
15.1 10
-6

30 1.16 11.4 1.86 10
-5
16.0 10
-6

40 1.13 11.0 1.91 10
-5
16.9 10
-6

50 1.09 10.7 1.95 10
-5
17.9 10
-6

60 1.06 10.4 1.99 10
-5
18.9 10
-6

70 1.03 10.1 2.04 10
-5
19.9 10
-6

80 1.00 9.80 2.09 10
-5
20.9 10
-6

90 0.972 9.53 2.19 10
-5
21.9 10
-6

100 0.946 9.28 2.30 10
-5
23.0 10
-6

Temperature
o
C
Density,
kg/m
3

Specific weight,
N/m
3

Dynamic viscosity,
Ns/m
2

Surface tension*,
N/m
0 1000 9810 1.75 10
-3
0.0756
10 1000 9810 1.30 10
-3
0.0742
20 998 9790 1.02 10
-3
0.0728
30 996 9770 8.00 10
-4
0.0712
40 992 9730 6.51 10
-4
0.0696
50 988 9690 5.41 10
-4
0.0679
60 984 9650 4.60 10
-4
0.0662
70 978 9590 4.02 10
-4
0.0644
80 971 9530 3.50 10
-4
0.0626
90 965 9470 3.11 10
-4
0.0608
100 958 9400 2.82 10
-4
0.0589
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* Contact
with air
Fluid
Temp
Density,

Specific
gravity, sg
Viscosity
,

Surface
tension, o
Bulk
Modulus
,
K
o
C kg/m
3

10
3

Ns/m
2

N/m
10
6

N/m
2

Benzene 20
o
C 876 0.88 0.65 0.029 1030
Tetrachlorid
e Carbon
20
o
C 1588 1.594 0.97 0.026 1100
Raw oil 20
o
C 856 0.86 7.2 0.03
Gasoline 20
o
C 680 0.68 0.29
Glycerine 20
o
C 1258 1.26 1494 0.063 4344
Hydrogen

257
o
C
73.7 0.074 0.021 0.0029
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Fluid
Temp
Density
,
Specific
weight,
sg
viscosity
,
Surface
tension,
o
Bulk
Modulus,
K
o
C kg/m
3

10
3

Ns/m
2

N/m 10
6
N/m
2

Kerosene 20
o
C 808 0.81 1.92 0.028
Mercury 20
o
C 13550 13.56 1.56 0.51 26200
Oxygen 195
o
C 1206 1.21 0.278 0.015
SAE 10 oil 20
o
C 918 0.92 82 0.037
SAE 30 oil 20
o
C 918 0.92 440 0.036
Water 20
o
C 998 0.999 1.00 0.073 2171
Sea water 20
o
C 1023 1.024 1.07 0.073 2300
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36
Gas
Chemical
formula
Molar Mass,
M
Density,

Viscosity,

Gas Constant, R
kg/ kg-mol kg/m
3
10
6
Ns/m
2
m
2
/(s
2
K)
Air 28.96 1.205 18.0 287
Carbon
dioxide
CO
2
44.01 1.84 14.8 188
Carbon
monoxide
CO 28.01 1.16 18.2 297
Helium He 4.003 0.166 19.7 2077
Hydrogen H
2
2.016 0.0839 9.0 4120
Methane CH
4
16.04 0.668 13.4 520
Nitrogen N
2
28.02 1.16 17.6 297
Oxygen O
2
32.00 1.33 20.0 260
Water
Vapour
H
2
O 18.02 0.747 10.1 462
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Properties
of Fluid
Relative Density
Compressibility
Capillarity
Specific Gravity
Density
Bulk Modulus
Viscosity
Surface Tension
Value of fluid
properties
are vary in
different
temperatures